- Art Gallery -



France, See : Flags, Maps

Aix-les-Bains : Images

Amiens : Images

Angers : Images

Annecy : Images

Audierne : Images

Bayeux : Images

Bordeaux : Images

Caen : Images

Calais : Images

Cannes : Images

Chambéry : Images

Cherbourg : Images

Lille : Images

Lyon : Images

Marseille : Images

Paris : Images,

Toulouse : Images

Versailles : Images

A Popular History of France From The Earliest Times, Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot

, Volume 1 , Volume 2 , Volume 3, Volume 4, Volume 5, Volume6,

Winged Wheels in France, by Michael Myers Shoemaker

Cathedral Cities of France, Herbert Marshall and Hester Marshall

The Churches of Paris, S. Sophia Beale

Cathedrals and Cloisters of the South of France, Volume 1, Elise Whitlock Rose

The Cathedrals of Southern France, Francis Miltoun

Castles and Chateaux of Old Touraine and the Loire Country, Francis Miltoun

Royal Palaces and Parks of France, Milburg Francisco Mansfield, Illustrated by Blanche McManus

France, Normandy , Gordon Cochrane Home

Wanderings in Corsica, Vol. 1 of 2 by Ferdinand Gregorovius

Account of a Tour in Normandy, Vol. I. , Vol. II., Dawson Turner

Architectural Antiquities of Normandy, John Sell Cotman

The Story of Rouen , Theodore Andrea Cook

The Private Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Constant

Dictionnaire raisonné de l'architecture française du XIe au XVIe siècle , Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-Le-Duc : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,

Cyrano de Bergerac, Edmond Rostand

L'Iliade , Homer

L'Odyssée , Homer

Aphrodite, Pierre Louÿs

L'archeologie egyptienne, Gaston Maspero



Artist, France

Paul Gauguin, His Life and Art, John Gould Fletcher

The French Impressionists (1860-1900), Camille Mauclair

Ingres and his critics, Andrew Carrington Shelton

Ingres then, and now, Adrian Rifkin

Jacques-Louis David: Empire to Exile, Philippe Bordes

Jacques-Louis David, Revolutionary Artist: Art, Politics, and the French Revolution, Warren Roberts

Emulation: David, Drouais, and Girodet in the art of revolutionary France, Thomas E. Crow

Eugène Delacroix, 1798-1863: the prince of romanticism, Gilles Néret

Poussin's paintings: a study in art-historical methodology, David Carrier, Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin: Dialectics of Painting, Oskar Bätschmann

Image of the people: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 revolution, T. J. Clark, Timothy J. Clark

Courbet's realism, Michael Fried

Matisse on art, Jack D. Flam

Cézanne's early imagery, Mary Tompkins Lewis

Fantasy and faith: the art of Gustave Doré, Eric Zafran, Robert Rosenblum, Lisa Small

The Doré Bible illustrations

Dore's Illustrations of the Crusades

Doré's Spain: all 236 illustrations from Spain

Edgar Degas: Waiting, Richard Thomson

Degas Drawings of Dancers

Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable, Christopher Benfey

Manet's modernism, or, The face of painting in the 1860s, Michael Fried

The joy of life: the idyllic in French art, circa 1900, Margaret Werth

Dialogues with Marcel Duchamp, Pierre Cabanne

Drawing on art: Duchamp and company, Dalia Judovitz

Unpacking Duchamp: art in transit, Dalia Judovitz

The Duchamp effect, Martha Buskirk, Mignon Nixon

Marcel Duchamp: artist of the century, Rudolf E. Kuenzli, Francis M. Naumann

Pictorial Nominalism: On Marcel Duchamp's Passage from Painting to the Readymade, Thierry De Duve

Marcel Duchamp in perspective, Joseph Masheck

Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: the bride shared, David Hopkins

The private worlds of Marcel Duchamp: desire, liberation, and the self in modern culture, Jerrold E. Seigel

