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Croatia, See : Flags, Maps

Croatia (Europe)

Introduction ::Croatia


The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. In April 2009, Croatia joined NATO; it is a candidate for eventual EU accession.

Geography ::Croatia

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Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and
Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates:
45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references:



total: 56,594 sq km country comparison to the world: 126 land: 55,974 sq km

water: 620 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:

total: 1,982 km

border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 455 km


5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Postcard from Croatia

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast


geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Dinara 1,831 m

Natural resources:

oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 25.82%

permanent crops: 2.19%

other: 71.99% (2005)

Irrigated land:

110 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

105.5 cu km (1998)

Natural hazards:

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:

air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94,
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

People ::Croatia


4,486,881 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 123

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.6% (male 358,360/female 340,098)

15-64 years: 67.5% (male 1,506,364/female 1,522,789)

65 years and over: 17% (male 295,960/female 465,838) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 41.2 years

male: 39.3 years

female: 43 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.061% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 204

Birth rate:

9.63 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 201

Death rate:

11.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 33

Net migration rate:

1.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46


urban population: 57% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female

total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 6.26 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 175 male: 6.33 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.58 years country comparison to the world: 80 male: 71.95 years

female: 79.4 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.43 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 195

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 165

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

200 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 160

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 10 (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 154

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: intermediate

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea

vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis

note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)

adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups:

Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian,
Slovene, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)


Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2% (2001 census)


Croatian (official) 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98.1%

male: 99.3%

female: 97.1% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2007)

Education expenditures:

3.9% of GDP (2004) country comparison to the world: 112

Government ::Croatia

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Croatia

conventional short form: Croatia

local long form: Republika Hrvatska

local short form: Hrvatska

former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia

Government type:

presidential/parliamentary democracy


name: Zagreb

geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad -
singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska, Brodsko-Posavska,
Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria),
Karlovacka, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka, Krapinsko-Zagorska,
Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska, Osjecko-Baranjska,
Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska,
Sibensko-Kninska, Sisacko-Moslavacka, Splitsko-Dalmatinska
(Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska, Viroviticko-Podravska,
Vukovarsko-Srijemska, Zadarska, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka


25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 8 October (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, Parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia


adopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001

Legal system:

based on Austro-Hungarian law system with Communist law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Ivo JOSIPOVIC (since 18 February 2010)

head of government: Prime Minister Jadranka KOSOR (since 6 July 2009); Deputy Prime Ministers Bozidar PANKRETIC (since 6 July 2009), Darko MILINOVIC (since 13 November 2009), Domagoj Ivan MILOSEVIC (since 29 December 2010), Petar COBANKOVIC (since 29 December 2010), Slobodan UZELAC (since 12 January 2008), Gordan JANDROKOVIC (since 29 December 2010)

cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2015); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the assembly

election results: Ivo JOSIPOVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Ivo JOSIPOVIC 60%, Milan BANDIC 40%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Assembly or Sabor (153 seats; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 November 2007 (next to be held by November 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; number of seats by party - HDZ 66, SDP 57, HNS 6, HSS 6, HDSSB 3, IDS 3, SDSS 3, other 9

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts are appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly

Political parties and leaders:

Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB
[Vladimir SISLJAGIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Jadranka
KOSOR]; Croatian Party of the Right or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian
Peasant Party or HSS [Josip FRISCIC]; Croatian Pensioner Party or
HSU [Silvano HRELJA]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Radimir
CACIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR];
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC];
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Social
Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

other: human rights groups

International organization participation:

Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-11, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM,
NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC

chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador James B. FOLEY

embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb

mailing address: use street address

telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions, they are (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia

note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National anthem:

name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)

lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN

note: adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891

Economy ::Croatia

Economy - overview:

Once one of the wealthiest of the Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war as output collapsed and the country missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve slowly, with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period has remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable. Nevertheless, difficult problems still remain, including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, a growing trade deficit and uneven regional development. The state retains a large role in the economy, as privatization efforts often meet stiff public and political resistance. While macroeconomic stabilization has largely been achieved, structural reforms lag because of deep resistance on the part of the public and lack of strong support from politicians. The EU accession process should accelerate fiscal and structural reform. While long term growth prospects for the economy remain strong, Croatia will face significant pressure as a result of the global financial crisis. Croatia's high foreign debt, anemic export sector, strained state budget, and over-reliance on tourism revenue will result in higher risk to economic stability over the medium term.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$78.52 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 79 $79.64 billion (2009 est.)

