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Estonia, See : Flags, Maps

Estonia (Europe)

The Hero Of Esthonia. W.F. Kirby

Introduction ::Estonia

Background:

After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Geography ::Estonia


View Larger Map

Location:

Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates:
59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 45,228 sq km country comparison to the world: 132 land: 42,388 sq km

water: 2,840 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Estonia Crests Postcard

Land boundaries:

total: 633 km

border countries: Latvia 343 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline:

3,794 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states

Climate:

maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain:

marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources:

oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud

ESTONIA  EE-26266

Land use:

arable land: 12.05%

permanent crops: 0.35%

other: 87.6% (2005)

Irrigated land:

40 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

21.1 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.41 cu km/yr (56%/39%/5%)

per capita: 1,060 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:

sometimes flooding occurs in the spring

Environment - current issues:

air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one-20th the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands

People ::Estonia

Population:

1,291,170 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 154

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.9% (male 99,748/female 94,051)

15-64 years: 67.5% (male 417,816/female 459,246)

65 years and over: 17.6% (male 75,486/female 153,024) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 40.2 years

male: 36.7 years

female: 43.7 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.635% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 227

Birth rate:

10.42 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 185

Death rate:

13.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 22

Net migration rate:

-3.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 187

Urbanization:

urban population: 69% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -0.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.063 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female

total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 7.19 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 167 male: 8.34 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 5.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 73.08 years country comparison to the world: 117 male: 67.74 years

female: 78.76 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.43 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 196

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1.3% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 48

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

9,900 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 104

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 99

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne disease: tickborne encephalitis (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups:

Estonian 68.7%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.2%, Finn 0.8%, other 1.6% (2008 census)

Religions:

Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)

Languages:

Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2000 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 16 years

male: 15 years

female: 17 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

5% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 68

Government ::Estonia

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:

parliamentary republic

Capital:

name: Tallinn

geographic coordinates: 59 26 N, 24 43 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond); Harjumaa (Tallinn),
Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa
(Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa
(Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare),
Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa
(Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses

Independence:

20 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was
the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia; 20
August 1991 was the date it declared its independence from the
Soviet Union

Constitution:

adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system:

based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 October 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 April 2005)

cabinet: Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local councils) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest number of votes; election last held on 23 September 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2011); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Toomas Hendrik ILVES elected president on 23 September 2006 by a 345-member electoral assembly; ILVES received 174 votes to incumbent Arnold RUUTEL's 162; remaining 9 ballots left blank or invalid

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 4 March 2007 (next to be held in March 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - Estonian Reform Party 27.8%, Center Party of Estonia 26.1%, Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica 17.9%, Social Democratic Party 10.6%, Estonian Greens 7.1%, Estonian People's Union 7.1%, other 5%; seats by party - Estonian Reform Party 31, Center Party 28, Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica 19, Social Democratic Party 10, Estonian Greens 6, Estonian People's Union 6, independent 1

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court (chairman appointed for life by Parliament)

Political parties and leaders:

Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR]; Estonian
Greens (Rohelised) [Marek STRANDBERG]; Estonian People's Union
(Rahvaliit) [Juhan AARE]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond)
[Andrus ANSIP]; Social Democratic Party [Sven MIKSER]; Union of Pro
Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) [Mart LAAR]

International organization participation:

Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA
(cooperating state), EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO,
ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE,
PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNTSO, UPU,
WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Vaino REINART

chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael C. POLT

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100
FAX: [372] 668-8265

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white; various interpretations are linked to the flag colors; blue represents faith, loyalty, and devotion, while also reminiscent of the sky, sea, and lakes of the country; black symbolizes the soil of the country and the dark past and suffering endured by the Estonian people; white refers to the striving towards enlightenment and virtue, and is the color of birch bark and snow, as well as summer nights illuminated by the midnight sun

National anthem:

name: "Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room" (My Native Land, My Pride and Joy)

lyrics/music: Johann Voldemar JANNSEN/Fredrik PACIUS

note: adopted 1920, though banned between 1940 and 1990 under Soviet occupation; the anthem, used in Estonia since 1869, shares the same melody with that of Finland but has different lyrics

Economy ::Estonia

Economy - overview:

Estonia, a 2004 European Union entrant, has a modern market-based economy and one of the higher per capita income levels in Central Europe and the Baltic region. Estonia's successive governments have pursued a free market, pro-business economic agenda and have wavered little in their commitment to pro-market reforms. The current government has pursued relatively sound fiscal policies that have resulted in balanced budgets and very low public debt. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties with Finland, Sweden, and Germany. Tallinn's priority has been to sustain high growth rates - on average 8% per year from 2003 to 2007. Estonia's economy slowed down markedly and fell sharply into recession in mid-2008, primarily as a result of an investment and consumption slump following the bursting of the real estate market bubble. GDP dropped nearly 15% in 2009, among the world's highest rates of contraction. A modest recovery began in 2010, but unemployment stands above 13%. Estonia adopted the euro in January 2011.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$24.53 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 114 $24.07 billion (2009 est.)

