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Czech Republic, See : Flags, Maps

Prague : Images

From a Terrace in Prague, B. Granville Baker

John Hus, William Dallmann

Czech Republic (Europe)

Introduction ::Czech Republic

Background:

Following the First World War, the closely related Czechs and Slovaks of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire merged to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar years, the new country's leaders were frequently preoccupied with meeting the demands of other ethnic minorities within the republic, most notably the Sudeten Germans and the Ruthenians (Ukrainians). After World War II, a truncated Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize Communist party rule and create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.

Geography ::Czech Republic

Location:


View Larger Map

Central Europe, between Germany, Poland, Slovakia, and Austria

Geographic coordinates:
49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 78,867 sq km country comparison to the world: 115 land: 77,247 sq km

water: 1,620 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:

total: 1,989 km

border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 815 km, Poland 615 km, Slovakia 197 km

Coastline:

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)

Climate:

temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain:

Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Elbe River 115 m

highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources:

hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite, timber

Land use:

arable land: 38.82%

permanent crops: 3%

other: 58.18% (2005)

Irrigated land:

240 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

16 cu km (2005)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.91 cu km/yr (41%/57%/2%)

per capita: 187 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:

flooding

Environment - current issues:

air and water pollution in areas of northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks; acid rain damaging forests; efforts to bring industry up to EU code should improve domestic pollution

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85,
Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands,
Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central Europe

People ::Czech Republic

Population:

10,201,707 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

Age structure:

0-14 years: 13.6% (male 712,045/female 673,657)

15-64 years: 71% (male 3,641,887/female 3,604,044)

65 years and over: 15.5% (male 623,882/female 956,389) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 40.4 years

male: 38.9 years

female: 42.2 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.106% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 210

Birth rate:

8.76 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 214

Death rate:

10.79 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 43

Net migration rate:

0.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 57

Urbanization:

urban population: 73% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.059 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 208 male: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 77.01 years country comparison to the world: 62 male: 73.74 years

female: 80.48 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.25 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 216

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 162

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

1,500 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 139

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 10 (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 155

Nationality:

noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups:

Czech 90.4%, Moravian 3.7%, Slovak 1.9%, other 4% (2001 census)

Religions:

Roman Catholic 26.8%, Protestant 2.1%, other 3.3%, unspecified 8.8%, unaffiliated 59% (2001 census)

Languages:

Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8% (2001 census)

Literacy:

definition: NA

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 15 years

male: 15 years

female: 16 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

4.6% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 88

Government ::Czech Republic

Country name:

conventional long form: Czech Republic

conventional short form: Czech Republic

local long form: Ceska Republika

local short form: Cesko

Government type:

parliamentary democracy

Capital:

name: Prague

geographic coordinates: 50 05 N, 14 28 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

13 regions (kraje, singular - kraj) and 1 capital city* (hlavni mesto); Jihocesky (South Bohemia), Jihomoravsky (South Moravia), Karlovarsky, Kralovehradecky, Liberecky, Moravskoslezsky (Moravia-Silesia), Olomoucky, Pardubicky, Plzensky (Pilsen), Praha (Prague)*, Stredocesky (Central Bohemia), Ustecky, Vysocina, Zlinsky

Independence:

1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia); note - although 1 January is the day the Czech Republic came into being, the Czechs generally consider 28 October 1918, the day the former Czechoslovakia declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as their independence day

National holiday:

Czechoslovak Founding Day, 28 October (1918)

Constitution:

ratified on 16 December 1992, effective on 1 January 1993; amended in 1997, 2000, 2001 (twice), 2002

Legal system:

civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; legal code modified to bring it in line with European Union obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Vaclav KLAUS (since 7 March 2003)

head of government: Prime Minister Petr NECAS (since 28 June 2010); First Deputy Prime Minister Karel SCHWARZENBERG (since 13 July 2010), Deputy Prime Minister Radek JOHN (since 13 July 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held on 15 February 2008 (after earlier elections held 8 and 9 February 2008 were inconclusive; next election to be held in 2013); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Vaclav KLAUS reelected president on 15 February 2008; Vaclav KLAUS 141 votes, Jan SVEJNAR 111 votes (third round; combined votes of both chambers of parliament)

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (81 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held in two rounds on 15-16 and 22-23 October 2010 (next to be held by October 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28-29 May 2010 (next to be held by 2014)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CSSD 41, ODS 25, KDU-CSL 6, TOP 09 5, others 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CSSD 22.1%, ODS 20.2%, TOP 09 16.7%, KSCM 11.3%, VV 10.9%; seats by party - CSSD 56, ODS 53, TOP 09 41, KSCM 26, VV 24

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; Supreme Administrative Court; chairman and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for a 10-year term

Political parties and leaders:

Association of Independent Candidates-European Democrats or SNK-ED
[Zdenka MARKOVA]; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak People's
Party or KDU-CSL [Pavel BELOBRADEK]; Civic Democratic Party or ODS
[Petr NECAS]; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM
[Vojtech FILIP]; Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav
SOBOTKA (acting)]; Green Party [Ondrej LISKA]; Public Affairs (VV)
[Radek JOHN]; Tradice Odpovednost Prosperita 09 or TOP 09 [Karel
SCHWARZENBERG]; Union of Freedom-Democratic Union or US-DEU [Jan
CERNY]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Jaroslav
ZAVADIL]

International organization participation:

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC,
EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO,
ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI
(observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Daniel KOSTOVAL

chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 274-9100
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Joseph PENNINGTON

embassy: Trziste 15, 118 01 Prague 1

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [420] 257 022 000
FAX: [420] 257 022 809

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

note: is identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia; uses the Pan-Slav colors inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National anthem:

name: "Kde domov muj?" (Where is My Home?)