Marcel Duchamp, appearance stripped bare, Octavio Paz

Infinite Regress: Marcel Duchamp 1910-1941, David Joselit

Duchamp: love and death, even, Juan Antonio Ramírez

Contemporary French Art: Eleven studies, Michael Bishop

Auguste Rodin: sculptures and drawings, Gilles Néret

Rodin on art and artists: conversations with Paul Gsell, Paul Gsell


French master drawings from the collection of Muriel Butkin , Carter E. Foster, Sylvain Bellenger, Patrick Shaw Cable, Cleveland Museum of Art, Dahesh Museum

The impact of art on French literature: from de Scudéry to Proust, Helen Osterman Borowitz

From Rodin to Giacometti: sculpture and literature in France, 1880-1950, Keith Aspley, Elizabeth Cowling, Peter Sharratt

Art nouveau: the French aesthetic, Victor Arwas


Art in the service of colonialism: French art education in Morocco, 1912-1956, Hamid Irbouh

@France (Europe)

Introduction :: FRANCE

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-7, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.

French National Anthem - Marseillaise

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Geography :: FRANCE

metropolitan France: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain
French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname
Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico
Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
Mayotte: Southern Indian Ocean, island in the Mozambique Channel, about halfway between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique
Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar
Geographic coordinates:
metropolitan France: 46 00 N, 2 00 E
French Guiana: 4 00 N, 53 00 W
Guadeloupe: 16 15 N, 61 35 W
Martinique: 14 40 N, 61 00 W
Mayotte: 12 50 S, 45 10 E
Reunion: 21 06 S, 55 36 E
Map references:
metropolitan France: Europe
French Guiana: South America
Guadeloupe: Central America and the Caribbean
Martinique: Central America and the Caribbean
Mayotte: Africa
Reunion: World
total: 643,801 sq km; 551,500 sq km (metropolitan France)
land: 640,427 sq km; 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France)
water: 3,374 sq km; 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)
note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion
country comparison to the world: 43
Area - comparative:
slightly more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
metropolitan France - total: 2,751 km
border countries (8): Andorra 55 km, Belgium 556 km, Germany 418 km, Italy 476 km, Luxembourg 69 km, Monaco 6 km, Spain 646 km, Switzerland 525 km
French Guiana - total: 1,205 km
border countries (2): Brazil 649 km, Suriname 556 km
total: 4,853 km
metropolitan France: 3,427 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean Sea)
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral
French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average
Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)
Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)
metropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin
Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Mayotte: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks
Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
mean elevation: 375 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m
note: to assess the possible effects of climate change on the ice and snow cap of Mont Blanc, its surface and peak have been extensively measured in recent years; these new peak measurements have exceeded the traditional height of 4,807 m and have varied between 4,808 m and 4,811 m; the actual rock summit is 4,792 m and is 40 m away from the ice-covered summit
Natural resources:
metropolitan France: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish
French Guiana: gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
Land use:
agricultural land: 52.7%
arable land 33.4%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 17.5%
forest: 29.2%
other: 18.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land:
total: 26,420 sq km 26,950 sq km
metropolitan France: 26,000 sq km (2012)
Population - distribution:
much of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second
Natural hazards:
metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean
overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding; volcanic activity (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion)
Environment - current issues:
some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
largest West European nation; most major French rivers - the Meuse, Seine, Loire, Charente, Dordogne, and Garonne - flow northward or westward into the Atlantic Ocean, only the Rhone flows southward into the Mediterranean Sea