$27.96 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$19.22 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 153 -13.9% (2009 est.)

-5.1% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$19,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63 $18,500 (2009 est.)

$21,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.5%

industry: 28.7%

services: 68.8% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

688,000 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 150

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 2.8%

industry: 22.7%

services: 74.5% (2008)

Unemployment rate:

13.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 140 13.8% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

19.5% (2007)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.7%

highest 10%: 27.7% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

34 (2008) country comparison to the world: 91 37 (1999)

Investment (gross fixed):

22.5% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 61

Public debt:

7.7% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 125 7.1% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71 -0.1% (2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

9.39% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 112 8.55% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$5.345 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 85 $5.822 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$10.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 98 $11.37 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$18.94 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 79 $20.32 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$2.654 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 94 $1.95 billion (31 December 2008)

$6.037 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish

Industries:

engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate:

10% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 15

Electricity - production:

11.46 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 88

Electricity - consumption:

7.686 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 96

Electricity - exports:

2.31 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

1.369 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

7,600 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 87

Oil - consumption:

30,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 113

Oil - exports:

7,280 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 97

Oil - imports:

30,590 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 98

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 182

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 199

Natural gas - consumption:

1.51 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 83

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 60

Natural gas - imports:

1.51 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 50

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 182

Current account balance:

$265 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 $898.7 million (2009 est.)

Exports:

$10.77 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 82 $9.08 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery and equipment 29%, wood and paper 13%, metals 10%, food products 8%, textiles 5%, chemical products

Exports - partners:

Finland 18.57%, Sweden 12.52%, Latvia 9.51%, Russia 9.33%, Germany 6.09%, Lithuania 4.76%, US 4.26% (2009)

Imports:

$11.52 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 86 $9.783 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment 35%, textiles 19%, mineral fuels 19%, chemical products 9%, foodstuffs 6%

Imports - partners:

Finland 14.52%, Lithuania 10.84%, Latvia 10.47%, Germany 10.33%,
Russia 8.59%, Sweden 8.34%, Poland 5.63% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$3.641 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 82 $3.981 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$25.13 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 $25.56 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$17.53 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71 $16.23 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$7.134 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54 $6.534 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

kroon (EEK) per US dollar - 12.11 (2010), 11.232 (2009), 10.7 (2008), 11.535 (2007), 12.473 (2006)

note: Estonia adopted the euro on 1 January 2011

Communications ::Estonia

Telephones - main lines in use:

492,800 (2009) country comparison to the world: 98

Telephones - mobile cellular:

2.72 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 117

Telephone system:

general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service with a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services available

domestic: substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the Internet, a large percentage of the population files income-tax returns online, and online voting was used for the first time in the 2005 local elections

international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn (2008)

Broadcast media:

the publicly-owned broadcaster, Eesti Rahvusringhaaling (ERR), operates 2 television channels; national private TV channels expanding service; a range of channels are aimed at Russian-speaking viewers; high penetration rate for cable TV services with more than half of Estonian households connected; publicly-owned broadcaster, ERR, operates 4 radio networks and there are a growing number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting nationally, regionally, and locally (2008)

Internet country code:

.ee

Internet hosts:

729,534 (2010) country comparison to the world: 48

Internet users:

971,700 (2009) country comparison to the world: 102

Transportation ::Estonia

Airports:

19 (2010) country comparison to the world: 136

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 13

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2010)

Heliports:

1 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 859 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 1,196 km country comparison to the world: 86 broad gauge: 1,196 km 1.520 m/1.524-m gauge (131 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:

total: 58,034 km country comparison to the world: 78 paved: 34,936 km (includes 104 km of expressways)

unpaved: 23,098 km (2009)

Waterways:

520 km (320 km are navigable year round) (2010) country comparison to the world: 84

Merchant marine:

total: 24 country comparison to the world: 94 by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 17, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 3 (Germany 1, Norway 2)

registered in other countries: 77 (Antigua and Barbuda 20, Belize 1, Cambodia 1, Cyprus 7, Dominica 6, Finland 2, Latvia 4, Malta 16, former Netherlands Antilles 1, Norway 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10, Sierra Leone 1, Sweden 3, Venezuela 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Kuivastu, Kunda, Muuga, Parnu Reid, Sillamae, Tallinn

Military ::Estonia

Military branches:

Estonian Defense Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force (Eesti
Ohuvagi), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit, KL) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

obligation for compulsory service ages 16-60, with conscription "likely" ages 18-27; service requirement 8-11 months (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 297,096

females age 16-49: 308,229 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 213,740

females age 16-49: 255,926 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 6,945

female: 6,564 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

2% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 73

Transnational Issues ::Estonia

Disputes - international:

Russia recalled its signature to the 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia in 2005, rather than concede to Estonia's appending prepared a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Russia demands better accommodation of Russian-speaking population in Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules with Russia

Illicit drugs:

growing producer of synthetic drugs; increasingly important transshipment zone for cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs since joining the European Union and the Schengen Accord; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds; major use of opiates and ecstasy

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