lyrics/music: Josef Kajetan TYL/Frantisek Jan SKROUP

note: adopted 1993; the anthem is a verse from the former Czechoslovakian anthem originally written as part of the opera "Fidlovacka"

Economy ::Czech Republic

Economy - overview:

The Czech Republic is one of the most stable and prosperous of the post-Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Maintaining an open investment climate has been a key element of the Czech Republic's transition from a communist, centrally planned economy to a functioning market economy. As a member of the European Union, with an advantageous location in the center of Europe, a relatively low cost structure, and a well-qualified labor force, the Czech Republic is an attractive destination for foreign investment. Prior to its EU accession in 2004, the Czech government harmonized its laws and regulations with those of the European Union. The small, open, export-driven Czech economy grew by over 6% annually from 2005-2007 and by 2.5% in 2008. The conservative Czech financial system has remained relatively healthy throughout 2009. Nevertheless, the real economy contracted by 4.1% in 2009, mainly due to a significant drop in external demand as the Czech Republic's main export markets fell into recession. GDP is expected to grow by 2.4% in 2010, driven largely by a rebound in external demand, particularly from Gremany.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$261.5 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 45 $256.9 billion (2009 est.)

$267.9 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$195.2 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1.8% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 154 -4.1% (2009 est.)

2.5% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$25,600 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 53 $25,200 (2009 est.)

$26,200 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 38.3%

services: 59.5% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

5.37 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 3.6%

industry: 40.2%

services: 56.2% (2007)

Unemployment rate:

9.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 102 8.1% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 4.3%

highest 10%: 22.4% (1996)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

26 (2005) country comparison to the world: 131 25.4 (1996)

Investment (gross fixed):

22.5% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 60

Public debt:

40% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 72 34% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 1% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

1% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 131 2.25% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

5.99% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 134 6.25% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$96.82 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 32 $92.95 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$138.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $139 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$119.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $118.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$52.69 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 52 $48.85 billion (31 December 2008)

$73.42 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, poultry

Industries:

motor vehicles, metallurgy, machinery and equipment, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate:

3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 113

Electricity - production:

82.72 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Electricity - consumption:

61.65 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 41

Electricity - exports:

19.99 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

8.52 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

10,970 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 83

Oil - consumption:

207,600 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

Oil - exports:

29,670 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 87

Oil - imports:

219,900 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 42

Oil - proved reserves:

15 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 86

Natural gas - production:

176 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 76

Natural gas - consumption:

8.182 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 51

Natural gas - exports:

1.111 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Natural gas - imports:

9.683 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

Natural gas - proved reserves:

3.964 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 92

Current account balance:

-$5.956 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 171 -$2.146 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$116.5 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 $112.6 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuel, chemicals

Exports - partners:

Germany 32.25%, Slovakia 9.02%, Poland 5.8%, France 5.62%, UK 4.93%,
Austria 4.71%, Italy 4.38% (2009)

Imports:

$109.2 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 $103.1 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, raw materials and fuels, chemicals

Imports - partners:

Germany 30.67%, Poland 6.97%, Slovakia 6.6%, Netherlands 5.99%,
China 5.7%, Austria 5.26%, Russia 4.93%, Italy 3.98% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$38.67 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 $41.2 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$86.79 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39 $82.42 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$126.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 28 $121.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$15.85 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 48 $14.35 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

koruny (CZK) per US dollar - 19.737 (2010), 19.063 (2009), 17.064 (2008), 20.53 (2007), 22.596 (2006)

Communications ::Czech Republic

Telephones - main lines in use:

2.092 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 53

Telephones - mobile cellular:

14.258 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 51

Telephone system:

general assessment: privatization and modernization of the Czech telecommunication system got a late start but is advancing steadily; virtually all exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber systems enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals; trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s but the number of fixed line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply beginning in the mid-1990s and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population

international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar) (2009)

Broadcast media:

roughly 130 television broadcasters operating some 350 television channels with 4 publicly operated and the remainder in private hands; 13 television stations have national coverage with 4 being publicly operated; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; about 70 radio broadcasters are registered operating roughly 85 radio stations with 15 stations publicly operated; 16 radio stations provide national coverage with the remainder local or regional (2008)

Internet country code:

.cz

Internet hosts:

3.494 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 25

Internet users:

6.681 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 40

Transportation ::Czech Republic

Airports:

122 (2010) country comparison to the world: 49

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 44

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 18 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 78

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 27

under 914 m: 50 (2010)

Heliports:

1 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 7,010 km; oil 547 km; refined products 94 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 9,620 km country comparison to the world: 22 standard gauge: 9,521 km 1.435-m gauge (3,013 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 99 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

total: 128,582 km country comparison to the world: 37 paved: 128,582 km (includes 691 km of expressways) (2008)

Waterways:

664 km (principally on Elbe, Vltava, Oder, and other navigable rivers, lakes, and canals) (2010) country comparison to the world: 77

Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010) country comparison to the world: 162

Ports and terminals:

Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Military ::Czech Republic

Military branches:

Army of the Czech Republic (ACR): Joint Forces Command (includes Land Forces and Air Forces), Support and Training Forces Command (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18-28 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,517,268

females age 16-49: 2,418,163 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,086,662

females age 16-49: 2,003,055 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 55,139

female: 52,440 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

1.46% of GDP (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 104

Transnational Issues ::Czech Republic

Disputes - international:

while threats of international legal action never materialized in 2007, 915,220 Austrians, with the support of the popular Freedom Party, signed a petition in January 2008, demanding that Austria block the Czech Republic's accession to the EU unless Prague closes its controversial Soviet-style nuclear plant in Temelin, bordering Austria

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for local and regional markets; susceptible to money laundering related to drug trafficking, organized crime; significant consumer of ecstasy (2008)

World

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