People and Society :: FRANCE

note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups:
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities
overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
French (official) 100%, declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish, Occitan, Picard)
overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)
Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28%
note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state (2015 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.59% (male 6,354,241/female 6,070,971)
15-24 years: 11.8% (male 4,035,407/female 3,853,153)
25-54 years: 38.04% (male 12,799,923/female 12,625,781)
55-64 years: 12.44% (male 4,011,853/female 4,303,261)
65 years and over: 19.12% (male 5,510,337/female 7,271,227) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 60.3
youth dependency ratio: 29.6
elderly dependency ratio: 30.6
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)
Median age:
total: 41.2 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 42.9 years (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Population growth rate:
0.41% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
Birth rate:
12.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
Death rate:
9.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
Net migration rate:
1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Population distribution:
much of the population is concentrated in the north and southeast; although there are many urban agglomerations throughout the country, Paris is by far the largest city, with Lyon ranked a distant second
urban population: 79.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.84% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population:
PARIS (capital) 10.843 million; Lyon 1.609 million; Marseille-Aix-en-Provence 1.605 million; Lille 1.027 million; Nice-Cannes 967,000; Toulouse 938,000 (2015)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth:
28.1 years (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
Infant mortality rate:
total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 212
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.8 years
male: 78.7 years
female: 85.1 years (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Total fertility rate:
2.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
83% (2010/11)
Health expenditures:
11.5% of GDP (2014)
country comparison to the world: 9
Physicians density:
3.23 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
Hospital bed density:
6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 98.7% of population
urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 1.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,500 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
25.7% (2014)
country comparison to the world: 108
Education expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 43
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 23.2%
male: 24.1%
female: 22.1% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39

