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Dominica

Introduction ::Dominica

Background:

Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be colonized by Europeans due chiefly to the fierce resistance of the native Caribs. France ceded possession to Great Britain in 1763, which made the island a colony in 1805. In 1980, two years after independence, Dominica's fortunes improved when a corrupt and tyrannical administration was replaced by that of Mary Eugenia CHARLES, the first female prime minister in the Caribbean, who remained in office for 15 years. Some 3,000 Carib Indians still living on Dominica are the only pre-Columbian population remaining in the eastern Caribbean.

Geography ::Dominica


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Location:

Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, about half way between Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates:
15 25 N, 61 20 W

Map references:

Central America and the Caribbean

Area:

total: 751 sq km country comparison to the world: 188 land: 751 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Dominica 2007 "Caribbean Island"

Area - comparative:

slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

0 km

Coastline:

148 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:

tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

253 Dominica, from Anna

Terrain:

rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Morne Diablotins 1,447 m

Natural resources:

timber, hydropower, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 6.67%

permanent crops: 21.33%

other: 72% (2005)

Irrigated land:
NA

Total renewable water resources:
NA

Dominica

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.02 cu km/yr

per capita: 213 cu m/yr (1996)

Natural hazards:

flash floods are a constant threat; destructive hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment - current issues:
NA

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto
Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

known as "The Nature Island of the Caribbean" due to its spectacular, lush, and varied flora and fauna, which are protected by an extensive natural park system; the most mountainous of the Lesser Antilles, its volcanic peaks are cones of lava craters and include Boiling Lake, the second-largest, thermally active lake in the world

People ::Dominica

Population:

72,813 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 200

Age structure:

0-14 years: 24% (male 8,910/female 8,518)

15-64 years: 65.8% (male 24,532/female 23,301)

65 years and over: 10.2% (male 3,187/female 4,212) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 30.3 years

male: 29.8 years

female: 30.8 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.213% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 182

Birth rate:

15.68 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 131

Death rate:

8.12 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 103

Net migration rate:

-5.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 202

Urbanization:

urban population: 74% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 132 male: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 8.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.77 years country comparison to the world: 76 male: 72.82 years

female: 78.87 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.08 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 123

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
NA

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
NA

Nationality:

noun: Dominican(s)

adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups:

black 86.8%, mixed 8.9%, Carib Amerindian 2.9%, white 0.8%, other 0.7% (2001 census)

Religions:

Roman Catholic 61.4%, Seventh Day Adventist 6%, Pentecostal 5.6%,
Baptist 4.1%, Methodist 3.7%, Church of God 1.2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1.2%, other Christian 7.7%, Rastafarian 1.3%, other or
unspecified 1.6%, none 6.1% (2001 census)

Languages:

English (official), French patois

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school

total population: 94%

male: 94%

female: 94% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

4.8% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 79

Government ::Dominica

Country name:

conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica

conventional short form: Dominica

Government type:

parliamentary democracy

Capital:

name: Roseau

geographic coordinates: 15 18 N, 61 24 W

time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence:

3 November 1978 (from the UK)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution:

3 November 1978

Legal system:

based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (since October 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt SKERRIT (since 8 January 2004)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year term; election last held on 1 October 2003 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Nicholas LIVERPOOL consented to a second term in 2008 at the request of the prime minister and leader of the opposition

Legislative branch:

unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats; 9 members appointed, 21 elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 18 December 2009 (next to be held in 2015); note - tradition dictates that the election will be held within five years of the last election, but technically it is five years from the first seating of parliament (12 May 2005) plus a 90-day grace period

election results: percent of vote by party - DLP 61.2%, UWP 34.9%; seats by party - DLP 18, UWP 3

Judicial branch:

Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the Court of Appeal and the High Court (located in Saint Lucia; one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders:

Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles SAVARIN]; Dominica Labor
Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT]; Dominica United Workers Party or
UWP [Earl WILLIAMS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Dominica Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation:

ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW, PetroCaribe, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Hubert J. CHARLES

chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016

telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781
FAX: [1] (202) 364-6791

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

the US does not have an embassy in Dominica; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Dominica

Flag description:

green, with a centered cross of three equal bands - the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a Sisserou Parrot, unique to Dominica, encircled by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes); green symbolizes the island's lush vegetation; the triple-colored cross represents the Christian Trinity; the yellow color denotes sunshine, the main agricultural products (citrus and bananas), and the native Carib Indians; black is for the rich soil and the African heritage of most citizens; white signifies rivers, waterfalls, and the purity of aspirations; the red disc stands for social justice