$84.54 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$59.92 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

-1.4% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 201 -5.8% (2009 est.)

2.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$17,500 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 $17,700 (2009 est.)

$18,800 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 6.8%

industry: 27.2%

services: 66% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

1.762 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 5%

industry: 31.3%

services: 63.6% (2008)

Unemployment rate:

17.6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 160 16.1% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

17% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 3.6%

highest 10%: 23.1% (2005 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

29 (2008) country comparison to the world: 116 29 (1998)

Investment (gross fixed):

22.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 62

Public debt:

55% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 46.4% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 2.4% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

9% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 51 9% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

11.55% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 90 10.07% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$8.72 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 75 $8.964 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$40.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 69 $42.59 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$48.62 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 64 $48.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$25.64 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 55 $26.79 billion (31 December 2008)

$65.98 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products


chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:

-0.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 157

Electricity - production:

11.49 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 87

Electricity - consumption:

18 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 72

Electricity - exports:

5.668 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

12.24 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

23,960 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 74

Oil - consumption:

106,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

Oil - exports:

43,750 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 80

Oil - imports:

122,100 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 59

Oil - proved reserves:

73.35 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75

Natural gas - production:

2.847 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 56

Natural gas - consumption:

3.205 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 72

Natural gas - exports:

695.5 million cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 39

Natural gas - imports:

1.22 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

Natural gas - proved reserves:

30.58 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 69

Current account balance:

-$2.312 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 159 -$3.247 billion (2009 est.)


$11.51 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81 $10.72 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners:

Italy 19.1%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 12.98%, Germany 11.06%, Slovenia 7.47%, Austria 5.44%, Serbia 5.41% (2009)


$20.93 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 69 $21 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs

Imports - partners:

Italy 15.46%, Germany 13.57%, Russia 9.29%, China 6.83%, Slovenia 5.75%, Austria 5.04% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$13.79 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 $14.89 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$59.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49 $62.41 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$34.63 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 59 $32.13 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$6.334 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 56 $5.934 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

kuna (HRK) per US dollar - 5.6356 (2010), 5.271 (2009), 4.98 (2008), 5.3735 (2007), 5.8625 (2006)

Communications ::Croatia

Telephones - main lines in use:

1.859 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 59

Telephones - mobile cellular:

6.035 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 84

Telephone system:

general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s; local lines are digital

domestic: fixed-line teledensity holding steady at about 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions exceed the population

international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2009)

Broadcast media:

the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision (HRT), operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; about 15 privately-owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 3 national radio networks and a number of regional radio stations; 2 privately-owned national radio networks and a large number of regional, county, city, and community radio stations (2007)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

1.287 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 38

Internet users:

2.234 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 73

Transportation ::Croatia


69 (2010) country comparison to the world: 73

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 23

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 9 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 46

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 38 (2010)


1 (2010)


gas 1,327 km; oil 583 km (2009)


total: 2,722 km country comparison to the world: 63 standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (985 km electrified) (2009)


total: 29,248 km (includes 1,043 km of expressways) (2008) country comparison to the world: 99


785 km (2009) country comparison to the world: 74

Merchant marine:

total: 75 country comparison to the world: 56 by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 7, chemical tanker 6, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1

foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 2)

registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Liberia 2, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 12, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Omisalj, Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split, Vukovar (on Danube River)

Military ::Croatia

Military branches:

Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH), consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command, Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary service; 6-month conscript service obligation; full conversion to voluntary military service by 2010 (2006)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,021,904

females age 16-49: 1,023,465 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 770,574

females age 16-49: 844,594 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 27,670

female: 26,503 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

2.39% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 64

Transnational Issues ::Croatia

Disputes - international:

dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a European Union peripheral state, Slovenia imposed a hard border Schengen regime with non-member Croatia in December 2007

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

IDPs: 2,900-7,000 (Croats and Serbs displaced in 1992-95 war) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe (2008)


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