Government :: FRANCE

Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique francaise
local short form: France
etymology: name derives from the Latin "Francia" meaning "Land of the Franks"; the Franks were a group of Germanic tribes located along the middle and lower Rhine River in the 3rd century A.D. who merged with Gallic-Roman populations in succeeding centuries and to whom they passed on their name
Government type:
semi-presidential republic
name: Paris
geographic coordinates: 48 52 N, 2 20 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note: applies to metropolitan France only, not to its overseas departments, collectivities, or territories
Administrative divisions:
18 regions (regions, singular - region); Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Bourgogne-Franche-Comte (Burgundy-Free County), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre-Val de Loire (Center-Loire Valley), Corse (Corsica), Grand Est (Grand East), Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Hauts-de-France (Upper France), Ile-de-France, Martinique, Mayotte, Normandie (Normandy), Nouvelle-Aquitaine (New Aquitaine), Occitanie (Occitania), Pays de la Loire (Lands of the Loire), Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion
note: France is divided into 13 metropolitan regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and 5 overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)
Dependent areas:
Clipperton Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna
note: the US Government does not recognize claims to Antarctica; New Caledonia has been considered a "sui generis" collectivity of France since 1998, a unique status falling between that of an independent country and a French overseas department
no official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
National holiday:
Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
history: many previous; latest effective 4 October 1958
amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (upon recommendation of the prime minister and Parliament) or by Parliament; proposals submitted by Parliament members require passage by both houses followed by approval in a referendum; passage of proposals submitted by the government can bypass a referendum if submitted by the president to Parliament and passed by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament’s National Assembly; amended many times, last in 2008 (2016)
Legal system:
civil law; review of administrative but not legislative acts
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017)
head of government: Prime Minister Edouard PHILIPPE (since 15 May 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April and 7 May 2017 (next to be held on April (first round) and May (second round) 2022); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emmanuel MACRON elected president; percent of vote in first round - Emmanuel MACRON (EM) 24.0%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 21.3%, Francois FILLON (LR) 20.0%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (FI) 19.6%, Benoit HAMON (PS) 6.4%, other 8.7%; percent of vote in second round - MACRON 66.1%%, LE PEN 33.9%
Legislative branch:
description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinque, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held 24 September 2017); National Assembly - last held on 10 and 17 June 2012 (next to be held 11 and 18 June 2017)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 187, PS 152, other 9; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - PS 48.5%, UMP 33.6%, miscellaneous left wing parties 3.8%, Greens 3.0%, miscellaneous right wing parties 2.6%, NC 2.1%, PRG 2.1%, FDG 1.7%, other 2.6%; seats by party - PS 280, UMP 194, miscellaneous left wing parties 22, Greens 17, miscellaneous right wing parties 15, NC 12, PRG 12, FDG 10, other 15
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members appointed - 3 by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal d'instance
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Movement or MODEM [Francois BAYROU]
Europe Ecology - The Greens or EELV [David CORMAND]
Forward! (En Marche!) or EM [Catherine BARBAROUX, acting]
French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT]
La France insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
Left Front Coalition or FDG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]
Left Party or PG [collective leadership; main leaders Jean-Luc MELENCHON and Francois COCO, linked with the movement La France Insoumise or FI [Jean-Luc MELENCHON]]
Left Radical Party or PRG [Sylvia PINEL] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG)
Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS]
National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN]
New Anticapitalist Party or NPA [collective leadership; main spokesperson Christine POUPIN; presidential candIdate Philippe POUTOU]
Rally for France or RPF [Igor KUREK]
Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT]
Socialist Party or PS [vacant]
Stand Up France (Debout La France) [Nicolas DUPONT-AIGNAN]
The Centrists [Herve MORIN] (formerly new Center of NC)
The Republicans or LR (formerly Union for a Popular Movement or UMP) [vacant]
Union des Democrates et Independants or UDI [Jean-Christohe LAGARDE] and Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union for French Democracy or UDF); together known as UDI-Modem; Radical Party [Laurent HENART] is a member of UDI
United Republic or RS [Dominique DE VILLEPIN]
Worker's Struggle (Lutte Ouvriere) or LO; also known as Communist Union; [collective leadership; spokespersons Nathalie ARTHAUD and Arlette LAGUILLER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres (French Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives) or CFE-CGC [Francois HOMMERIL, president] (independent white-collar union with 140,000 members)
Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail (French Democratic Confederation of Labor) or CFDT [Laurent BERGER, secretary general] (left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members)
Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens (French Confederation of Christian Workers) or CFTC [Philippe LOUIS, president] (independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 142,000 members)
Confederation generale du travail (General Confederation of Labor) or CGT [Philippe MARTINEZ, secretary general] (historically communist labor union with approximately 710,000 members)
Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere (General Confederation of Labor - Worker's Force) or FO [Jean-Claude MAILLY, secretary general] (independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members)
Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF [Pierre GATTAZ, president] (employers' union with claimed 750,000 companies as members)
French Guiana:
conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups
Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG
General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G
General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG
Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI
The Socialist Renewal Movement
Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC
Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM
Frantz Fanon Circle
League of Workers and Peasants
Proletarian Action Group or GAP
International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gerard ARAUD (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Uzra ZEYA (since 20 January 2017) note - also accredited to Monaco
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg
consulate(s): Bordeaux, Lyon, Rennes, Toulouse
Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as the "Le drapeau tricolore" (French Tricolor), the origin of the flag dates to 1790 and the French Revolution when the "ancient French color" of white was combined with the blue and red colors of the Parisian militia; the official flag for all French dependent areas
note: the design and/or colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands
National symbol(s):
Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification); national colors: blue, white, red
National anthem:
name: "La Marseillaise" (The Song of Marseille)
lyrics/music: Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle
note: adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as "Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars

Economy :: FRANCE

Economy - overview:
The French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. Despite terrorist attacks, labor strikes, and bad weather, France is still the most visited country in the world with 83 million foreign tourists in 2016, including 530,000 who came for the 2016 Euro Cup. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality.
France's real GDP grew by 1.1% in 2016, down from 1.3% the year before. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 10.2% in 2015, before slightly falling to 10% in 2016. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from 24.6% in the fourth quarter of 2014 to 24% in the fourth quarter of 2016.
Lower-than-expected growth and high spending have strained France's public finances. Despite measures to restore public finances since President Fran�ois HOLLANDE took office in 2012, the budget deficit rose from 3.3% of GDP in 2008 to 7.5% of GDP in 2009 before improving to 3.4% of GDP in 2016. Meanwhile, France's public debt rose from 89.5% of GDP in 2012 to 96% in 2016.
President HOLLANDE’s policies have aimed to enhance French industry’s competitiveness and to lower high jobless figures. The Competitiveness and Employment Tax Credit of 2012, the Responsibility and Solidarity Pact of 2014, the Investment Stimulus Plan, and the Emergency Jobs Plan represent more than $42.6 billion in support for businesses in 2017 by lowering French labor costs, but so far the results of these policies have been marginal on France’s competitiveness and job creation. In an effort to bolster social justice, the 2017 budget bill contained provisions to reduce income taxes for households and for small and medium sized enterprises.
During his mandate, President HOLLANDE oversaw two highly unpopular economic reforms that led to widespread protests. The “Macron Law” of 2015, enacted to boost economic growth, authorized businesses to open some Sundays of each month and allowed flexibility to negotiate pay and working hours. The “El Khomri law,” imposed by decree in 2016, aimed to make it easier for businesses to employ people and gave employers more leeway to negotiate hours, wages, and time off.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$2.699 trillion (2016 est.)
$2.67 trillion (2015 est.)
$2.667 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 11
GDP (official exchange rate):
$2.488 trillion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
1.1% (2016 est.)
1.3% (2015 est.)
0.6% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$42,400 (2016 est.)
$42,000 (2015 est.)
$41,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars
country comparison to the world: 39
Gross national saving:
21.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
22.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 53.5%
government consumption: 26.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 30.4%
imports of goods and services: -33.4% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 19.4%
services: 78.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
0.5% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
Labor force:
30.48 million (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 18.3%
services: 79.3% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.7% (2016 est.)
10.1% (2015 est.)
note: includes overseas territories
country comparison to the world: 119
Population below poverty line:
14% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.4% (2013)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29.2 (2015)
30.5 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 129
revenues: $1.308 trillion
expenditures: $1.392 trillion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
52.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
Public debt:
96% of GDP (2016 est.)
95.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
country comparison to the world: 17
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
0.3% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
Central bank discount rate:
0% (31 December 2016)
0.05% (31 December 2015)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
country comparison to the world: 154
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
2% (31 December 2016 est.)
1.93% (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Stock of narrow money:
$1.144 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.079 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
country comparison to the world: 6
Stock of broad money:
$2.541 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.771 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
Stock of domestic credit:
$3.64 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.528 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.591 trillion (31 March 2017 est.)
$2.088 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.086 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Current account balance:
-$26.85 billion (2016 est.)
-$4.832 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
$489.1 billion (2016 est.)
$493.6 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Exports - commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Exports - partners:
Germany 16.1%, Spain 7.5%, US 7.4%, Italy 7.3%, UK 7%, Belgium 6.8% (2016)
$561 billion (2016 est.)
$563.4 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Germany 16.9%, China 9.1%, Italy 7.5%, US 7%, Belgium 6.7%, Spain 6.4%, Netherlands 6%, UK 4.3% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$153.9 billion (29 April 2016 est.)
$138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Debt - external:
$5.36 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$5.25 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$796.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$772 billion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.339 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.314 trillion (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)

Energy :: FRANCE

Electricity access:
electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
Electricity - production:
562.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Electricity - consumption:
415.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Electricity - exports:
75.06 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Electricity - imports:
7.873 billion kWh (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Electricity - installed generating capacity:
129 million kW (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
Electricity - from fossil fuels:
20.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
48.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
14.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Electricity - from other renewable sources:
11.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
Crude oil - production:
16,670 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
Crude oil - exports:
21,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
Crude oil - imports:
1.174 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
Crude oil - proved reserves:
84.08 million bbl (1 January 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Refined petroleum products - production:
1.277 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.691 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
Refined petroleum products - exports:
444,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
Refined petroleum products - imports:
866,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Natural gas - production:
17 million cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Natural gas - consumption:
36.72 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Natural gas - exports:
7.077 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Natural gas - imports:
45.13 billion cu m (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
Natural gas - proved reserves:
8.75 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
country comparison to the world: 83
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
385.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Communications :: FRANCE