National anthem:

name: "Isle of Beauty, Isle of Splendor"

lyrics/music: Wilfred Oscar Morgan POND/Lemuel McPherson CHRISTIAN

note: adopted 1967

Economy ::Dominica

Economy - overview:

The Dominican economy has been dependent on agriculture - primarily bananas - in years past, but increasingly has been driven by tourism as the government seeks to promote Dominica as an "ecotourism" destination. In order to diversify the island's production base, the government also is attempting to develop an offshore financial sector and has signed an agreement with the EU to develop geothermal energy resources. In 2003, the government began a comprehensive restructuring of the economy - including elimination of price controls, privatization of the state banana company, and tax increases - to address an economic and financial crisis and to meet IMF requirements. This restructuring paved the way for an economic recovery - real growth for 2006 reached a two-decade high - and helped to reduce the debt burden, which remains at about 85% of GDP. Hurricane Dean struck the island in August 2007 causing damages equivalent to 20% of GDP. In 2009, growth slowed as a result of the global recession; it picked up only slightly in 2010.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$765.4 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 209 $754.8 million (2009 est.)

$757.1 million (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$375 million (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 173 -0.3% (2009 est.)

3.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$10,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 $10,400 (2009 est.)

$10,400 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 17.7%

industry: 32.8%

services: 49.5% (2004 est.)

Labor force:

25,000 (2000 est.) country comparison to the world: 206

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 40%

industry: 32%

services: 28% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate:

23% (2000 est.) country comparison to the world: 172

Population below poverty line:

30% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Public debt:

78% of GDP (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 85% of GDP (2006 est.) (2006 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

0.1% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 9 2.7% (2007 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

6.5% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 61 6.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

10.02% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 103 9.06% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$74.84 million (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 183 $67.94 million (31 December 2008)

Stock of broad money:

$398.5 million (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 176 $362 million (31 December 2008)

Stock of domestic credit:

$213.6 million (31 December 2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 174 $193.1 million (31 December 2007 est.)

Agriculture - products:

bananas, citrus, mangos, root crops, coconuts, cocoa

note: forest and fishery potential not exploited

Industries:

soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate:
NA%

Electricity - production:

85 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 193

Electricity - consumption:

79.05 million kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 193

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 181

Oil - consumption:

1,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 201

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 200

Oil - imports:

838 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 189

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 186

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 178

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 190

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 65

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 89

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 186

Current account balance:

-$72 million (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 72

Exports:

$94 million (2006) country comparison to the world: 194

Exports - commodities:

bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges

Exports - partners:

Japan 28.62%, UK 19.81%, Antigua and Barbuda 7.7%, Guyana 6.52%,
Jamaica 5.4%, Trinidad and Tobago 4.2% (2009)

Imports:

$296 million (2006) country comparison to the world: 196

Imports - commodities:

manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food, chemicals

Imports - partners:

Japan 31.29%, US 19.73%, Trinidad and Tobago 11.8%, China 11.58% (2009)

Debt - external:

$213 million (2004) country comparison to the world: 174

Exchange rates:

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003)

Communications ::Dominica

Telephones - main lines in use:

17,500 (2009) country comparison to the world: 196

Telephones - mobile cellular:

106,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 184

Telephone system:

general assessment: fully automatic network

domestic: Fixed-line teledensity is roughly 25 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity approached 150 per 100 persons in 2009

international: country code - 1-767; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cables providing connectivity to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia

Broadcast media:

no terrestrial television service available; subscription cable TV provider offers some locally produced programming plus channels from the US, Latin America, and the Caribbean; state-operated radio broadcasts on 6 stations; privately-owned radio broadcasts on about 15 stations (2007)

Internet country code:

.dm

Internet hosts:

718 (2010) country comparison to the world: 174

Internet users:

28,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 182

Transportation ::Dominica

Airports:

2 (2010) country comparison to the world: 208

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Roadways:

total: 780 km country comparison to the world: 187 paved: 393 km

unpaved: 387 km (2000)

Merchant marine:

total: 40 country comparison to the world: 78 by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 20, chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 37 (Australia 1, Estonia 6, Germany 2, Greece 9, India 2, Latvia 1, Norway 1, Russia 6, Saudi Arabia 3, Singapore 1, Syria 2, Turkey 1, Ukraine 2)

registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Portsmouth, Roseau

Military ::Dominica

Military branches:

no regular military forces; Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 18,975 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 15,963

females age 16-49: 15,426 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 729

female: 688 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:
NA

Transnational Issues ::Dominica

Disputes - international:

Dominica is the only Caribbean state to challenge Venezuela's sovereignty claim over Aves Island and joins the other island nations in challenging whether the feature sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Venezuela to extend its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf claims over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; minor cannabis producer (2008)

World

Hellenica World

Index