Telephones - fixed lines:
total subscriptions: 38.929 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
Telephones - mobile cellular:
total: 66.681 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
Telephone system:
general assessment: highly developed
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international: country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries
overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; Guadeloupe - 590; Martinique - 596; Mayotte - 262; Reunion - 262 (2015)
Broadcast media:
a mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France television stations operate 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and international channels; a large number of privately owned regional and local TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable services provide a large number of channels; public broadcaster Radio France operates 7 national networks, a series of regional networks, and operates services for overseas territories and foreign audiences; Radio France Internationale, under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a leading international broadcaster; a large number of commercial FM stations, with many of them consolidating into commercial networks (2008)
Internet country code:
metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
Internet users:
total: 56.367 million
percent of population: 84.7% (July 2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11

Transportation :: FRANCE

National air transport system:
number of registered air carriers: 30
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 485
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 65,039,503
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,098.31 million mt-km (2015)
Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
F (2016)
464 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 17
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 294
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 97
914 to 1,523 m: 83
under 914 m: 75 (2013)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 170
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 105 (2013)
1 (2013)
gas 15,322 km; oil 2,939 km; refined products 5,084 km (2013)
total: 29,640 km
standard gauge: 29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,561 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2014)
country comparison to the world: 9
total: 1,028,446 km (metropolitan France)
paved: 1,028,446 km (includes 11,416 km of expressways)
note: not included are 5,100 km of roadways in overseas departments (2010)
country comparison to the world: 8
metropolitan France: 8,501 km (1,621 km navigable by craft up to 3,000 metric tons) (2010)
Merchant marine:
total: 169
by type: container 24, dry bulk 1, liquefied gas 6, passenger 67, roll on/roll off 21, tanker 34, other 16 (2016)
foreign-owned: 50 (Belgium 7, Bermuda 5, Denmark 11, French Polynesia 11, Germany 1, New Caledonia 3, Singapore 3, Sweden 4, Switzerland 5) (2010)
registered in other countries: 151 (Bahamas 15, Belgium 7, Bermuda 1, Canada 1, Cyprus 16, Egypt 1, Hong Kong 4, Indonesia 1, Ireland 2, Italy 2, Luxembourg 15, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 7, Mexico 1, Morocco 3, Netherlands 2, Norway 5, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 3, South Korea 2, Taiwan 2, UK 39, US 4, unknown 1) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 36
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
river port(s): Paris, Rouen (Seine); Strasbourg (Rhine); Bordeaux (Garronne)
container port(s): Le Havre (2,215,262) (2011)
cruise/ferry port(s): Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre
LNG terminal(s) (import): Fos Cavaou, Fos Tonkin, Montoir de Bretagne

Military and Security :: FRANCE

Military expenditures:
1.78% of GDP (2016)
2.1% of GDP (2015)
2.24% of GDP (2014)
2.22% of GDP (2013)
2.24% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 47
Military branches:
Army (Armee de Terre; includes Marines, Foreign Legion, Army Light Aviation), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense) (2011)
Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2013)

Transnational Issues :: FRANCE

Disputes - international:
Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 24,326 (Sri Lanka); 15,232 (Russia); 15,037 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 13,154 (Serbia and Kosovo); 11,566 (Cambodia); 10,615 (Turkey); 8,991 (Syria); 8,008 (Vietnam); 7,685 (Afghanistan); 7,049 (Sudan); 6,841 (Laos); 6,823 (Guinea); 6,043 (Iraq); 5,183 (Mauritania) (2016)
stateless persons: 1,370 (2016)
Illicit drugs:
metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics
French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe
Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe