- Art Gallery -

 

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Illustrated Chart of Canadian History Illustrated Chart of Canadian History

THE MAKERS OF CANADA

INDEX AND DICTIONARY
OF CANADIAN HISTORY

EDITED BY

LAWRENCE J. BURPEE, F.R.G.S.

LIBRARIAN OF THE CARNEGIE LIBRARY, OTTAWA

AND

ARTHUR G. DOUGHTY, C.M.G., LITT.D.

DOMINION ARCHIVIST, OTTAWA


TORONTO
MORANG & CO., LIMITED

1912


Copyright, 1911.

Copyright in Great Britain.


[vii]

INTRODUCTION

This Supplement is designed to supply a double need: it furnishes an analytical index to the entire series of twenty volumes; and it affords a great deal of additional information, bearing on the subject-matter of these volumes, but which from its very nature it was impossible to incorporate in the text. This additional information includes biographical sketches of the characters mentioned in each volume; similar sketches of prominent Canadians who for one reason or another do not appear in any of the twenty volumes; and brief descriptions of wars, battles, treaties, and political and other events having a vital bearing on the history of Canada. References have been added, wherever necessary, to the principal sources which the student may consult for further information. The whole has been thrown into one alphabetical arrangement, and it constitutes, to a large extent, a dictionary of Canadian history.

To satisfy further the desire of those who, after reading the foregoing volumes, find it profitable to investigate more fully certain lines of inquiry suggested by the narratives, it has been thought advisable to add a list of manuscript sources from which new material may be gleaned. The collection of documents most convenient for this purpose is to be found in the Dominion Archives. It is not possible in the present work to do more than indicate the principal documents, as there are fifteen thousand volumes of manuscript in the Archives bearing on Canadian history. The sources indicated here are drawn principally from the series designated A, B, C, F, Q, M. The letter refers to the series, and the number to the volume. The Calendars published by the Archives in the Annual Reports should also be consulted by the student. For convenience of reference, it has been deemed preferable to group the manuscript sources under general headings, and print the list as a separate section in the volume.

In the preparation of the bibliographical references, the object has been to include only those works that have a direct and vital bearing on [viii]the subject. A complete bibliography in each case would obviously be neither possible nor desirable. Nor, except in special cases, has any attempt been made to include articles or papers in periodicals or in the publications of learned societies. It will be sufficient to make a general reference here to some of the more important sources of information on the many topics covered in this volume. First among these sources probably should rank the publications of the Royal Society of Canada. The Society has published in a separate volume a very full General Index to its Proceedings and Transactions, 1882-1906, compiled by Dr. Benjamin Sulte. For volumes subsequent to 1906, the individual indexes should be consulted. A key to the Annual Reports of the Geological Survey of Canada is found in two General Indexes, one covering the years 1863-1884, and the other the years 1885-1906. The latter, compiled by F. J. Nicolas, is very complete. Wurtële's Index to the Transactions and other Publications of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, 1829-1891, furnishes a guide to the material issued by this oldest of Canadian learned societies. Unfortunately, no general index is available for the publications of the Canadian Institute, which cover a very wide and important field; nor for those of the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba, the Ontario Historical Society, the Nova Scotia Historical Society, and various other Canadian institutions of a similar character. Much important material, bearing on, or supplementary to, the topics treated in the several volumes of the Makers of Canada will be found in the foregoing publications. The reader may also find it profitable in many cases to consult the publications of the American Historical Association, and the State Historical Societies of New York, Maine, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. A great deal of important material is also to be found in Canadian and other periodicals. Of the more significant of these, the Revue Canadienne marked the completion of its fifty-third volume in 1907 by publishing in separate form a comprehensive Index to the entire series up to that year. In consulting other Canadian magazines, reference must in most cases be made to the individual indexes in each volume. The series of the Canadian Monthly and the New Dominion Monthly are, however, fully covered by Poole's Index; the Canadian Magazine, to a large extent, by Wilson's Guide to Periodical Literature, as well as by a General Index published by the magazine in 1907. A key to the publications of several Canadian historical societies and periodicals, since the year 1906, is[ix] furnished by the Magazine Subject-Index (Boston). The three admirable American guides mentioned above, that is, Poole's Index, Wilson's Guide, and the Magazine Subject-Index, with their annual or cumulative supplements, provide also a key to the great body of literature in the principal American and English periodicals, bearing on Canadian topics.

Among other important guides to Canadian subjects, historical, political, biographical, social, literary, and scientific, should be mentioned the Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada, edited by Wrong and Langton; Larned's Literature of American History, which includes a section on Canada; the various encyclopædias; the annual bibliographies of Canadian scientific work published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada; Gagnon's Essai de Bibliographie Canadienne; Morgan's Bibliotheca Canadensis; James's Bibliography of Canadian Verse; Horning and Burpee's Bibliography of Canadian Fiction; Tanguay's Dictionnaire Généalogique des Familles Canadiennes; and the very full bibliographies of material published in or about the province of Quebec, by Dr. N. E. Dionne. A general reference may also be made here, for all subjects in this volume relating to Canadian history, to such general works as those of Parkman, Kingsford, Bourinot, Dent, McMullen, Ferland, Faillon, Charlevoix, Bibaud, Garneau, Sulte, Miles, Christie, Haliburton, Murdoch, Campbell, Hannay, Bryce, and Begg. In addition to the principal source of Canadian manuscript material, the Archives at Ottawa, a large number of important documents will be found in the Provincial Archives at Halifax, Quebec, Toronto, Winnipeg, and Victoria, as well as in the universities of Laval, McGill, and Toronto. Finally, reference may be made to the various biographical dictionaries in the accompanying list.

The inclusion in the Supplement of several names of Canadians, both living and dead, who are not of the very first importance, and the omission of others who filled at least as important a place in the history of the country, will be explained largely by the fact that the former were incidentally mentioned somewhere in the series, and therefore had to be included, while the latter were not.

L. J. B.
A. G. D.

Ottawa, January, 1911
[x]


[xi]

CONTENTS

  Page
INDEX AND DICTIONARY 1
MANUSCRIPT SOURCES IN THE DOMINION ARCHIVES 419
A PARTIAL LIST OF SCARCE MAPS AND PLANS RELATING TO CANADA 435

[xii]

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

To avoid unnecessary repetitions, references to sources are abbreviated as follows:—

Bibaud, Dict. Dictionnaire Historique des Hommes Illustrés du Canada et de
  l'Amerique, par Bibaud. 1857.
Bibaud, Pan. Can. Le Panthéon Canadien, par M. Bibaud. 1858.
Canada: An Ency. Canada: An Encyclopædia of the Country, by J. Castell Hopkins. 1898.
Casgrain, Biog. Biographies Canadiennes, par l'Abbé Casgrain. 1873.
Chambers, Biog. Dict. Chambers's Biographical Dictionary. 1902.
Cyc. Am. Biog. Cyclopædia of American Biography.
David, Biog. Biographies et portraits, par L. O. David. 1876.
Dent, Can. Por. Canadian Portrait Gallery, by John Charles Dent.
Dict. Eng. Hist. Dictionary of English History, edited by Low and Pulling.
Dict. Nat. Biog. Dictionary of National Biography.
Morgan, Bib. Can. Bibliotheca Canadensis, by Henry J. Morgan. 1867.
Morgan, Can. Men. Canadian Men and Women of the Time, by Henry J. Morgan. 1898.
Morgan, Cel. Can. Sketches of Celebrated Canadians, and Persons Connected
  with Canada, by Henry J. Morgan. 1862.
Morice, Dict. Dictionnaire Historique des Canadiens et des Métis
  Français de l'Ouest, par A. G. Morice. 1908.
Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog. Cyclopædia of Canadian Biography, by George Maclean Rose. 1886.
R. S. C. Royal Society of Canada Transactions.
Taché, Men. Men of the Day, edited by Louis H. Taché.
Tassé, Canad. Les Canadiens de l'Ouest, par J. Tassé. 1882.
Taylor, Brit. Am. Portraits of British Americans, by W. Notman, with
  letter press by Fennings Taylor. 1865.
Who's Who. Who's Who. London: 1910.

[xiii]

ILLUSTRATIONS

VOLUME I

SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN FACING PAGE
   Building the Habitation, Quebec, 1608 40
   Champlain on the Shores of Georgian Bay, 1615 88
BISHOP LAVAL  
   The Ursuline Convent, Quebec 154

VOLUME II

COUNT FRONTENAC  
   Old Church of the Jesuit Missions at Tadoussac 166
   The Massacre at Lachine, 1689 224
   The Return of Frontenac, 1689 232
   Madeleine de Verchères 320
WOLFE AND MONTCALM  
   View of Quebec from Lévis, 1761 12
   A View of the Treasury and Jesuits' College, Quebec, 1761 16
   Intendant's Palace, Quebec, 1761 32
   Louisbourg, 1746 70
   A View of the Jesuits' College and Church, Quebec, 1761 234

VOLUME III

LORD DORCHESTER  
   Death of Montgomery, 1776 126
   Prescott Gate, Quebec 144
   The Loyalist Settlers 236

VOLUME IV

JOHN GRAVES SIMCOE  
   The Pioneer 60
   Household Utensils of the Simcoe Period 64
   The Logging 66

[xiv]

VOLUME V

MACKENZIE, SELKIRK, AND SIMPSON  
   Sir Alexander Mackenzie's Arrival at the Pacific Overland from  
      Canada, 1793 86
   "Seven Oaks," 1816 180
   A Dog Train at Edmonton 252
   Remnant of Old Fort Garry, Winnipeg 284
SIR JAMES DOUGLAS  
   Indians Trading at a Hudson's Bay Post 80

VOLUME VI

WILLIAM LYON MACKENZIE  
   North Side of King Street, Toronto, 1834 270
   March of the Insurgents on Toronto, 1837 372
   Reward Proclamation for the Arrest of William Lyon Mackenzie, 1837  
      and Others, 1837 380
LOUIS JOSEPH PAPINEAU  
   The Tribune 126

VOLUME VII

JOSEPH HOWE  
   First Meeting of Joseph Howe and Charles Tupper 156
   Residence of Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Windsor, N.S. 268
LORD SYDENHAM  
   Lord Durham 90

VOLUME VIII

BALDWIN, LAFONTAINE, AND HINCKS  
   Parliament Buildings, Toronto, 1833 38
   Sir Louis H. LaFontaine 116
   Notre Dame Street, Montreal 180
   Queen's College, Kingston, 1840 194
LORD ELGIN[xv]  
   Burning of the Parliament Buildings, Montreal, 1849 74

VOLUME IX

SIR JOHN A. MACDONALD  
   Early Home of Sir John A. Macdonald 2
   Building the Canadian Pacific Railway 238
   The Old Guard Dinner, May 4, 1882 261
SIR GEORGES E. CARTIER  
   St. James Street, Montreal, 1840 46

VOLUME X

GEORGE BROWN  
   The Fathers of Confederation 163
SIR LEONARD TILLEY  
   Polling Day 50

VOLUME XI

SUPPLEMENT  
   Illustrated Chart of Canadian History Opposite Title Page
  Facing Page
   Old Fort, Near Annapolis Royal 11
   Monument To Laura Secord, Lundy's Lane 27
   Landing of Jacques Cartier at Quebec, 1535 66
   Halifax and Harbour from Dartmouth about 1760 161
   Sir Wilfred Laurier 210
   Remains of the King's Bastion, Louisbourg 223
   Battle of the Plains of Abraham 299
   The Promised Land 346

[xvi]

INDEX REFERENCES

The titles of the volumes in the series are indicated by initial letters as follows:

B George Brown.
BL Baldwin-La Fontaine-Hincks.
Ch Samuel de Champlain.
Dr Lord Dorchester.
F Count Frontenac.
Hd Sir Frederick Haldimand.
Mc William Lyon Mackenzie.
MS Mackenzie-Selkirk-Simpson.
R Egerton Ryerson.
Sy Lord Sydenham.
Bk General Brock.
C Sir Georges É. Cartier.
D Sir James Douglas.
E Lord Elgin.
H Joseph Howe.
L Bishop Laval.
Md Sir John A. Macdonald.
P Louis Joseph Papineau.
S John Graves Simcoe.
WM Wolfe-Montcalm.
W Wilmot.
T Tilley.

[1]

INDEX AND DICTIONARY

Abbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell (1821-1893). Educated at McGill University; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1847. A candidate for the Legislative Assembly for Argenteuil, 1857, but defeated by Sydney Bellingham. Bellingham subsequently unseated and Abbott declared elected, 1860. Solicitor-general for Lower Canada in Macdonald-Sicotte ministry, 1862-1863, and for a few days retained same position in Macdonald-Dorion ministry. From 1867 to 1874 and from 1880 to 1887 represented Argenteuil in House of Commons. May, 1887, admitted to Macdonald ministry as minister without portfolio, and at same time appointed to Senate, where he became leader of Conservative party. On death of Macdonald, became prime minister, June, 1891; held this position until ill health compelled him to resign, November, 1892. A recognized authority on questions of commercial and constitutional law. Framed Insolvent Act of 1864, and Jury Law Consolidation Act of Lower Canada. Index: C Countenances Annexation Movement in 1849, 44-45. BL On the Annexation Manifesto, 336. Md A witness before Pacific Scandal Committee, 204. Bib.: Annual Register, 1893; Terrill, Chronology of Montreal; Thomas, History of Argenteuil and Prescott; Weir, Sixty Years in Canada; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years.

Abbott, Joseph (1789-1863). Born and educated in England. Came to Canada, 1818. Missionary of the Church of England. Wrote The Emigrant, containing information for farmers about Canada.

Abenaquis Indians. See Abnaki.

Abercrombie, James. Entered the army, and obtained a captaincy in the 42nd or 1st Battalion of Royal Highlanders, 1756. Appointed aide-de-camp to Major-General Amherst, 1759, with whom he made the campaigns in Canada of that and the following year. Appointed major of the 78th or 2nd Highland Battalion, 1760, and, in September following, employed by General Amherst in communicating to the Marquis de Vaudreuil the conditions preparatory to the surrender of Montreal, and in obtaining his signature to them. The 78th Regiment having been disbanded in 1763, retired on half-pay. Again entered active service, 1770, as lieutenant-colonel of the 22nd Regiment, then serving in America under the command of Lieutenant-General Gage; killed in the battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec.

Abercromby, James (1706-1781). Entered the army, and obtained commission as major, 1742; lieutenant-colonel, 1744; colonel, 1746. Sent to America with 50th Regiment, 1756; superseded Shirley and Webb in command of the army; and then resigned command to Lord Loudon. In 1757 commanded second brigade against Louisbourg. On Loudon's recall, became commander-in-chief, 1758. Led expedition against Ticonderoga, with Lord Howe as second in command. On Howe's death, the campaign became a dismal failure for the British, Abercromby being outgeneralled at every point by Montcalm. Returned to England, and in 1772 deputy-governor of[2] Stirling Castle. Index: WM Sent to America with reinforcements, 33; commands division intended to operate by way of Lake Champlain, 54; repulsed at Fort Carillon, 55-61. Hd His recall, 21. See also Howe; Rogers; Ticonderoga; Carillon. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Rogers, Journals during the Late War, ed. by Hough.

Abercromby, Sir Ralph (1734-1801). Commanded a brigade in Holland under Duke of York, 1793, and wounded at Nimeguen. Afterwards appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in the West Indies. Held successive commands in Ireland, Scotland, in the expedition to Holland, and, in 1801, appointed to command the expedition against the French in Egypt. Won a brilliant victory near Alexandria, but died of wounds received in the battle. Index: Bk Brock serves under, in Holland, 14. Bib.: Dunfermline, Sir Ralph Abercromby: a Memoir; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Aberdeen, John Campbell Hamilton Gordon, seventh Earl of (1847- ). A baronet of Nova Scotia. Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Succeeded to peerage, 1870. Appointed viceroy of Ireland, 1886. Appointed governor-general of Canada, 1893. Again appointed viceroy of Ireland, 1905. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Who's Who.

Abnaki Indians. A tribe of the Algonquian family, inhabiting a portion of what is now the province of New Brunswick. They were early converts of the French missionaries, and made common cause with the French against the English colonists. A number were brought to Canada in the seventeenth century, and formed a settlement on the St. Francis River, a few miles above its junction with the St. Lawrence. The Indian town was destroyed by Robert Rogers in 1759. Index: F Hostile to New England, 240; incited by Governor Denonville, 249; ravages committed by, 316; attack settlement at York, 326; repulsed at Wells, 327; disposed to make peace with New England, 328; French influence in opposite direction prevails, 330; attack settlement of Oyster River, 330; fired on from Fort Pemaquid under flag of truce, 331. L Ravages committed by, on New England settlements, 12; in Acadia, 228. WM Enemies of the English, 16. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac and Montcalm and Wolfe; Pilling, Bibliography of Algonquian Languages; Vetromile, The Abnakis and their History.

Abraham, Plains of. See Plains of Abraham.

Academy of Arts. See Royal Canadian Academy of Arts.

Acadia. The name Acadia or "la Cadie" is found as early as Nov. 8, 1603, in the commission of Henry IV appointing Pierre du Gua, Sieur de Monts, lieutenant-general in La Cadie, extending from the fortieth to the forty-sixth degree of north latitude. The limits were afterwards reduced, and the boundaries of Acadia became a cause of contention between France and England. France claimed that the English possessions were restricted to the peninsula of Nova Scotia, and that the territory now known as New Brunswick had not been ceded to England. The first settlement in Acadia was on the Island of St. Croix in 1604, but the following year it was transferred to Port Royal, and abandoned in 1607. Three years later the Sieur de Poutrincourt established a new settlement at Port Royal, which was destroyed by Argall in 1613. In September, 1621, James I granted the territory of Acadia, under the name of Nova Scotia, to Sir William Alexander. This grant was renewed in July, 1625, by Charles I. A small Scottish settlement was established at Port Royal by the grantee. Acadia was restored to France by the treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye in 1632, and during the same year new settlers were brought from France. Acadia was finally ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Index: Ch Its resources and[3] limits, 18; English king indisposed to restore, 213. F Attempt to form settlement in, 6; seized by English under Kirke, 22; subsequent vicissitudes, 268-272; seized under orders from Cromwell, 268; settlers disposed to trade with New England, 270; Port Royal (Annapolis) made capital, 270; visited by Meulles and Saint Vallier, and census taken, 271; Port Royal and other posts captured by Phipps, who establishes government, 274; passes again under French control, 316. Bib.: Champlain, Voyages; Lescarbot, New France; Denys, Acadia; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Rameau de Saint-Père, Une Colonie Feodale; Calnek and Savary, History of the County of Annapolis; Moreau, Histoire de l'Acadie; Hannay, History of Acadia; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia.

Acadia College. Situated at Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Founded by the Nova Scotia Baptist Education Society, 1838. Application made to the Nova Scotia Assembly for incorporation as "The Trustees, Governors and Fellows of the Queen's College." The corporation created with university powers, 1840. At the next meeting of the Legislature its name changed to Acadia College. Power of appointing governors transferred from the Education Society to the Baptist Convention of the Maritime Provinces, 1851. Final changes in the Act of Incorporation, 1891. Index: H Founded by the Baptists, 1838; first known as Queen's College, 81; defended by James W. Johnstone, 83. Bib.: Canada: An Ency., vol. 4.

Acadian. Newspaper published at Halifax. Index: H Formerly Weekly Chronicle, 6; purchased and edited by Joseph Howe, 6; sold by Howe, 6.

Acadians. The first permanent settlers were those who came with De Razilly in 1632, and from these the Acadians of to-day are descended. Other French immigrants were brought by d'Aulnay de Charnisay from 1639 to 1649, and by La Tour and Le Borgne in 1651 and 1658 respectively. There were also small immigrations at divers later dates. The first general nominal census was taken in 1671, and gave a population of 392 souls. In 1686 there were 885 persons in Acadia. Seven years later the inhabitants numbered 1018. When Acadia was ceded to Britain in 1713, the Acadian population was 2500. Although from 1713 to 1745 a number of families had escaped to the new French colonies of Isle Royale and Isle St. Jean (now Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island), still in 1749, when the British settled Halifax, there were about 12,500 Acadians in the province. Another large influx of population to the same colonies, and to the St. John River, took place between 1749 and 1755, yet there remained in the latter year in the peninsula and in the Isthmus of Chignecto some 10,000 inhabitants, of whom nearly 7000 were deported in 1755. The rest escaped to the woods; some went to Miramichi, and later to Baie des Chaleurs; others crossed over to the Isles Royale and St. Jean, and quite a number found their way to St. John River, and from thence to the province of Quebec. The whole population of Acadians in the peninsula, the Isthmus of Chignecto, the St. John River, Isle Royale, and Isle St. Jean, at the time of the expulsion, is computed at 16,000. Bib.: Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Haliburton, Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia; Hannay, History of Acadia; Raymond, St. John River; Gaudet, Acadian Genealogy (Report on Dominion Archives, 1905, vol. 2).

Acadians, Expulsion of the. Governor Lawrence in 1755, with the advice of his Council and of Admirals Boscawen and Mostyn, but apparently without consulting the home government, decided that the Acadians must be deported from Nova Scotia. The reason for this decision was the obstinate refusal of the Acadians[4] to take the oath of allegiance, and the conviction of the governor that the safety of the colony depended upon their expulsion. In September, 1755, all preparations having been made with the utmost secrecy, Monckton at Beauséjour, Winslow at Grand Pré, Murray at Piziquid, and Handfield at Annapolis, seized the inhabitants and held them prisoners until the arrival of the transport and provision ships. These having been delayed, the final embarkation did not take place until late in December. The Acadians were distributed among the British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard. Some hired vessels in 1763, and sailed to Miquelon, and in 1767 and following years returned gradually to their old Acadian home. Others came directly to Nova Scotia in 1766, there being no longer any reason for their exclusion, while others went north to Quebec or south to Louisiana. The present Acadian population in the three Maritime Provinces is over 150,000, and these are the descendants of the few families who escaped deportation, and of those who returned from exile. Index: See references under Acadia. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Richard, Acadia; Casgrain, Un Pélérinage au Pays d'Evangéline; Une Seconde Acadie; Les Sulpiciens et les Prêtres des Missions Etrangères en Acadia; Documents Inédits sur l'Acadie, 1710-1815; Archibald, Expulsion of Acadians (N.S. Hist. Soc. Coll., 1887); Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins; Calnek and Savary, History of the County of Annapolis.

Accommodation. First steamboat on the St. Lawrence. Built by John Molson at Montreal. Arrived at Quebec from Montreal, Nov. 5, 1809, making the run in 36 hours. The vessel measured 85 feet over all, had 16 feet beam, and was equipped with an engine of six-horse power. See also Molson; Steamships. Bib.: Semi-Centennial Report of Montreal Board of Trade, 1893.

Adams. Bk United States brig on Lake Erie, 178; surrendered to British, 256; name changed to Detroit, 274; captured by Americans at Fort Erie, 289; burnt, 290. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812.

Adams, John. Came to Nova Scotia from Boston. Appointed member of the Council, 1720. After the death of Lawrence Armstrong, administered the government during 1739 and 1740. Returned to Boston, 1740, as blindness prevented him from attending to his duties.

Addison, Robert. S First chaplain of Upper Canada Assembly, 85, 158; opens a school at Niagara, 167. R Member of Board of Education, Upper Canada, 58.

Adet, Pierre Auguste (1763-1832). Appointed on the 10th thermidor, member of the French Council of Mines. In 1795, went to the United States in the capacity of plenipotentiary. In 1796 presented to the United States Congress the tricolour flag on behalf of the French nation; and the following year, handed to the secretary of state the famous note in which the Directoire, complaining to the American government of breach of neutrality, stated that the republic would give to every neutral flag the same treatment that the latter would get from Great Britain. Index: Dr French minister to United States, intrigues of, 300, 301.

Agniers. See Mohawks.

Agriculture. Societies for improving the conditions of agriculture were founded in Nova Scotia, 1789; in Quebec the same year; and in Upper Canada in 1792. Simcoe in Upper Canada and Dorchester in Quebec did much to further agricultural interests, but Quebec owes most to J. F. Perrault (q.v.), and Nova Scotia to John Young (q.v.). An agricultural school was founded at Ste. Anne de la Pocatière in 1859; the Guelph Agricultural College was established[5] in 1874; the Nova Scotia School of Agriculture, 1885; and the Macdonald College, at Ste. Anne de Bellevue, opened in the fall of 1907. Agricultural Colleges are also in operation in connection with the provincial universities of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Index: F In New France, difficulties in the way of, 87. S Progress of, in Upper Canada, 108, 109; Simcoe's endeavours to promote, 110, 198. E Elgin on, 49-50; department of, established by Hincks-Morin government, 117; charged with founding of model farms and agricultural schools, 117. MS Agricultural experiments of the Red River colony, 1820-1835, 222-223; experimental farm at Red River, 237; Governor Simpson's views, 273-278. D In British Columbia, 256-257, 329-330. B Splendid field for in North-West predicted by Toronto Globe, in 1852, 213-215. See also Farmers; Wheat; Flour-milling; Puget Sound Agricultural Society. Bib.: Canada: An Ency., vol. 5; Johnson, First Things in Canada.

Aguesseau, Henri-François (1668-1751). Studied law; appointed third barrister of the Parliament of Paris, 1690; and attorney-general, 1700. Seventeen years later became chancellor. His opposition to Law's financial scheme brought about his temporary disgrace. Reappointed after the failure of Law's bank, and retired, 1722. Joined the administration again in 1727 as minister of justice, and finally retired, 1750. Index: F On French Parliaments, 153.

Aiguebelle, d'. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 257.

Aiken, Thomas B. H Contributes to The Club in Howe's Nova Scotian, 10.

Aikins, James Cox (1823-1896). Educated at Victoria College. Elected for Peel County, 1854, and sat in Assembly until 1861. Elected to Legislative Council, 1862; and at Confederation became a member of the Dominion Senate. Secretary of state in Macdonald administration, 1869-1873, and again in 1878-1880; minister of inland revenue, 1880-1882; lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 1882-1888; again called to Senate, 1896. Index: R Graduate of Victoria College, 143. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Ailleboust de Coulonge, Louis d'. Administered settlement of Villemarie during the absence of Maisonneuve. Promoted to governorship of Three Rivers. Became governor of Canada, 1648. Succeeded by Lauzon, 1651. Administered the colony, 1657. Died at Quebec, 1660. Index: F Succeeds Montmagny as governor, 35; interim governor, 42. L His pious administration, 8. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Aillon, Father de la Roche d'. Ch Récollet interpreter and negotiator with the Kirkes, 188-190; returns to France, 208. Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of. Signed between Great Britain and France, April 18, 1748. Brought the War of the Austrian Succession to a close. The practical effect of the treaty was to renew the status quo. All former treaties were renewed and all conquests restored. So far as British North America was concerned, the most vital article was that which provided for the restoration to France of Cape Breton. Bib.: Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions.

Alabama Claims. Md Exploits of the Alabama, 98; inflicts injury on Northern shipping, 165; causes irritation in United States, 167; claims referred to Joint Commission, 168-169; personnel of Commission, 169; claims finally submitted to arbitration, 181. See also Washington, Treaty of.

Alaska Boundary Question. Arose out of differences of opinion as to the interpretation of the 1828 Convention between Russia and Great Britain, and particularly as to the boundary of the coast strip. The United States contention[6] was that the boundary should follow a line approximately parallel to the coast and thirty marine miles distant therefrom; the Canadian, that it should follow the summit of the first range, crossing many of the inlets near their mouths. The decision of the Joint Commission of 1903 did not concede the United States claims in full, but gave them an unbroken littoral, substantially what they had contended for. Index: D Effect of Russian occupation, 38; early history of, 119; history of dispute, 340-341. Bib.: Hodgins, British and American Diplomacy Affecting Canada; MacArthur, The Alaska Boundary Award, in the Univ. Mag., December, 1907; Bourinot, Canada under British Rule; Proceedings of the Alaska Boundary Tribunal, Washington, 1904; Ewart, The Kingdom of Canada.

Albanel, Charles. L Explores Hudson Bay, 11.

Alberta. Created a province of the Dominion on Sept. 1, 1905. Includes the former district of Alberta, with the west half of Athabaska, and a strip of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan. Area, 253,540 square miles. The former district or territory of Alberta was named in honour of the Princess Louise. Seat of government, Edmonton. See also North-West Territories.

Alberta, University of. Created by Act of the Legislature of Alberta passed at the first session after provincial autonomy had been granted. First president appointed, 1908. Seat of university at Strathcona, across the Saskatchewan River from Edmonton, the capital of the province.

Albion. Newspaper published at New York. Index: B Peter Brown contributes to, 2; a weekly newspaper, published at New York for British residents of United States, 2. BL On Draper's pronouncement as to responsible government, 94; on Bagot's reception at Montreal, 118; on Hincks's appointment as inspector-general, 120; on the seat of government, 182; on the Metcalfe crisis, 199.

Alexander VII, Pope (1599-1667). Born Fabio Chigi. Elected pope, 1655. Index: L Appoints Laval his vicar apostolic, 7.

Alexander of Rhodes, Father. L Recommends Laval for mission work in India, 23.

Alexander, Sir William. See Stirling, Earl of.

Algonquian Indians. The name is now applied to what is probably the most widely-distributed linguistic stock of North America. In the days of French Canada, it was given to a comparatively small and unimportant tribe, whose home was on the banks of the Ottawa. Index: L Two camps of, destroyed, 9; missions destroyed by drunkenness, 175. Bib.: Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac; Brinton, The Lenape and Their Legends; Pilling, Bibliography of the Algonquian Languages.

Aliens. Dr Dorchester has Act passed in 1794 by Assembly, 288; designed to guard against danger of anti-British sentiment, 288. Mc Act passed in Upper Canada, 1804, 88; designed to guard against sedition, 88-89; terms of British Act of 1790, 140-141; hardships of, 141; Act of 1826, 141-143.

Alix, Marguerite. Ch Mother of Helen Bouillé, 66.

Alix, Simon. Ch Director of Company of New France, 170.

Allan, George William (1822-1901). Born in York, Upper Canada. Educated at Upper Canada College; studied law and called to the bar, 1846. Served in the volunteers during the Rebellion of 1837. Mayor of Toronto, 1855; elected member of the Legislative Council, 1858; appointed to the Senate, 1867; Speaker of the Senate, 1888-1891. From 1877 until his death, chancellor of Trinity University. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.[7]

Allan, Sir Hugh (1810-1882). Founder of the Allan line of steamships. Came to Canada from Scotland, 1826, and in 1831 entered the shipbuilding firm of James Millar & Co., Montreal, of which he became a partner in 1835. In 1853 his firm began building iron screw steamships, and their first vessel, the Canadian, made its first voyage in 1855. The following year, with a fleet of four vessels, a regular service was opened between Canada and England, with fortnightly sailings. In 1859 the fleet was increased to eight steamers, and a weekly service opened. From these small beginnings, the Allan Line has risen to a foremost place in transatlantic transportation. Index: Md President of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.—his agreement with American capitalists, 201-202; corrupt bargains with government, 202; denies charges, 205; Macdonald denies corrupt bargain, 207; Cartier's connection with, 207; his Company compelled to abandon railway project, 233. C His Company offers to build transcontinental railway, 53; asked to subscribe to Conservative election fund, 53; his indiscreet letters, 53. H President of Montreal Board of Trade, presides at public dinner to Joseph Howe, 138. D His connection with transcontinental railway project, 321. E His line secures mail subsidy, 115. See also Transportation; Molson; Cunard; Royal William. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Canada: An Ency., vol. 3; Semi-Centennial Report of Montreal Board of Trade, 1893.

Allanshaw, James. W Appointed to Legislative Council, New Brunswick, 69.

Allard, Father Germain. L Récollet missionary, arrival in Canada, 109.

Allcock, Henry. Studied law at Lincoln's Inn, and called to the bar, 1791. In November, 1798, appointed judge of Court of King's Bench for Upper Canada. Elected to Legislative Assembly for constituency of Durham, Simcoe, and E. York, 1800, but unseated by the Assembly, June, 1801. Under the direction of Lieutenant-Governor Hunter, engaged in the preparation of a bill to establish a Court of Equity in the province, and was to have been the first chancellor of the Court. The Court of Equity, however, was not at this time established, and on the removal of Chief-Justice Elmsley to Lower Canada, October, 1802, was appointed chief-justice of Upper Canada, and a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils. On the death of Elmsley, promoted to chief-justice of Lower Canada, July 1, 1805. In August, 1806, took his seat as a member of the Executive Council, and in January, 1807, appointed a member and chairman of the Legislative Council. Died at Quebec, Feb. 22, 1808. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges; Cartwright, Life and Letters of Richard Cartwright.

Allen, Ethan (1737-1789). Index: Dr Seizes Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 83; marches against Montreal, 98; captured with part of his force, 99; put into irons, 100; proposes separate arrangements between Vermont and Canada, 244, 245. Hd His intrigues in connection with political status of Vermont, 197-216; his great duplicity, 209, 213; proposes secret treaty to Haldimand, 214; true to Vermont only, 217. See also Montgomery; Arnold; American Invasion. Bib.: Allen's Captivity: Being a Narrative Containing his Voyages, Travels, etc.; Henry Hall, Ethan Allen; Jared Sparks, American Biography, ser. 1, vol. 1; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bradley, The Making of Canada.

Allen, Ira (1751-1814). Index: Hd Brother of Ethan—has conference with British emissary, 204; little confidence placed in good faith of, 205, 209; receives documents justifying his mission, 210; proposes secret treaty with Britain, 214; true to Vermont only, 217. Dr His plans for attacking Canada, 299, 300.

Allen, John Campbell. T Solicitor-general, New Brunswick, 1856, 41; opposition candidate in York, 1865, elected, 86; his sterling honesty, 87;[8] attorney-general in Smith government, 91; a Conservative, 91; appointed to the bench, 93, 95; chief justice, 87. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.

Allison, Joseph. H On his death, 1839, Joseph Howe offered his seat in Executive Council, Nova Scotia, but refuses, 72.

Allouez, Father Claude. Came to Quebec, 1657. Left for the West, 1665. Laboured for twenty-five years among the tribes of what are now the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Met La Salle in Illinois, 1679. Died in 1690. Index: L Missionary labours of, 11; impresses Indians of Sault Ste. Marie with power of French king, 104. Bib.: Shea, Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley; Griffin, Discovery of the Mississippi.

Allsopp, George. Settled in Quebec, 1761, and became prominent in maintaining the rights of the civil authority as opposed to the military. January, 1766, appointed deputy secretary, clerk of the Council, and registrar of enrolments, but because of his opposition to the government, Murray refused to admit him to office. In April, 1768, Carleton confirmed him in these appointments, which he retained until superseded by George Pownall in 1775. From 1771 to 1776 deputy commissary-general. One of the original members of the Legislative Council, under the Quebec Act. In 1780, when the Legislative Council presented an address to Haldimand opposing the passing of an ordinance amending the judicial system of the province in accordance with royal instructions to the governor, voted against the address and caused a strongly worded protest to be entered in the minutes of the Council. This action resented by members of the Council, and ultimately led to his dismissal by Haldimand, February, 1783. Index: Hd Member of Council suspended for sedition, 1783, 175. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Almon, William Bruce. H A "bitter Tory," 86; called to Executive and Legislative Councils of Nova Scotia, 1843, 86; his appointment leads to resignation of Howe, 87; challenges Howe to a duel, 236. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Alwington. Sy Name of governor-general's residence at Kingston, 294.

American Colonies. Dr Their objections to the Quebec Act, 70. Hd Loudon's letter to Pitt regarding taxation of, 11; objections to in colonies, 58; Haldimand's opinion of, 84; feeling in London against taxation of, 86.

American Invasion (1775-1776). Grew out of the belief entertained by the rebellious colonists that the French of Canada could readily be won to their side. As a matter of fact the latter, while for the most part showing no enthusiasm to join Carleton's forces, were still less inclined to coöperate with the invading army under Montgomery and Arnold, or to support the movement for union with the New Englanders. On the other hand, the Americans had a number of English-speaking sympathizers in Montreal—men who had come there from the colonies to the south. This, and its geographical position, made the capture of Montreal an easy matter; but Quebec was a different problem. Here Carleton gathered a small but efficient force of regulars and militia, and successfully held the town against the invading army. Montgomery was killed in the assault, Dec. 31, 1775, and in the spring of 1776 the siege was raised. The invading army hastily retreated to Montreal, and finally was driven out of the country. Index: P Joseph Papineau carries despatch to Carleton, 5. Dr Agitation worked up by American emissaries, 79-80; disaffection in Montreal, 82; seizure of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, 82; Arnold captures vessel on Lake Champlain, 83; defence of St. Johns, 84-85; martial law proclaimed, 86; militia called out, 86-88; the habitants indifferent or disaffected, 88; English-speaking[9] inhabitants of Montreal refuse to serve, 88; Guy Johnson raises Indian levies, 88; measures of defence, 90-93; Congress decides to invade Canada, 95-96; Arnold starts for the Kennebec, 96; Montgomery assumes command, 97; Allen appears before Montreal, is captured and sent to England, 98-99; Montgomery lays siege to St. Johns, 100-101; Chambly captured by the Americans, 101; Preston surrenders at St. Johns, 102; Arnold marches on Quebec, 106-111; Carleton escapes to Quebec, 112-113; organizes the defence, 114-115; progress of the siege, 118-124; Montgomery and Arnold attack the city, 124-126; death of Montgomery, 126; failure of Arnold's attack, 127-132; Franklin's mission to Montreal, 135-136; arrival of the fleet at Quebec with reinforcements, 137; Carleton attacks the Americans, 138-139; evacuation of Canada, 141-147. See also Montgomery; Arnold; Dorchester; Ethan Allen. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Stone, Invasion of Canada; Codman, Arnold's Expedition to Quebec; Lucas, History of Canada; Coffin, The Province of Quebec and the Early American Revolution; Bradley, The Making of Canada.

American Revolution. WM Traced to battle of the Plains, 205. T Loyalists in, 2-3.

Americans. Dr Settled in Canada, disloyalty of, 82, 85; disorderly retreat of, 146.

Amherst, Jeffrey, Baron (1717-1797). Sent to America, 1758, and in co-operation with Admiral Boscawen, captured Louisbourg that year. With General Prideaux and Sir W. Johnson, took Ticonderoga, 1759. Reduced Montreal the following year. Appointed commander-in-chief and governor-general in America, 1761. Raised to peerage, 1776, as Baron Amherst of Holmesdale. Index: WM In command of Louisbourg expedition, 73; commander-in-chief of forces in America, 77; operates against Montreal, 77; his slowness of movement, 97, 122; held in check by Bourlamaque, 131; compels Bourlamaque to evacuate Forts Carillon and Frederic, 146. Hd Replaces Abercromby, 21; wrecks Fort George, 22; his delay at Lake Champlain, 25; praises Haldimand's forbearance at Niagara, 27; builds a strong fort at Crown Point, 28; arrives at Oswego, 34; Montreal surrenders to, 38; takes up quarters at New York, 40; nominal governor of Canada, 41; notifies Haldimand of promotion, 42; approves scheme for smelting old guns, 47; retirement of, 53; letter from Haldimand, 82; recommends Haldimand for New York command, 83; his interest in Louis Haldimand, 88; blind to true situation in America, 103; anxious to see Haldimand on his return to England, 105-106; meets Haldimand at Sydneys, 311; entertainments given by, 324-325; Haldimand on, 326, 332; Haldimand visits, 337, 339. Dr Canada surrendered to, 2; grants religious freedom, 10. See also Louisbourg; Ticonderoga; Crown Point. Bib.: Expedition of British and Provincial Army ... against Ticonderoga and Crown Point; Samuel Waldo, Reduction of Louisbourg (Dominion Archives, 1886); Johnstone, Journal of Louisbourg, 1750-1758 (Coll. de doc. rel. à la Nouvelle France, vol. 3); Dict. of Eng. Hist.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Bradley, The Fight with France; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Amherstburg. A town on the Canadian side of the Detroit River. Index: Bk Fort, village, and naval station, 59; deputy quartermaster-general stationed at, 80; military importance of, 177, 236; garrison of, 202, 235. BL Early municipal government of, 298. Bib.: James, Early History of the Town of Amherstburg.

Amherst's Regiment. WM On British left, at Quebec, 189.[10]

Amiens, Treaty of. Signed between Great Britain and France, March 25, 1802. Brought to an end the war that had lasted since 1793. Among other provisions, the Newfoundland fisheries were restored to the same position held before the war. Index: Bk Preliminaries of peace entered into in London, and treaty signed at Amiens, 30-31. Bib.: Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions; Bowman, Preliminary Stages of the Peace of Amiens.

Amnesty Act, 1838. Mc Enables the government to extend conditional pardon in certain cases to political offenders, 474-475.

Amnesty Act, 1849. E William Lyon Mackenzie takes advantage of, 91. BL Proposed by Elgin, on behalf of Imperial government, as a measure of pardon for those implicated in the Rebellion of 1837-1838, 287; Act passed, 292. Mc Mackenzie takes advantage of, 480. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Amusements in Canada. Hd Contemporary accounts of, in 1781, 221-224.

Anadabijou. Ch Montagnais chief, makes long harangue to Champlain, 10; his relations with Champlain, 50-51.

Anahotaha. L Huron chief, joins Dollard at Long Sault, 69.

Andastes. A once-powerful tribe, who spoke a dialect of the Iroquois, but were at deadly enmity with the Five Nations, by whom, according to Parkman, they were nearly destroyed about the year 1672. Index: Ch Indian tribe of Virginia, 90; adopted into the Hurons and spoke their language, 90.

Andehoua. Ch Indian youth baptized, 233.

Anderson, Captain. Dr British officer killed at Sault au Matelot barrier, 130.

Anderson, A. Caulfield. An officer of the Hudson's Bay Company, employed for many years in the New Caledonia district, under Dr. McLoughlin. Index: D In charge at Alexandria, on the Lower Fraser, 186; explores a road from Kamloops to the Lower Fraser, 186.

Anderson, Anthony. Mc Given command of the rebels, 360; moves on Toronto, 363; takes prisoners, 364; victim of Powell's treachery, 365.

Anderson, David (1814-1885). Born in London, England. Educated at Edinburgh Academy and at Exeter College, Oxford. Vice-principal of St. Bees College, Cumberland, 1841-1847, and incumbent of All Saints', Derby, 1848-1849. Came to the Red River Settlement as bishop of Rupert's Land, 1849. Remained until 1864, when he returned to England. Subsequently vicar of Clifton and chancellor of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. Bib.: Works: Notes on the Flood; Net in the Bay. For biog. see, Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland; Machray, Life of Archbishop Machray.

Andros, Sir Edmund (1637-1713). Appointed governor of New York, 1674; governor of all the New England colonies, 1685. Recalled on account of his extreme unpopularity, 1688. Subsequently governor of Virginia, 1692-1698. Index: F Governor of New England, 263; seized and imprisoned, 266. L His offer respecting liquor traffic, 173. Bib.: Whitmore, Andros Tracts (Prince Soc., 1868-1874); Ferguson, Essays in American History.

Aneda. Ch An Indian chief, 29.

Aneda. An evergreen, used by Jacques Cartier and his men as a remedy against scurvy. Parkman suggests that it was a spruce, or, more probably, an arbor-vitæ. Douglas believes it to have been balsam. Cartier spells the name ameda, and Lescarbot, annedda. Index: Ch Remedy for scurvy, 29; the Iroquois word for spruce tree, 30.

Ange Gardien. A village on the St. Lawrence, north shore, below Quebec. Index: WM Wolfe seriously ill at, 154.

Angers, Auguste Rèal (1838- ). Born in Quebec. Studied law, and called[11] to the bar; made Q.C. 1880, and the same year appointed a puisne judge of the Superior Court of Quebec. Lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1887; resigned and called to the Senate, 1892. Minister of agriculture, 1892-1895; president of the Council, 1896. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Chapais, Angers (Men of the Day).

Old Fort, near Annapolis Royal From the John Ross Robertson collection Old Fort, near Annapolis Royal From the John Ross Robertson collection

Anglican Church. See Church of England.

Anglin, Timothy Warren (1822-1886). Born in Ireland. Came to St. John, New Brunswick, 1849. Established Weekly Freeman that year. Elected to New Brunswick Legislature for St. John, 1860. Opposed Confederation. Elected to the House of Commons, 1867, for Gloucester. Elected Speaker, 1874, and again in 1878. Index: C Demands disallowance of New Brunswick Act abolishing separate schools, 73. T Elected for St. John to New Brunswick Assembly on Anti-Confederate ticket, 85; member of Smith government, 91; his influence, 93; differences with colleagues in railway matter, 94; resigns his seat, 1865, 95; defeated for county of St. John, 1866, 109. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.

Angus, Richard Bladworth (1831- ). Born at Bathgate, near Edinburgh. Came to Canada, 1857, and joined the staff of the Bank of Montreal. Rose steadily in the service of the bank, and in 1869 became general manager. President of the Bank of Montreal, 1910; and director of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Index: Md Director of Canadian Pacific Railway syndicate, 236. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Anian, Strait of. Dr. Ruge says that the name arose through a misunderstanding of Marco Polo's book (bk. 3, ch. 5). His Ania "is no doubt the present Anam, but the Dutch cartographers thought that this land was in north-east Asia, and called the strait that was said to separate the continents the Strait of Anian." The name appears for the first time on Gerh. Mercator's famous maritime chart of 1569. Index: D History of search for, 2; De Fuca's voyage to, 9; Carver's River of Oregon, 20. Bib.: Soph. Ruge, Fretum Aniam; Dawson, Canada.

Annand, William (1808-1892). Born in Halifax County. Entered the Nova Scotia Assembly as one of the members for Halifax, 1836; financial secretary in Howe's ministry, 1860-1863. An active opponent of Confederation. Formed the first Anti-Confederate or repeal government in Nova Scotia, 1867; retired in 1874 to accept the position of immigration agent at London, where he died. Index: H Elected to represent Halifax in Nova Scotia Legislature, as Joseph Howe's colleague, 1836, 29; assumes control of Nova Scotian, 74-75; publishes Morning Chronicle, 75; advocates central non-sectarian college for Nova Scotia, 82; becomes financial secretary of province, 169; Wm. Miller brings action against for libel, 188; goes to London, 1866, as Anti-Confederate delegate, 192; becomes head of Nova Scotia government, 202; member of repeal delegation to London, 1868, 204; turns against Howe, 208, 209, 217; receives vote of thanks from Nova Scotia Legislature, 218. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Annapolis Royal. When Nicholson, with his fleet and New England troops, captured Port Royal in 1710, he changed the name to Annapolis Royal, in honour of Queen Anne. It was besieged the following year by the Acadians with their Micmac and Penobscot allies, but the New England garrison held the fort. Under treaty of Utrecht, 1713, ceded to England by France. In 1744 Paul Mascarene successfully defended the place against Du Vivier. See also Port Royal. Bib.: Calnek and Savary, History of the County of Annapolis; Nicholson, Journal of the Capture of Annapolis (N. S. Hist. Soc., vol. 1).

Anne, Saint. L Chapel dedicated to, in the church at Quebec, 84; chapels erected to, at Beaupré, 101; relic of, 102.[12]

Annexation to United States. A fitful movement, never reaching serious proportions, and generally the result of temporary or local dissatisfaction with political conditions, or of commercial depression. Goldwin Smith was for many years its prophet. Index: Md Favoured by small wing of Reform party, 23; manifesto issued by business men of Montreal, its causes, 39, 40, 95; opposition to Confederation raises hopes of American party, 118; movement in Nova Scotia, 145; movement in British Columbia, 149; Goldwin Smith, the gloomy prophet of, 293; advocated by Edward Farrer, 312-313. Mc W. L. Mackenzie not in favour of, 10. BL Manifesto of 1849, 336; Sir John Abbott on, 336; advocated by many of the Radicals of Lower Canada, 343. C Advocated by Democratic party in Quebec, 26; said by Elgin to be popular among commercial classes in 1849, 44; countenanced by Sir John Abbott and L. H. Holton, 44-45; what it would mean for Quebec, 64. B Threatened by repeal of Corn Laws in 1846, 31, 32; the Montreal Manifesto, 36-37; sentiment for, charged against Clear Grits, 42; opposition charged with, in Confederation debate, 185; Brown holds that Reciprocity scheme designed to promote, 194; charge of, denied by Canada First party, 237. E Sentiment for, in 1847, 5; Elgin on, 58; Montreal Manifesto, 80-82; advocated by the Parti Rouge, 109; Elgin's efforts to counteract movement, 189-190; Durham on, 192-193; conditions favouring movement, 194-195; repeal of Reciprocity Treaty designed to promote, 202. P Threatened in Ninety-Two Resolutions, 92-93; advocated in 1848, and since Confederation, 96; advocated by Papineau, O'Callaghan, and their friends, 97. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years; Weir, Sixty Years in Canada; Kirby, Counter Manifesto to the Annexationists of Montreal; Denison, The Struggle for Imperial Unity.

Anse des Mères. WM Frigates stationed at, 87; British vessels anchored at, 124.

Anstruther's Regiment. WM In the attack on Quebec, 135; secures Sillery road, 183; detachment keeps Bougainville's corps in check, 189.

Antell. Dr A disaffected Montrealer, 122.

Anticosti. The first mention of the island is in Cartier's narrative of his first voyage, 1534. The following year he again visited the island, which he named Isle de l'Assomption. On the origin of the present Indian name, see W. F. Ganong's note, Royal Society Trans., 1889, II, 51. Placed under jurisdiction of Newfoundland in 1763; transferred to Canada, 1774. Bib.: Huard, Labrador et Anticosti; Guay, Lettres sur l'île Anticosti; Schmitt, Monographie de l'île d'Anticosti; Lewis, Menier and his Island.

Apprenticeship, System of. L Adopted with new-comers, in New France, 78.

Archambault, Louis. C Confirms statements as to Cartier's action in connection with alleged alterations in British North America Act, 103. E Member of Seigniorial Commission, 186.

Archibald, Sir Adams George (1814-1892). Educated at Pictou Academy. Studied law; in 1838 called to the bar of Prince Edward Island; and to that of Nova Scotia in 1839. Elected to the Nova Scotia Assembly for Colchester, 1851. Attorney-general of Nova Scotia, 1860-1863. Delegate to the various Conferences leading up to Confederation. Became secretary of state for the provinces in first Dominion ministry. Lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 1870-1872; and of Nova Scotia, 1873-1883. Knighted, 1885. Index: Md. Secretary of state for provinces in first Dominion ministry, 135; succeeds MacDougall as lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, 161-162. H Becomes solicitor-general and member of Executive Council of Nova Scotia, 1856, 157; attorney-general, 1860, 169; leader of the opposition, 176; delegate to Charlotte[13]town Conference, 1864, 177; supports Confederation, 186; goes to England as delegate to complete Confederation, 189; his interview with Joseph Howe, 189; member of first Dominion ministry, 1867, 198; retires from ministry, and succeeded by Howe, 226. C First lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 130. T Delegate from Nova Scotia to Charlottetown Conference, 73; delegate to Quebec Conference, 77; secretary of state in first Dominion ministry, 129. Bib.: Expulsion of Acadians (N. S. Hist. Soc., vol. 5). For biog., see Dent, Can. Por.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Archibald, Samuel George William (1777-1846). Born in Colchester County, Nova Scotia. Studied law and practised in Nova Scotia; obtained a seat in the Legislature; became Speaker, solicitor-general, and afterwards attorney-general of the province. Chief-justice of Prince Edward Island, 1824-1828, remaining Speaker of the Nova Scotia Assembly and solicitor-general, during the whole term of his incumbency of the chief-justiceship. Index: H Contributes to The Club in Howe's Nova Scotian, 10; in House of Assembly, 18; leader of popular party, 35; becomes Speaker, 57; appointed Master of the Rolls, 74. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Archives. Provision was made by the Parliament of Canada, in 1872, for an Archives Branch, and Douglas Brymner was appointed Dominion Archivist. His first report appeared in 1873. The earlier reports were of a preliminary nature, but in 1884 the first of the important series of calendars was included in the report. Abbé Verreau made a special report on historical material in Europe bearing on Canadian history, published in 1874. A report on manuscript material in the colonial archives at Paris, by Edouard Richard, was published as a supplement to the report for 1899. Dr. Brymner died in 1902, and Arthur G. Doughty was appointed Dominion Archivist in 1904. The report for 1905, in 3 vols., represented a new departure; the publication of calendars was abandoned, and replaced by volumes containing series of documents relating to definite subjects, systematically arranged. The archives were moved into a special building in 1907. In 1910 began the issue of a series of publications, containing historical journals and other special material. Provincial archives, of a more or less distinct character, have also been established in the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Alberta. Index: Hd Quoted, 254; Haldimand collection in, 319.

Arctic Archipelago. Embraces the islands lying north of the mainland of Canada. Transferred to the Dominion by an Imperial order-in-council, Sept. 1, 1880. Bib.: Johnson, Canada's Northern Fringe.

Argall, Sir Samuel. Born in Walthamstow, England. A type of the founders of British colonial dominion. Sent, May, 1609, with a small vessel to the new settlement at Jamestown, Va., to trade and fish. The following year took out Lord Delaware to Jamestown, arriving in time to save the colony from starvation. In 1812 carried off Pocahontas to the settlement of Jamestown. Later in the year sent with a vessel of 14 guns to destroy the French settlements on the north coast, regarded as infringing on the Virginia patent. Captured Mount Desert, St. Croix, and Port Royal. On return voyage forced the commandant at New Amsterdam to recognize English suzerainty by hauling down the Dutch flag and running up the English. May, 1617, made deputy governor of Virginia. In 1620 served against the Algerine pirates under Sir Robert Mansell. Knighted in 1622. In 1625 admiral of a squadron cruising after a hostile Dunkirk fleet, and took some prizes. In October, 1625, with the futile expedition against Cadiz under Lord Wimbledon. Died, 1626.[14] Bib.: Argall's own narrative; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Calnek and Savary, History of the County of Annapolis.

Argenson, Pierre de Voyer, Vicomte d' (1626-1710). Succeeded Jean de Lauson as governor of New France, 1658. His governorship marked by personal quarrels with Laval, and a series of humiliating raids throughout the colony by the Iroquois. Recalled in 1661. Index: F Arrives as governor, 43; on Laval, 45. L His opinion of Laval, 29; hostility to Maisonneuve, 176. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Argyll, John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, ninth Duke of (1845- ). Married H. R. H. Princess Louise, 1871; succeeded to dukedom, 1900. Represented Argyllshire in Parliament, 1868-1878. Governor-general of Canada (as Marquis of Lorne), 1878-1883. Founded Royal Society of Canada, 1881. Index: Md Refers Letellier difficulty to Imperial government, 249-250. Bib.: Works: Memories of Canada and Scotland; Imperial Federation; Canadian Pictures; Passages from the Past. For biog., see Dent, Can. Por.; Who's Who; Collins, Canada under the Administration of Lord Lorne.

Arkansas River. L Reached by Jolliet and Marquette, 146.

Armistice. In War of 1812. Index: Bk Effects of, 261-263, 269, 272; termination of, 270; position of enemy strengthened during its continuance, 272.

Armour, John Douglas (1830-1903). Educated at Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto; studied law and called to the bar, 1853; made Q.C., 1867; Bencher of the Law Society, 1871. Appointed a puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench of Ontario, 1877; raised to the chief-justiceship, 1887. Chief-justice of Ontario and president of the Court of Appeal, 1890. Judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1902; in the same year represented Canada on the Alaska Boundary Commission. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.

Armstrong, Lawrence. Came to Nova Scotia as lieutenant-colonel of General Philipps's regiment. Appointed to the governor's Council, 1720. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1724; held office until 1739. Served in America for more than thirty years. Committed suicide, 1739. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Arnold, Benedict (1741-1801). A druggist at New Haven, Conn. When the War of Independence broke out, in 1775, organized an expedition against British on Lake Champlain. The same year led a body of picked men to Quebec by way of the Kennebec and Chaudière. After the unsuccessful assault on Quebec, was in several small engagements near Montreal; finally driven out of the province. Given command of Philadelphia; took offence at slights put upon him by Congress, and attempted to betray West Point to Clinton. Afterwards commanded a corps of American refugees on the British side; settled for a time in the West Indies; died in London. Index: Dr Captures and abandons Fort St. Johns, 83; his early life, 104; assigned command of expedition against Quebec, 105; constitution of his force, 106; his march through the wilderness, 107-109; assisted by the habitants, 110; crosses St. Lawrence and lands at Wolfe's Cove, 110; sends summons for surrender of Quebec, 111; retires to Pointe aux Trembles, 111; repulsed and wounded in attack on Quebec, 128; surrender of his men, 131; is transferred to Montreal, 132-135; advances to meet Foster, 142; burns château of Senneville, 143; his narrow escape, 147; in command of American ships on Lake Champlain, 155; defeated near Crown Point, 156. S Applies for grant of land in Upper Canada, 104. Hd His repulse[15] at Quebec, 112; the invasion, 127; his "Address to the People of America," 227; commissioners sent to Montreal to confer with, 276; furnishes list of rebels to Clinton, 281. See also Montgomery; Ethan Allen; American Invasion. Bib.: Arnold, Life of Benedict Arnold; Todd, The Real Benedict Arnold; Sparks, American Biography; Codman, Arnold's Expedition to Quebec; Henry, Arnold's Campaign against Quebec; Smith, Arnold's March from Cambridge to Quebec; Jones, The Campaign for the Conquest of Canada in 1776; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Arnoux. WM King's surgeon, Montcalm carried into house of, 218.

Aroostook War, 1839. W Arose out of unsettled boundary question between Maine and New Brunswick, 135. Bib.: Sprague, The North-Eastern Boundary Controversy and the Aroostook War.

Arrangement of 1830. Provided that United States vessels should have access to ports in the British West Indies, in return for a similar privilege granted to British vessels in the ports of the United States.

Arthur. Clergyman. Index: S Teaches school at Niagara, 167-168.

Arthur, Sir George (1784-1854). The last lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 1838-1841. The chief event of his tenure of office was the suppression of the Upper Canadian Rebellion. Had been successively governor of Honduras and Van Diemen's Land previous to his Canadian appointment; and on leaving Canada appointed to the governorship of Bombay. Index: Mc Governor of Upper Canada, 435; disregards clemency petitions, 435; learns of intended attack on Canada, 441; renews reward for Mackenzie's capture, 445; proposes exchange of prisoners and refugees, 463; United States refuses, 463. Bk Organizes military gathering at Queenston Heights, 313. Sy Succeeds Sir F. B. Head, 109; reactionary in his views, 109-110; his attitude towards responsible government, 125-126; cautioned by colonial secretary, 127; instructed to act in harmony with new governor-general, 144; meets him at Montreal, 153; explains his position and views, 156-161; receives governor-general at Toronto, and hands over seal of province, 197. R His efforts to repel American attacks, 117; Ryerson disappointed in, 118; proposes division of Clergy Reserves, 119. See Rebellion of 1837 (Upper Canada). Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada.

Asgill, Sir Charles (1762-1823). A lieutenant in Cornwallis's army, 1780. Taken prisoner at Yorktown, condemned to death by the Americans, to avenge death of a Revolutionary officer. Marie Antoinette having been interested in his fate, interceded, and Asgill was released. Afterwards served in the Low Countries and in Ireland. Index: Dr Chosen by lot for retaliatory hanging, 198. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Ashburton, Alexander Baring, Baron (1774-1848). Entered Parliament in 1806. Opposed measures against American commerce. President of board of trade and master of mint, 1834. Raised to peerage, 1835. Commissioner at Washington for settlement of boundary dispute, 1842. Index: BL Settles difficulties between Great Britain and the United States, 118. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Ashburton, John Dunning, First Baron (1731-1783). Index: Dr Opposes Quebec Act in House of Commons, 65. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Ashburton Treaty. Negotiated between Great Britain and the United States, 1842, Lord Ashburton acting for the former and Daniel Webster on behalf of the latter. Provided for the settlement of the international boundary between Maine and Canada. Of the territory in dispute, the United States got about seven-twelfths and Canada five-twelfths. Also provided for the determination[16] of the boundary in the St. Mary River and thence to the Lake of the Woods; for the free navigation of the St. John River; for the suppression of the slave trade, and for the extradition of criminals. Index: Sy Sydenham takes part in negotiations leading to, 336. W Boundary question settled by, 135. T Settlement of, checks projected railway from St. Andrews to Quebec, 53. BL Settlement of, 118. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years; Winsor, Narrative and Critical History, Vol. vii; White, The Ashburton Treaty, in Univ. Mag., October, 1907; The Ashburton Treaty: an Afterword, in Univ. Mag., December, 1908; Houston, Canadian Constitutional Documents; Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions.

Assembly. See House of Assembly.

Assiniboia. One of the provisional districts carved out of the North-West Territories, in 1882. Now included in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, principally in the latter.

Assiniboine Indians. A tribe of the Siouan family; first mentioned in the Jesuit Relation of 1640. They separated from the parent stock early in the seventeenth century, and moved north and north-west to the region about Lake Winnipeg. Later they spread over the country west of Lake Winnipeg, to the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains. Their population was estimated at 8000 in 1829. One-half this number perished in the smallpox epidemic of 1836. They are now settled on reservations in Alberta, and in Montana. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Assiniboine River. Discovered by La Vérendrye in 1736. Fort Rouge was built at the mouth of the river in that year, as well as Fort La Reine, near the present city of Portage la Prairie. From the latter fort, two years later, La Vérendrye set forth on his memorable journey to the Mandan Indians on the Missouri. Before the close of the century, both the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company had trading establishments at various points on the river. First named Rivière St. Charles; afterwards Rivière des Assiliboilles, and Stone Indian River; finally settling in present form. Bib.: Bryce, Assiniboine River and its Forts (R. S. C., 1892); Dawson, Canada and Newfoundland; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Hind, Canadian Red River and Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Expeditions.

Association of Canadian Refugees. Mc Formed in 1839, 448; object of, independence of Canada, 449; ended further expeditions against Canada, 449.

Astor, John Jacob (1763-1848). Founder of Astor Fur Company. Index: Bk Sends news of declaration of war in 1812, 204. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Astor Fur Company. Index: D Founds Astoria, 64. See also Pacific Fur Company.

Astoria. Established by Pacific Fur Company, 1811. Turned over to the North West Company, 1813, and renamed Fort George. The scene of Washington Irving's delightful narrative Astoria. The fort stood on the banks of the Columbia River, near its mouth. Index: D Acquired by North West Company, 71, 149; in possession of United States after War of 1812, 133-134; claimed by United States, 150; American flag raised over, 150. Bib.: Franchère, Voyage to the North-West Coast of America; Cox, Adventures on the Columbia River; Ross, Adventures of First Settlers on Columbia River; Henry-Thompson Journals, ed. by Coues; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Bradbury, Travels in the Interior of America in the Years 1809, 1810, and 1811.

Astorians. Name applied to members of the two expeditions fitted out by John Jacob Astor, to found trading establishment at the mouth of the Columbia.[17] One party sailed around the Horn in the Tonquin; the other went overland by way of the Missouri and the Columbia. Index: D Their influence upon development of Pacific coast, 4; their first vessel, the Tonquin, captured by natives and the crew murdered, 1811, 37; the overland expedition, 71. See also Pacific Fur Company; Tonquin.

Atahualpa. D Vessel, attacked by Milbank Sound savages, 1805, 37.

Atalanta. Hd Vessel in which Haldimand embarked for England, 309.

Atalante. WM French frigate, loads stores at Sorel, 243.

Athabaska. One of the provisional districts formed out of the North-West Territories in 1882; area about 122,000 square miles. Now divided between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, forming the northern half of each.

Athabaska Lake. First discovered by Peter Pond, about 1778. Ten years later the first trading post on the lake was built by Roderick McKenzie of the North West Company, and named Fort Chipewyan. It was afterwards moved to the north side of the lake. Index: Frobisher's men penetrate to, 5; importance of in fur trade, 21, 24; called Lake of the Hills, 24.

Athabaska Pass. Discovered by David Thompson of the North West Company, in January, 1811. The pass was used thereafter by the traders as a route from the Athabaska to the Columbia. Index: D Discovered by David Thompson, 58.

Athabaska River. Rises in the watershed range of the Rocky Mountains, close to the head waters of the north branch of the North Saskatchewan, and after a course of 765 miles empties into Athabaska Lake. Discovered by Peter Pond in 1778. Index: MS Pond builds post on, 21; named also Elk River and Rivière à la Biche, 21.

Atkins, D. A. S Opens school at Napanee, 167.

Attignaouantans. Ch Huron tribe (the Bears), 88, 91.

Attigninonghacs. Ch Huron tribe devoted to the French, 92.

Aube-Rivière, François Louis de Pourroy de l'. Appointed bishop of Quebec, Aug. 16, 1739. Arrived at Quebec, Aug. 12, 1740, and died of fever on the 20th of the same month. Index: L Bishop of Quebec, 12.

Aubère, Father Joseph. Ch Jesuit missionary, his labours in Acadia, 236.

Aubert, Joseph. Ch Director of the Company of New France, 170.

Aubert de Gaspé, Philippe (1786-1871). French-Canadian writer. Index: L His description of Canadians, 118. Bib.: Works: Les Anciens Canadiens, translated into English by Mrs. Pennie, and by C. G. D. Roberts; Mémoires. For biog., see Casgrain, Biographies Canadiennes; Roy, Étude sur "Les Anciens Canadiens" (R. S. C., 1906).

Aubert de la Chesnaye, Charles (1630-1702). Born at Amiens. Came to Canada, 1655. Chief clerk of the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales, 1665. Engaged in the fur-trade at Cataraqui, 1674. In 1677 obtained a grant of Ile Dupas. In 1679 made a visit to Paris, and in 1683 back again at Cataraqui. In 1696 prepared an important memoir on the commerce of the colony. Index: L His description of Canadians, 117-118; his liberality on occasion of Quebec fire, 186. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime.

Aubert de la Chesnaye, Jacques. F Trader, La Barre's dealings with, 175.

Aubry. WM Force gathered by, and Ligneris, dispersed, 146.

Aubry. Ch Priest of De Monts's expedition, at Ste. Croix, 25.

Auckland, George Eden, Earl of (1784-4849). Index: Sy President of board of trade, when Poulett Thomson was vice-president, 26.

Auguste. Hd Transport ship wrecked in St. Lawrence, 40.[18]

Aulneau, Jean-Pierre. Jesuit missionary, with La Vérendrye in his western explorations. Murdered by Sioux on an island in the Lake of the Woods, May, 1736.

Aumont, Maréchal d'. Ch Champlain serves under, 1.

Austerlitz. Bk Battle of, its significance, 72-73.

Auteuil, Denis Joseph Ruette d'. See Ruette d'Auteuil.

Avaugour, Pierre Dubois, Baron d'. Governor of New France, 1661-1663, succeeding D'Argenson. Index: F Governor, 45; disagrees with clergy on liquor question, 46; describes earthquake, 46. L His attitude on liquor question, 10, 38; recalled, 39; his report on Canada, 40. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime.

Aylesworth, Sir Allen Bristol (1854- ). Born in Newburgh, Ontario. Educated at Newburgh High School and at the University of Toronto; studied law and called to the bar of Ontario, 1878; practised his profession in Toronto; appointed one of the British Commissioners in connection with the settlement of the Alaska boundary, 1903; elected to the House of Commons, 1905; postmaster-general, 1905; minister of justice, 1906; British agent in connection with the Fisheries case before the Hague Tribunal, 1910. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.

Aylmer, Matthew Whitworth, Baron (1775-1850). Entered the army, 1787; served in the West Indies, in Holland, and in the Peninsula under Wellington. Reached the full rank of general, 1825, and in 1830 became the governor-general of Canada; returned to England, 1835. Index: Bk Present with Brock at battle of Egmont-op-Zee, 17. BL Pays official salaries from the war chest, 21. P His influence did not extend beyond Quebec—hostility towards French-Canadians, 39-40; his conciliatory attitude, 75-76; at open war with the Assembly, 77-78; remonstrates with Assembly, 86; refuses to interfere in factional strife in Montreal, 87; held responsible by Papineau and his friends for cholera epidemic, 88-89; bitterly attacked in the Ninety-Two Resolutions, 95; attacked by Papineau, 100, 105; criticizes the Ninety-Two Resolutions, 106. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Aylwin, Thomas Cushing (1806-1871). Born in Quebec city. Studied law and called to the bar, 1828. First entered public life, 1841, as member for Portneuf. After filling the office of solicitor-general in two administrations, raised to the bench, 1848. Index: Sy Opposed to union of provinces, 235. BL Member for Portneuf, his relations with Reform party in Upper Canada, 79; supports Cuvillier for speakership, 1841, 87; his attitude as to debt for public works, 99; denounces government, 130; becomes solicitor-general for Lower Canada, 134; elected for Quebec, 1844, 252; his bitter attack on Metcalfe on his elevation to peerage, 257; solicitor-general, 284. E One of opposition leaders in 1847, 45; returned in 1847 elections, 50; solicitor-general for Lower Canada in La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 53; member of Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years.

Babbitt, Samuel. T Master of Madras School, Gagetown, New Brunswick, 5; also clerk of the parish, 5.

Baby, James (1762-1833). Born at Detroit. Educated at Quebec Seminary, and in 1784 travelled in Europe. On his return the following year engaged in the fur trade at Detroit. On the formation of the province of Upper Canada in 1791, appointed a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils. Simcoe made him lieutenant for the county of Kent and judge of the Court of Common Pleas. Commanded the 1st Regiment of Kent militia in the War of 1812. In 1815 succeeded McGill as inspector-general of accounts for Upper[19] Canada. Index: Bk His house occupied by General Hull, 209, 229. S Member of Legislative and Executive Councils, 79. Bib.: Daniel, Nos Gloires Nationales; Morgan, Cel. Can.

Baby, Louis François Georges (1834-1906). Born in Montreal. Studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1857; made a Q.C., 1873. Represented Joliette in Dominion House, 1872-1880; minister of inland revenue, 1878-1880. Appointed puisne judge of Superior Court of Quebec, 1880; transferred to Queen's Bench, 1881. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men.

Back, Sir George (1796-1878). Entered the navy as midshipman in 1808; accompanied Franklin on his Arctic expeditions of 1818, 1819-1822, and 1824-1827. Promoted lieutenant, 1822, and commander, 1827. In 1833-1835, led an expedition through what is now northern Canada, to the shores of the Arctic, to ascertain the fate of Captain Ross. The expedition resulted in the exploration of Great Fish River, which was renamed Back River in honour of the explorer. In 1836 explored the Arctic coast, between Regent Inlet and Cape Turnagain. Twice granted the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society; knighted, 1839; promoted admiral, 1857. Bib.: Works: Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition; Narrative of Expedition in H.M.S. Terror. For biog., see Dict. Nat. Biog.

Badeaux. Dr His account of American invasion, 89.

Badgley, William (1801-1888). Born in Montreal. Studied law and called to the bar, 1823. Member of the Legislative Assembly, 1847-1855; member of the Executive Council for Lower Canada, 1847-1848; appointed attorney-general. Judge of the Superior Court of Lower Canada, 1855-1863; assistant judge of the Court of Queen's Bench for Quebec, 1863-1864; puisne judge of the same Court, 1866-1874. Index: E Made a judge of the Seigniorial Court, 187. S Member of Constitutional Association, 112. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Badin, Father. L Companion of Father Marquette, 62.

Bagot, Sir Charles (1781-1843). Born in England. Educated at Rugby and Oxford; entered Parliament, 1807, becoming under-secretary for foreign affairs. Minister plenipotentiary to France, 1814; and to the United States, 1815-1820. Privy councillor, 1815; ambassador to St. Petersburg, 1820; and to the Hague, 1824. Governor-general of Canada, 1841-1843. Died in Kingston soon after retiring from office. Index: Sy Follows Canadian line of policy, 351; finds country tranquil, 355. BL His letter to Lord Stanley on La Fontaine's arrest, 49; succeeds Sydenham, 113; a Tory of the old school, 113; previous career, 113; his policy, 113-114; studies political conditions, 114-115; his popularity in Lower Canada, 115; plans a coalition government, 117; his speech from the throne, 122; anxious to bring Baldwin and La Fontaine into Cabinet, 121; his letter to La Fontaine, 122-124; denounced by Tory press, 140-142; difficulties of his position, 141; his illness, 149; subjected to bitter attacks and censure, 149-152; asks for and obtains his recall, 152; his death, May 19, 1843, 152; denounced even in death, 153; on responsible government, 162, 163, 164; Kaye on, 171; lays corner-stone of King's College, 193. E His political attitude as governor, 30; friendly towards French-Canadians, 30-31. R Supported by Ryerson, 122; favourable attitude towards popular government, 126; question of popular education, 163. B Relations of Peel government with, xii; friendly attitude towards French-Canadians, 16; attacked by Tories for bringing La Fontaine and Baldwin into Cabinet, 16; his action denounced by Peel and Duke of Wellington, 17, 18; recalled at his own request, 18; his death, 18. C Concedes responsible government, 17. Md Succeeds Sydenham, 17; brings[20] Reform leaders into Cabinet, 18; resigns government, 18. Bib.: Richardson, Eight Years in Canada; Kingsford, History of Canada, Dent, Last Forty Years and Can. Por.; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Bagot, Father. L Director of Jesuit college of La Fléche, 20.

Baie de Chaleur. In west coast of Gulf of St. Lawrence, on boundary between Quebec and New Brunswick. Discovered by Jacques Cartier in 1534, described in his narrative, and so named because he found it as warm there as in sunny Spain.

Baie St. Paul. A village in Charlevoix County, sixty miles below Quebec. Index: WM Settlements near burnt by Wolfe's orders, 150.

Bailiffs. Dr Accused of instigating litigation, 53.

Baillie, Thomas. W Commissioner of crown lands for New Brunswick, 1824-1851, 21; his income exceeded that of the lieutenant-governor, 21; his enormous pension, 22; protests against reduction of his salary, 62; surveyor-general, retires, 69; elected to Assembly for York, 103; retires from government and pensioned, 116.

Bailly, Mgr. Dr Coadjutor bishop of Quebec, on education in Canada, 229.

Bailly, François. L Master mason of Montreal church, 88.

Bain, James (1842-1908). Born in London, England. Came to Canada with his parents at early age; educated at the Toronto Academy and the Toronto Grammar School. Spent some years in London engaged in the publishing business. Returned to Canada, 1882; appointed chief librarian of Toronto Public Library, 1883. Index: Bk Discovers list of Brock's books, 135. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.

Baldoon. A settlement near Lake St. Clair in Upper Canada, made by Lord Selkirk, 1803, and named after one of his own estates. Index: MS Highland colonists in Prince Edward Island settled at, 133; Alexander Macdonell in charge of, 133.

Baldoon Street. Built by Selkirk settlers, from Baldoon to Chatham on the River Thames. Index: MS Connected Baldoon and Chatham, 33.

Baldwin, C. T. Born in Ireland. Entered the army; served throughout the Peninsular War; afterwards in the West Indies; for a time in the service of the emperor of Brazil. Emigrated to Canada. Served during the Rebellion of 1837-1838, in command of a regiment of militia. A magistrate, and in political life a follower of Robert Baldwin. Died, 1861. Index: B Presents address to Elgin, 36. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Baldwin, Robert (1804-1858). Index: BL Name associated with responsible government, ix; a "man of one idea," ix; his ancestry, 23; born, May 12, 1804, at York, 25; early years, 25; studies law, 25; called to the bar, 1825, 26; political views, 27; in public life, 28; drafts Willis petition, 29; enters the Legislature, 31; defeated in next election, 31; his marriage, 32; appointed to Council by Head, 38; recommended by Colborne for a seat in Legislative Council, 38-39; death of his wife, 39; his letter to Peter Perry, 39; disapproves of an elective Legislative Council, 40; resigns from Council, 41; sails for England, 42; his connection with Rebellion of 1837, 44-45; enters into correspondence with La Fontaine and other Lower Canada leaders, 63; offered by Sydenham solicitor-generalship of Upper Canada, and accepts, 63; made an executive councillor, 64; resigns office, 64; his action condemned, 64; his motives, 64-67; elected in two constituencies, 69; solicitor-general for Upper Canada, 76; his views, 76-77; his letter to Sydenham on personnel of new Cabinet, 78-79; calls meeting of Reform party, 79; commends reconstruction of ministry, 79-[21]80; his resignation, 80; censured by Poulett Scrope, 80; his uncompromising attitude in matter of responsible government, 81; his attitude in the Legislature, 85; his speech on responsible government, 1841, 92-94; supports Neilson's motion against Union Act, 96; sides with French-Canadians on question of public works, 99; opposes Municipal Government Bill, 102; his relations with Hincks, 103; his resolutions on responsible government, 108-110; proposes candidature of La Fontaine in York County, 116; Bagot anxious to bring him into the Cabinet, 121; referred to in Draper's speech, 127; replies to Draper, 128-130; withdraws amendment, 132; becomes attorney-general for Upper Canada, 134; his defeat in Hastings—account of the election, 134-136; beaten in York, 136; elected for Rimouski, 137; attitude of Tories, 139; significance of his alliance with La Fontaine, 142-143; personal appearance, 148; references to in petition to governor, 166, 167; Kaye's description of, 169, 170-171; Davies on, 172; his part in the Assembly, 178-179; moves resolution to remove capital to Montreal, 182; his speech, 183; his bill for the discouragement of secret societies, 185-188; burnt in effigy at Toronto, 187; his University of Toronto Bill, 190-197; resigns office, 199; his interview with Metcalfe, 201; the official statements of La Fontaine and Metcalfe, giving their respective versions of the causes of the ministers' resignation, 201-209; presents to Assembly the reasons for his resignation, 213-214; returns to practise law in Toronto, 217; Wakefield on, 219; heads the agitation against Metcalfe in Upper Canada, 220; guest of honour at Toronto banquet, 220-221; his speech, 221; address before Reform Association, 221-223; speaks at public meetings, 225; address from his constituents of Rimouski, 225; tours Lower Canada, 226; his political views, 229-230; Viger's criticism of, 236; Draper on, 236; his speech in Toronto, May, 1844, 238; attacked by Buchanan, 239-240; criticized by Ryerson, 242, 243, 245-246; resigns as Queen's Counsel, 250; elected in York, 252; his University Bill, 256; moves vote of censure against the governor-general, 256; attacks Metcalfe in the Assembly, 257; referred to in Caron's letter, 260; correspondence with La Fontaine as to Draper's proposals, 261, 262, 263-265; his speech at public dinner given him in November, 1846, 268-269; his tour of Western Canada, 269; on responsible government, 273; moves amendment to address, 277; aids in foundation of Emigration Association, 278; elected in York, 279; in second La Fontaine-Baldwin administration, 281-284; proposes Morin for Speaker, 283; interview with Elgin, 285; re-elected, 286; his Municipal Corporations Act and University Act, 292-300; revision of judicial system in Upper Canada, 300-301; his part in Rebellion Losses Bill, 310, 311-312; burned in effigy in Toronto, 318-319; his boarding house in Montreal attacked by the mob, 324; petitions for removal of Navigation Act, 337; his political views, 339-340; his relations with George Brown, 342; his attitude on secularization of Clergy Reserves, 348-349; his resignation, 352-353; MacNab's tribute, 353; defeated in York and retires finally from public life, 357; lives in retirement at "Spadina," 357; made a C.B., 357; offered chief-justiceship of Common Pleas, 357; and nomination for seat in Legislative Council, 358; failing health compels him to decline both offers, 358; his death, Dec. 9, 1858, 358; value of his public work, 359-360. Sy His premature demand for strict party government, 187; consulted by Sydenham in regard to Clergy Reserves question, 247; made solicitor-general, 252; appointed to same office under Union, 283; advises Sydenham as to choice of returning officers and polling places, 290; his defection from Sydenham's government, 294, 296; opposes some of the most beneficial measures of government, 296; loses for a time sympathy of Reformers, 299, 307; Sydenham's remarks upon his[22] manœuvres, 305-307; opposes Sydenham's Bill for local self-government in Upper Canada, 323. R Resigns, 122; forms party with Hincks, La Fontaine, and others, 122; moves resolutions on responsible government, 122-123; in the Metcalfe controversy, 126, 128; his scheme for a provincial university, 149-152; his resignation, 152; his University Bill of 1849, 157-159, 160; secures disallowance of School Bill of 1849, 182. E On responsible government, 28; his political attitude, 30; forms ministry with La Fontaine in 1842, 31; his greatest desire the success of responsible government, 32; his conflict with Metcalfe, 34; in opposition, 45; returned in elections of 1847, 50; on parliamentary government, 51; sent for by Elgin, 52; attorney-general for Upper Canada, 53; remains in office until 1851, 85; sound views on parliamentary practice, 90; his capacity for discreet, practical statesmanship, 93; carries measure for creation of University of Toronto, 93, 94; views on Clergy Reserves, 102-103, 160, 162-163, 164; his resignation and its causes, 103-104, 112; his retirement from politics, 104, 107; and death, 1858, 104, 220; his strong views on Imperial connection, 229-230; his value as a statesman, 236. P Alliance with La Fontaine, 168. C Forms alliance with La Fontaine, 16; called to Council by Bagot, 16; resigns, 17; called to power again, 1846, 18; "great reformer and good man," 97; his influence with La Fontaine's against racial antagonisms, 97; with La Fontaine, 99; wins constitutional battle, 100; circumstances which led to his retirement from politics, 132. B Called to Cabinet by Bagot, 16; dispute with Metcalfe, 19; "father of responsible government," 21; criticized by Ryerson, 22-23; his views obnoxious to Metcalfe, 23; his wise leadership of Reformers, 24; forms administration with La Fontaine, 33; burnt in effigy at Toronto, 36; legislation of his ministry, 39; government defended by George Brown, 42; his retirement, 44, 47, 48; approves of MacNab-Morin coalition, 78; leader of movement for responsible government, 261; disintegration of old Reform party hastened by his retirement, 262. Md Brought into Cabinet by Sir Charles Bagot, 18; resigns, 1843, 18; criticized by extremists in his own party, 22; resigns from La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 46; approves coalition of 1854, 64; cause of his resignation, 78-79. Mc Defends Judge Willis, 133; supported by Mackenzie, 159; elected to the Assembly, 159; on banks in politics, 170; appointed executive councillor, 294; resigns, 294; goes to England, 305; opposed by Head, 305; accompanies flag of truce, 368; retires from Executive Council, 408; Mackenzie defeats government of, 492. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Davin, The Irishman in Canada; Baldwin, Correspondence (Toronto Public Library Mss.).

Baldwin, William Warren. Born in Ireland. Came to Canada 1798, and finally settled in York, now known as Toronto. Represented Norfolk in the Legislature of Upper Canada. Died 1844. Index: BL Comes to Canada 1798, 23; practises medicine at York, 24; opens a classical school, 24, 106; practises law, 25; his marriage, 25; father of Robert Baldwin, 25; purchases "Spadina," 26; political views, 26-27; chairman of public meeting in Willis affair, 28; president of Constitutional Reform Society, 42; member of Legislative Council, 177. Mc Upholds Judge Willis, 132; protests against his removal, 133. Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Scadding, Toronto of Old.

Baldwin Reformer. B Origin of the name, 78.

Ball. Dr The maiden name of Dorchester's mother, 29.

Ball. F First given in Canada, 59. See also Amusements.

Ballot. Sy Sydenham an early advocate of, 18.[23]

Bancroft, George (1800-1891). Educated at Harvard University, Cambridge, and in Germany. Secretary of the navy, 1845; ambassador to Great Britain, 1846-1849; and in 1867-1874 minister at the court of Berlin. Index: L On La Salle, 153. Ch On the difficulties encountered by missionaries, 87. Bib.: History of the United States. For biog., see Howe, Life and Letters of George Bancroft; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Bank of Upper Canada. Established 1823 with a capital of $41,364, which had increased in 1859 to $3,126,250. Its headquarters were in Toronto. After a long, prosperous career the bank stopped payment in 1866, the chief cause being the collapse in real estate in Canada West in 1857-1858. Index: Mc Increase of capital vetoed, 215; run on, 340. Bib.: See Banking.

Banking. The first bank established in Canada was the Bank of Montreal, which dates from the year 1817. The Bank of Quebec was established in 1818; and the Bank of Canada the same year. All three were chartered in 1822. A Banking Act was passed in 1841, providing a uniform system of banking. The Act of 1850 prohibited banks other than those incorporated by Parliament or royal charter from issuing notes. It also provided for a deposit with the government to be held as a guarantee; also for bank statistics. Further provisions designed to place banking on a more secure footing were incorporated in the Act of 1871. Further banking legislation was passed in 1881 and in 1890. Index: Sy Sydenham's plans for establishment of bank of issue, 327-329; idea partially adopted by Sir F. Hincks, as finance minister of Dominion, 330. Mc Report of House on system of, 161. Bib.: Johnson, First Things in Canada; Shortt, Early History of Canadian Banking; Breckenridge, Canadian Banking System; Hague, Banking and Commerce; Historical Sketch of Canadian Banking, in Canada: An Ency., vol. 1; History of the Bank of Nova Scotia; McLachlan, The Nova Scotia Treasury Notes; Walker, History of Banking in Canada.

Banner. Newspaper, published at Toronto. Index: B Founded in 1843 by Peter and George Brown, 3, 5; champions government by the people, 5; on disruption of Scottish Church, 6; controversy with the Church, 6-7; defines its political principles, 9; becomes the Globe, 10; Peter Brown writes for, 243.

Baptist Church. Like several other religious denominations in Canada, it had its origin in Nova Scotia. Some Baptists were living in Lunenburg as early as 1753. In 1800 the first Baptist Association was formed at Granville, Nova Scotia, and by 1850 there were Baptist Associations in many parts of the province. In 1828 the Nova Scotia Baptist Educational Society was established. The first church was built in Montreal, 1830; and in 1834 the Baptist Seminary of New Brunswick was founded at Fredericton. In 1852 the Baptist Missionary Society of Canada was established. Since then the Baptists have grown rapidly in all the provinces, and several Baptist colleges and institutions have been established, notably Acadia and McMaster Universities (q.v.). The Baptist Church was organized in British Columbia in 1877. Index: W First founded in Fredericton, 1813, 10; represented by one member in Legislative Council, 69. Bib.: Wells, History of the Baptist Denomination in Canada, in Canada: An Ency., vol. 3; Hill, Forty Years with the Baptist Ministers and Churches of the Maritime Provinces of Canada.

Baranof, Alexander Andrevitch (1747-1819). Governor of Russian America. Had been manager of a glass factory at Irkutsk, Siberia; grew tired of the monotonous though profitable business, and engaged in the fur trade of eastern Siberia. Appointed governor of the principal Russian trading company in[24] America, 1790. Nine years later, the different companies were united, and Baranof moved his headquarters from Kadiak to New Archangel (Sitka), where he built a strong fort, with a shipyard, foundry, churches, and hospitals. Even a library and picture-gallery were afterwards added to this little outpost of Russian civilization. In 1818 sailed for home, and died at sea on the voyage. Index: D His rule at Sitka, 44; his character, 44; his death, 1819, 45, Bib.: Laut, Vikings of the Pacific.

Barbarie, A. W Referred to in Wilmot's speech, 104. T Represents Restigouche in New Brunswick Assembly, 18.

Barclay, Robert H. Born in Scotland. Took part in the battle of Trafalgar. Sent to Canada, and commander of British naval force on Lake Erie in 1813. On Sept. 10, 1813, defeated by the American fleet under Perry. Subsequently court-martialled, but acquitted. Died, 1837. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog. See also War of 1812.

Barclay, Thomas (1753-1830). Born in New York. In 1775 served in the British army during the American Revolution, and in 1777 became major. At the end of the war moved to Nova Scotia; entered the House of Assembly, and for some time Speaker. Appointed adjutant-general of militia; served as a commissioner under Jay's Treaty; appointed consul-general at New York for the Northern and Eastern states. Index: Bk Declares war to be inevitable, 202. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Barker, T. B. T Founder of business firm of St. John, 8.

Barkley, Charles William (1759-1832). Served in the East India Company; sailed on a trading voyage for sea-otter skins to the North-West Coast, 1787. Brought his bride with him, the first white woman on the North-West Coast. Discovered and named Juan de Fuca Strait the same year, and carried his cargo of furs to China. In 1792 made another voyage to the North-West Coast, again accompanied by his wife, who kept interesting journals of both voyages. Died at North Crescent, Hartford. Barkley Sound, Vancouver Island, discovered and named by him. Index: D His two voyages to North-West Coast, 23; his wife first woman to visit North-West Coast, 23. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.

Barnsfare, Captain. Dr Commands battery at Près de Ville, 127.

Baronets of Nova Scotia. An order created by James I, in 1625, for the purpose of "advancing the plantation of Nova Scotia." The scheme, which King James had deeply at heart, was designed to assist Sir William Alexander in his ambitious plans of colonization in the New World, by offering a special inducement to men of position in Scotland to take tracts of land in Nova Scotia, and to bring out numbers of colonists to settle upon them. See also Stirling. Bib.: Duncan, Royal Province of New Scotland and her Baronets; Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia; Patterson, Sir William Alexander (R. S. C., 1892); Mackenzie, Baronets of Nova Scotia (R. S. C., 1901); Royal Letters, Charters, and Tracts Relating to the Colonisation of Nova Scotia and the Institution of the Order of Knights Baronet of Nova Scotia; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Barré, Isaac (1726-1802). Born in Ireland. Served under Wolfe against Rochefort in 1757, and at Quebec in 1759, being at Wolfe's side when he fell. Entered Parliament, 1761, and a member until 1790. In 1763-1764 adjutant-general and governor of Stirling; in 1764-1768, vice-treasurer of Ireland and a privy councillor; in 1782, treasurer of the navy. Index: Dr On Quebec Act, 67. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Barren Grounds. The region of northern Canada, lying between the Mac[25]kenzie River and Hudson Bay, and from the northern timber-line to the Arctic. First visited by Samuel Hearne in 1770-1772. Late explorers who traversed portions of the country are Franklin, in 1821; Back, in 1833; Dease and Simpson, in 1839; Richardson in 1848; and Anderson in 1855. Within more recent years, Warburton Pike, J. B. Tyrrell, J. W. Tyrrell, D. T. Hanbury and Caspar Whitney have explored parts of the Barren Grounds. Bib.: Hearne, Journey to the Northern Ocean; Franklin, Narrative; Back, Arctic Land Expedition; Simpson, North Coasts of America; Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition; Anderson, Descent of Great Fish River, in Royal Geog. Soc. Journal, 1856 and 1857; Pike, Barren Grounds; Tyrrell, Across the Sub-Arctics; Hanbury, Northland of Canada; Whitney, On Snowshoes to the Barren Grounds.

Barrington, William Wildman, second Viscount (1717-1793). Entered Parliament, 1740. Lord commissioner of Admiralty, 1746; a privy councillor, 1755; chancellor of the exchequer, 1761; treasurer of the navy, 1762; secretary of war, 1765-1768; joint postmaster-general, 1782. Index: Hd Informs Haldimand he owes promotion to the king, 83; summary sent him of Haldimand's expenses, 107; compliments Haldimand, 113; promises Haldimand pay as inspector-general, 329. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Barron, Commodore (1769-1851). Born in Virginia. In command of the Chesapeake, on board which were some British deserters, 1807. On the refusal of Barron to give them up, the British frigate Leopard attacked and compelled his surrender. Court-martialled and suspended from rank and pay for five years. Fought and killed Commodore Decatur in a duel, 1820. Became senior officer of the navy, 1839. Index: Bk Enlists deserters from British ships on board Chesapeake, 83, 85. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Correspondence between the late Commodore Stephen Decatur and Commodore James Barron.

Barter. L Practised in colony in early days, 122.

Barthe, J. G. Member for Yamaska in Canadian Assembly, 1841-1844. Index: BL Takes part in Rebellion of 1837; afterwards edits L'Avenir du Canada; member for Yamaska; offered and refuses seat in Cabinet, 236.

Basques. A pre-Aryan race, occupying the border-land between France and Spain. Assertions have repeatedly been made that they made voyages to America, and discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence, before Cartier, and even before Cabot, but these have never been substantiated. All the evidence goes to show that they frequented the Newfoundland fisheries in the sixteenth century, but not earlier. Index: Ch Contraband traders, 140; threaten French on St. Pierre Island, 174. Bib.: Dawson, The St. Lawrence Basin; Reade, The Basques in North America (R.S.C., 1888); Howley, Old Basque Tombstones at Placentia.

Bathurst, Henry, third Earl (1762-1834). Succeeded to the title, 1794. Entered Parliament, 1793; president of the board of trade, 1807; foreign secretary, 1809; and secretary for war and the colonies, 1812. Directed Britain's colonial policy during the important administrations of Prévost, Sherbrooke, and Dalhousie, in Lower Canada, and of Gore and Maitland, in Upper Canada. Lord president of the Council, 1828-1830; one of the original members of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, 1833. Index: Sy Colonial secretary, his despatch on Clergy Reserves question, 240. Bk His despatch praising Brock and his officers and announcing bestowal of K. C. B. on Brock, 296. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Courts and Cabinets of George IV.

Batiscan. Ch Montagnais chief, 68.

Batoche. Md Storming of rebel camps at, 242. See also Riel Rebellion, 1885.[26]

Battle of the Plains. See Quebec, Siege of, 1759.

Battleford. A town on the North Saskatchewan, at the mouth of the Battle River. In the Rebellion of 1885, it was threatened by Poundmaker's warriors, and relieved by Otter's column. The battle of Cut Knife Creek was fought about thirty-five miles from Battleford. See also Riel Rebellion, 1885.

Bay of Quinte. See Quinte, Bay of.

Bayfield, Henry Wolsey (1795-1885). Born in Hull, England. Entered the navy, 1806. Had a distinguished career in the navy, and served in Canadian waters, 1814. Subsequently assisted in the survey of the upper St. Lawrence, and appointed Admiralty surveyor, 1817. During his tenure of office surveyed Lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior, with their connecting waters, and almost the whole eastern coast of Canada, including Labrador. Made vice-admiral, 1856, and admiral, 1867. Resided for fourteen years in Quebec, when he removed to Charlottetown. Received the thanks of the Parliament of Canada for his services, 1854. Died in Charlottetown.

Baynes, Edward. Born in England. Served in the West Indies, at the Cape, in the East Indies, and in Malta. From 1794 to 1806 aide-de-camp to Sir James Craig, and in 1807 adjutant-general of the forces in Canada. In the War of 1812 served on the Niagara frontier. Died, 1829. Index: Bk Adjutant-general, writes Brock from Quebec, 134, 136, 137, 138, 145; his opinion of the Lower Canada Assembly, 145; notifies Brock that he may have service in Spain, 180; letter to Brock in immediate expectation of war, 205; letter on declaration of war, 208; on improvement in militia, 284. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Beaconsfield, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of (1805-1881). British statesman. Index: BL On Rebellion Losses Bill, 327, 328, 330. Bib.: Speeches and Letters; O'Connor, Life of Beaconsfield; Monypenny, The Life of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Bayning, Charles Townshend, first Baron (1728-1810). Dr His criticism of Quebec Act, 66, 67. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Bayonne Decree. Bk Made by Napoleon; sequestered all American vessels arriving in France as British property or under British protection, 122.

Bearn Regiment. Established 1595, and served with distinction in a number of European campaigns. Landed at Quebec, June, 1755, with the regiment of Guienne and a portion of the Languedoc battalion, and added to its laurels at Fort Frontenac, Niagara, Oswego, Carillon, Fort William Henry, and Ticonderoga. In 1759, on the Plains of Abraham, it occupied the place of honour, having been placed by Montcalm in the centre of his line. Index: WM Regular French troops, 29; in battle of the Plains, 192; in battle of Ste. Foy, 258. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada.

Beauchesne. Ch Clerk, received gifts from Indians, 115.

Beaucour, de. F Brave conduct of, in command of party against Iroquois, 319; superintends improvements in fortifications of Quebec, 326.

Beaudoncourt, Jacques de. L On the brandy question, 39; his account of escape of Gannentaha mission, 66.

Beauharnois, Charles, Marquis de (1670-1749). Entered French navy, 1686, and rose to the rank of admiral in 1748. In 1726 appointed governor of New France, which position he held until 1747. Took a deep interest in Western exploration, and was a firm friend of La Vérendrye. Bib.: Parkman, Half Century of Conflict; Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903).

Beauharnois, François de (1665-1746). Born in France. Became intendant[27] of New France in 1702 and held the position until 1705. In 1707 granted the barony of Beauville. Appointed intendant de l'armée navale, 1706; intendant of marines, 1710; intendant générale des armées navales, 1739. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903).

Monument to Laura Secord, Lundy's Lane Monument to Laura Secord, Lundy's Lane

Beaumont. A village in Bellechasse County, on the St. Lawrence. Index: WM Troops landed at, 100; proclamation affixed to church door, 101.

Beauport. A village two miles below Quebec. Index: WM Defended by entrenched camp, 80; headquarters of intendant and commissary of stores, 88; hasty abandonment of camp at, with all its stores, 228.

Beaupré, Seigniory of. L Acquired for Seminary of Quebec, 58; chapels and churches erected to Ste. Anne at, 101, 102; pilgrimages to, 102, 103.

Beauséjour. A fort built by the French in 1750-1751, on Chignecto Bay, three miles from the British Fort Lawrence. A little tidal stream, the Missaguash, ran between—nominally marking the dividing line between British and French territory. The fort was captured by the British under Monckton, in 1755, and renamed Fort Cumberland. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, Fight with France; Hannay, History of Acadia; Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Beaver. D First steamship on the Pacific, 1835, 47; carries party to build Fort Camosun (Victoria), 178; north to Forts Taku and McLoughlin, 178; returns to Victoria, 179; to Fort Vancouver, 180; history of ship, 180-181. Bib.: McCain, History of the S.S. Beaver.

Beaver Club. Founded in Montreal in 1775 by the partners of the North West Company. It opened with nineteen members, and at one time the registry showed ninety-three members, with eleven honorary members. Among them were such famous fur traders and explorers as Alexander Mackenzie and his cousin Roderick, the three Frobishers, Alexander Henry and his nephew of the same name, Simon McTavish, James Finlay, Simon Fraser, John Stuart, and David Thompson. The motto of the club was "Fortitude in Difficulties." No one was admitted who had not made a journey to the North-West and wintered there. The club entertained many distinguished guests, including Sir John Franklin, Lord Selkirk, Washington Irving, and the Earl of Dalhousie. The club was disbanded in 1824 after the union of the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies. An effort to revive it in 1827 proved unsuccessful. Index: MS Founded by the partners of the North West Company, 139; lavish hospitality and boisterous banquets, 139. Bk Famous social club at Montreal, 99. Bib.: Hetherington, Canada's First Social Club, in Univ. Mag., April, 1910.

Beaver Dam, Battle of. In War of 1812. FitzGibbon commanded a detachment of the 49th Regiment, with several hundred Indians. Boerstler, with a party of 600 men, advanced from Fort George by way of Queenston to surprise him, but was ambushed by a body of Indians. FitzGibbon, who had been warned of the approach of Boerstler by Laura Secord, advanced with his men of the 49th and demanded the surrender of the Americans, who, believing themselves surrounded by a superior force, capitulated. The engagement took place June 24, 1813. See also War of 1812. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Hannay, War of 1812: FitzGibbon, A Veteran of 1812; Curzon, Laura Secord, the Heroine of 1812: Cruikshank, The Fight in the Beechwoods; Thompson, Jubilee History of Thorold.

Beckwith, John A. T Confederate candidate in York, 108.

Becquet, Romain. L Clerk of Ecclesiastical Court, arrested, 163.

Bédard, Elzéar. For some years a member of the Assembly of Lower Canada.[28] Moved the celebrated Ninety-Two Resolutions, 1837. Puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1837; suspended, but afterwards reinstated. Died, 1849. Index: P Moves the Ninety-Two Resolutions, 117; deserts Papineau, 117; appointed judge by Gosford, 117. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Bédard, Pierre Stanislas (1762-1829). Educated at the Seminary of Quebec; studied law, and appointed advocate, 1790. Elected for Northumberland to the first Legislature of Lower Canada, 1792. In 1806, with a number of other French-Canadians in the Assembly, founded Le Canadien, to represent the views of the popular party. In 1810 the paper seized, and Bédard and his associates arrested on a charge of treasonable practices. Released the following year. In 1812 appointed judge of the District Court of Three Rivers. Retired in 1829 on account of ill health. Index: P Leader of French-Canadians in Lower Canada Assembly, 27; opposes property tax, 27; establishes Le Canadien, 28; considered by Sir James Craig a dangerous revolutionist, 28; sent to jail, 29; released and charges withdrawn, 29; moves resolution as to ministerial responsibility, 96. C Claims liberty of the press, 95; sent to jail, 95; released, 96; asks for ministerial responsibility, 96. Bk Arrested, 127; demands trial, 128; released, 145. Bib.: Parent, Pierre Bédard et Ses Deux Fils in Journal d'Instruction Publique, 1859; Christie, History of Lower Canada; De Gaspe, Memoires; Dionne, Pierre Bédard et Ses Fils; Dionne, Pierre Bédard et Son Temps (R. S. C., 1898).

Bedard, Dr. William. T Life-long friend of Sir Leonard Tilley, 145.

Beer, Henry (1835-1886). Born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Elected to the Assembly, 1870; a member of the ministry, 1872; Speaker of the Assembly, 1877; mayor of Charlottetown, 1885-1886.

Begbie, Sir Matthew Baillie (1819-1894). Educated at Cambridge; and called to the English bar in 1844. Judge of the colony of British Columbia and judge of the Vice-admiralty Court, 1858-1870. Chief-justice of British Columbia, 1870-1894, and also judge of the Admiralty district of British Columbia, 1891-1894. Knighted, 1875. Index: D First judge in British Columbia—arrives November, 1858, 239; born in Edinburgh, 1819, 239; succeeds to chief-justiceship of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, 239; his services to the colony, 239; his notable journey, 1859, to Upper Fraser, 254; his character, 255. Bib.: Begg, History of British Columbia; Nicolls, Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie.

Begon, Michel, Sieur de la Picardière (1674-1740). Filled the office of inspector-general of marines, in France, 1707-1710. In the latter year appointed intendant of Canada, but did not arrive in Quebec until 1712. Returned to France, 1726, and for some years acted as intendant of justice in Normandy. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903).

Belcher, Jonathan (1711-1776). Second son of Governor Belcher of Massachusetts. Educated at Harvard University, Cambridge, and in England; called to the English bar. Appointed chief-justice of Nova Scotia, 1754. President of the Council of Nova Scotia and administrator of the government, 1760. Chiefly instrumental in securing for Nova Scotia a representative Assembly. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Belcour, De. WM Brings promise of supplies to Ramezay, 227.

Belette. Dr Captain of armed boat, assists Carleton's escape at Sorel, 113.

Bell, Dr. W Conducts Madras system of schools in New Brunswick, 86.

Bell, Alexander Graham (1847- ). Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Educated at Edinburgh University and London University; came to Canada in[29] 1870. Professor of physiology in Boston University, 1872. Patented his invention of the telephone, 1876; and has also invented the photophone, induction balance, telephone probe, and graphophone. In 1898 appointed regent of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1909-1910 engaged in aeroplane experiments. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Who's Who, 1910; Addresses before Canadian Club of Ottawa, 1910.

Bell, Hugh. H Member of Uniacke administration, Nova Scotia, 1848, 110.

Bell-Smith, Frederic Marlett (1846- ). Born in London, England. Educated there, and came to Canada, 1866. Founder and first president of the Canadian Society of Artists, Montreal, 1867; director of Alma College 1881; member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, 1888; director of the Toronto Art School, 1889-1891. President of the Ontario Society of Artists. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Belleau, Sir Narcisse (1808-1894). Born in the city of Quebec and educated there. In 1852 a member of the Legislative Council, and in 1857-1862 Speaker. Mayor of Quebec, 1860, when King Edward VII, as Prince of Wales, visited Canada, and knighted on the occasion. In 1862 appointed minister of agriculture in the Cartier-Macdonald ministry; and in 1865 premier and receiver-general in a coalition government. Appointed lieutenant-governor of the province of Quebec, 1867; resigned in 1873. Index: B Succeeds Sir E. P. Taché as titular head of coalition government—proposed by J. A. Macdonald, and accepted by George Brown, 191; Macdonald the virtual leader of government, 191. C His connection with British North America Act, 102-103.. Md Nominal head of government, 1865, 123. Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Belleville. Town of Ontario on the Bay of Quinte. Founded by Captain Myers in 1790. Index: BL Early municipal government of, 298; riot over Rebellion Losses Bill, 318.

Bellomont, Richard Coote, Earl of (1636-1701). Member of Parliament, 1688-1695; and served in Ireland, 1689. In 1695 appointed governor of New York, and afterwards of Massachusetts. Index: F Corresponds with Frontenac, 355. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Belmont, François Vachon de. Came to Canada from France in 1680, and joined the Seminary of St. Sulpice at Montreal, of which he was superior, 1698-1732. Died the latter year. Left a History of Canada, which was published in the first series of Historical Documents of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. Index: F On number of captives taken at Lachine, 226; on excessive use of brandy, 312; and footnote. L His large donations to religious objects, 135; preaches funeral sermon on Laval at Montreal, 265.

Bénédiction. Ch English vessel seized by French, 221.

Bennett, George. B An employee of the Globe, 256; shoots George Brown, 257; on Brown's death, is tried and found guilty of murder, 258; his mind disordered by misfortunes and intemperance, 258.

Bentham, Jeremy (1748-1832). English writer on jurisprudence and ethics. Index: Sy An associate of Sydenham's, 13. Bib.: Works, ed. by Bowring and Burton, 1843. For biog., see Dict. Nat. Biog.

Bentivoglis. Papal Nuncio. Index: Ch Authorizes establishment of church in Canada, 84.

Bering, Vitus (1681-1741). Born at Horsens, Denmark. Joined the Russian navy in 1704; and in 1725 sent by Peter the Great to explore the waters east of Kamchatka, and examine the American coast. After a three-years' journey[30] overland, reached the eastern coast of Siberia, built vessels there, and in 1728 followed the coast north to the Arctic, proving that Asia and America were not united. In 1733 set out again on the long overland journey, hampered with a huge retinue, and it was not until 1741 that his ships were ready at Petropaulovsk. Sailed to the east, reached and explored the American coast, and was wrecked on what was afterwards known as Bering Island, where he died, Dec. 8, 1741. Index: D His explorations, 39, 40; his death, 1741, 40. Bib.: Lauridsen, Vitus Bering; Muller, Voyages from Asia to America; Laut, Vikings of the Pacific.

Bering Sea Question. Arose out of a dispute as to the seal-fisheries of Bering Sea. Several Canadian sealers were seized by the United States in 1886, on the plea that these waters constituted a mare clausum, or closed sea. Similar seizures were made in 1887 and 1889. Finally the British and United States governments agreed to submit the question to arbitration. The Commission met at Paris in 1893. Lord Hannen and Sir John Thompson represented British interests; the United States was represented by Judge Harlan and Senator Morgan. The other arbitrators were Marquis Visconti Venosta of Italy, Gregora W. Gram of Sweden, and Baron de Courcel of Belgium, who presided. The decision was in favour of Great Britain, and contrary to the claim of the United States to jurisdiction over the waters of the Bering Sea and the seals visiting the coasts and islands of Alaska. Regulations were provided for the better protection of the fisheries; and the United States was required to compensate the Canadian sealers for the unlawful seizure of their vessels. Index: D Influenced by Russian occupation, 38; settled under Paris award, 1897, 283; history of dispute 340-341.

Berkeley, George Cranfield (1753-1818). Entered the navy, 1766; accompanied Cook in survey of coast of Newfoundland and Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1766-1769; and was on the Victory at Ushant, 1778. In 1786 surveyor-general of ordnance, 1786; and vice-admiral on the Halifax station, 1805-1807, during which time occurred the affair between the Chesapeake and the Leopard. Index: Bk Gave instructions in matter of deserters enlisted in Chesapeake, 83; recalled, 85. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Berlin Decrees. Issued by Napoleon, November, 1806, to the following effect: The British Isles were in a state of blockade; intercourse with them was prohibited; all British subjects within French authority were to be held as prisoners of war; all British property, private and public, was declared to be prize of war; also merchandise from Britain; merchants whose property had been captured by British cruisers were to be indemnified from the product of such seizures; no British ships were to be admitted into any port of France, or her allies; every vessel eluding this rule was to be confiscated. The object of the decrees was to close the continent against British commerce. The British government retaliated by issuing an order-in-council, refusing to neutrals the right of trading from one hostile port to another. Index: Bk Directed by Napoleon against commerce of Great Britain, 81, 82, 105, 171, 172. Bib.: Dict. Eng. Hist.; Green, Short History of the English People; Kingsford, History of Canada.

Bernard, Hewitt (1825-1893). Entered the Canadian public service, 1858; deputy-minister of justice, 1867; resigned, 1876. In 1872, created I. C.; and the same year made C. M. G. In 1878 appointed assistant commissioner to France and Spain to negotiate commercial treaties. Aide-de-camp to Lord Monck, 1868, and to Lord Stanley, 1888. Index: T Confidential secretary to the Quebec Conference, 77; acts as secretary to Confederation delegates in London, 121. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.[31]

Bernardin, of Siena, Saint. L On the guidance of Providence, 35-36.

Bernetz, Chevalier de. WM Commands battalion of Royal Roussillon Regiment, 12; second in command of the town (Quebec), 86.

Bernières, Henri de (1635-1700). Born in France. Came to Canada with Laval in 1659. Curé of Quebec, 1660-1687; and grand-vicar of the bishop of Quebec. First superior of the Seminary of Quebec, 1663, holding that position till 1688 and from 1693 to 1697. Index: F Grand-vicar of bishop of Quebec, 111. L Head of retreat at Caën, 24; first superior of Quebec Seminary, 55; transfers his personal income to seminary, 56; administers diocese in Laval's absence, 134; claims ecclesiastical rights, 163; made dean of Chapter, 197; his death, 239. Bib.: Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites; Gosselin, Henri de Bernières.

Bernières, Jean de. L His "Hermitage," 24, 25.

Berry Brigade. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 257, 258.

Berthelot, François. L Laval's relations with, 138. E His seigniory of St. Laurent made an earldom in 1676, 181.

Berthier, Alexandre (1638-1709). Born in France. Came to Canada in 1665; and in 1666 commandant at Fort St. Jean, and led expeditions against the Iroquois. In 1672 granted the seigniory of Berthier in Bellechasse County, Quebec. Index: F Commands militia in campaign against Iroquois, 209. Bib.: Charlevoix, History of New France.

Bethune, Alexander Neil (1800-1879). Born in Glengarry, Ontario. In 1823 ordained deacon, and in 1824, priest. In 1847 archdeacon of York (Toronto), and in 1867 consecrated coadjutor bishop of Toronto; succeeded to the bishopric on the death of Bishop Strachan. Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland.

Bethune, John. Born in Scotland, 1751. Emigrated in his early years to South Carolina, and was chaplain of the loyal militia. In 1786 resided in Montreal; minister of the Presbyterian church there; afterwards appointed to a mission in Glengarry. Index: S Presbyterian minister, reputed author of petition, for repeal of Marriage Act, 161, 162; the first Presbyterian minister to arrive in Upper Canada, 164; received stipend from the government, 164. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Macdonell, Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada.

Betts. T Proposes construction of European and North American Railway, 26, 27.

Beveridge. T Seconds the address in New Brunswick Assembly, 115.

Biard, Pierre (1565-1622). Came to Port Royal in 1611, with Masse—the first of their order in New France. The relations of the Jesuits with Poutrincourt and his son Biencourt were far from cordial; little or no progress was made with the conversion of the Micmacs; and in 1613 Biard sailed with Masse for Mount Desert, with an expedition sent out by Madame de Guercheville. They had hardly begun the new settlement, when Argall swooped down, seized their ship, plundered their property, and carried Biard and some of his companions prisoners to Virginia. Argall brought the Jesuit back with him to Acadia the same year; the vessel in which he sailed was carried out to sea, and after a series of adventures Biard finally reached France and remained there. Bib.: Biard, Relation; Carayon, Première Mission des Jésuites au Canada; Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Bibaud, Michel (1782-1857). Educated at the College of St. Raphael. Index: L Historian, his praise of Talon, 113. P On Papineau, 56. Hd On Haldimand,[32] 291. Bib.: Works: Épîtres, Satires, Chansons Epigrammes, et autre Pièces de Vers; Histoire du Canada et des Canadiens sous la Domination Anglaise. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.

Bidwell, Barnabas. R Election contests, 63.

Bidwell, Marshall Spring (1799-1872). Born in New England. Came to Canada with his father, 1812, and practised law. In 1824-1835 a member of the Upper Canada Assembly; in 1829 elected Speaker of the House, and re-elected, 1835. One of the leaders of the popular party of Upper Canada, and his outspoken sympathy with the Rebellion of 1837-1838 resulted in his banishment. Index: Mc Elected Speaker of the House, 151; defends Mackenzie, 181, 182; moves committee of inquiry, 184; moves Mackenzie's eligibility, 243; discountenances royal veto, 251; again elected Speaker of the House, 261; Head declines to make him judge, 377; defeated for the House, 380; refuses nomination to Convention, 343; gives legal advice to rebels, 343; his part in the Rebellion, 357; accepts voluntary exile, 358. R One of the leaders of the popular party in Upper Canada Assembly, 66, 67. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Upper Canadian Rebellion; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Davin, The Irishman in Canada.

Biencourt de Poutrincourt, Charles (1583-1638?) Son of Jean de Biencourt. Accompanied his father to Port Royal in 1605. Returned to France in 1610; made vice-admiral in the seas of New France, and, somewhat unwillingly, brought with him to Acadia in 1611 the Jesuits Biard and Masse. While absent from Port Royal, the fort was attacked and burnt by Argall in 1613. Biencourt partially rebuilt Port Royal, and was still there in 1618. Returned to France some time before 1621, and appointed director of the Royal Academy of Paris, which position he held up to the time of his death. Bib.: Parkman, Pioneers of France; Patterson, Last Days of Charles de Biencourt (R.S.C., 1896).

Biencourt de Poutrincourt, Jean de, Baron de Saint Just (1557-1615). Had won distinction as a soldier in the service of France; and in 1604 sailed with De Monts and Champlain to Acadia. Was so charmed with Port Royal that he determined to make it his home. De Monts made him a grant of the lands about Annapolis Basin, which the king confirmed. Went back to France and brought out his family to the new settlement. Accompanied Champlain in his exploration of the Bay of Fundy. Jesuit missionaries were sent out to Port Royal, whom Poutrincourt, although a good Roman Catholic, found far from congenial. Their relations became more and more strained, and when Poutrincourt sailed to France in 1613, the Jesuits succeeded in having him thrown into prison. Regained his liberty and returned to Acadia, but found Port Royal in ashes. Returned to France and fell in the attack on Méry. Index: Ch Goes with De Monts to Acadia, 19; lieutenant of De Monts at Port Royal, 34; joins Champlain in exploration and erects crosses on coast (Massachusetts), 35; returns to France, 37. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime. See also Lescarbot; Champlain; De Monts.

Bienville, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur de (1680-1768). Son of Charles Le Moyne, and brother of Iberville. Accompanied Iberville to Hudson Bay in 1697, and took part in the capture of Fort Nelson and the defeat of the English fleet. The following year sailed with his brother to the mouth of the Mississippi, where they laid the foundations of the colony of Louisiana. After the death of Iberville, became governor of the colony, and remained there for thirty-five years. Founded the city of New Orleans, and laboured unceasingly to[33] advance the interests of Louisiana. Index: F Joins war party against Schenectady, 235. Bib.: King, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville; Reed, The First Great Canadian; Margry, Découvertes des Français. See also Iberville.

Bierce. Mc Plans attack on Windsor, 446; lands at Windsor, 447; retreats, 447.

Big Mouth (Grande Gueule). F Onondaga orator, 184, 221.

Biggar, James L. R Graduate of Victoria College, 144.

Bignon. Ch Crown lawyer in proceedings re Champlain's will, 265.

Bigot, François. Born at Bordeaux, Jan. 30, 1703; son of Louis-Amable Bigot. Through his influence at court, obtained several lucrative offices in New France, which he turned to his own personal advantage. Arrived at Louisbourg in 1739. After the capture of Louisbourg in 1745, returned to France, where serious charges of misappropriating public funds had been brought against him, but his influence at court was still powerful enough to extricate him from this scrape, and to secure him the office of intendant of New France, 1748. Sailed for Quebec and arrived the same year. There elaborated a system of peculation, by which every branch of the public service was laid under tribute to enrich himself and his creatures, helping thereby to bring about the final loss of the colony. Returned to France after the conquest of Canada; thrown into the Bastille, and released only to be banished from France. Index: WM Intendant, appearance and character, 32; made profit of famine, 53; gambling habits, 54; reprimanded by minister, 88; hostility to Bougainville, 88; makes his headquarters at Beauport, 88; letter to Bougainville, 165. Hd Disliked, 52. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903); Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Billings, Elkanah (1820-1876). Born in township of Gloucester, Ontario. Studied law, called to the bar, 1845, and practised in Ottawa. Appointed paleontologist of the Geological Survey of Canada, 1856, and in the same year established the Canadian Naturalist. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Ami, Brief Biographical Sketch of Elkanah Billings.

Billings, Joseph. Born in England, 1758. Accompanied Captain Cook on his last voyage on the Discovery; and afterwards entered the Russian navy. Commanded an expedition to the north-west boundaries of Asia in 1785, and in 1786-1794 explored the coasts of Siberia and Alaska. Index: D Visits Unalaska, Nodiak, and Prince William Sound, 1790, 26. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Bindon. Dr Montreal merchant, treasonable proceedings of, 84.

Bizard. F Officer of Frontenac, arrested by Perrot, 91.

Blachford, Frederic Rogers, Baron (1811-1889). Born in England. Educated at Eton and Oxford. In 1844 registrar of joint-stock companies and commissioner of lands and emigration; from 1860 to 1871 permanent undersecretary of state for the colonies; and in 1871 made a privy councillor. Index: Md On Macdonald's part in Westminster Conference, 126-127. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Black, John (1817-1879). Born in Scotland. Went to the Red River Settlement as legal adviser to Adam Thom, recorder of Rupert's Land, 1839. Subsequently entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company and rose to the position of chief trader. Went back to Scotland, 1852. Spent some time in Australia, and returned to the Red River Settlement as recorder of Rupert's Land, 1862. Appointed a delegate to Ottawa to present the views of the settlers on the taking over of the country by the Dominion government, 1870. Proceeded to Scotland, where he died. Bib.: Bryce, Manitoba.

Black, John (1818-1882). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to America with[34] his parents and studied for a time at Delaware Academy at Delhi, New York. Came to Canada and completed his theological course at Knox College, Toronto. Ordained to the ministry of the Presbyterian Church and proceeded to the Red River Settlement, 1851. Remained in charge of the church at Kildonan until his death. Bib.: Bryce, John Black: The Apostle of the Red River.

Black, William (1760-1831). Born in England. In 1775 came to Canada and became a Wesleyan Methodist preacher. Founded the Wesleyan Church in Nova Scotia, and became general superintendent of British American Wesleyan missions. Index: W The apostle of Wesleyan Methodism in Maritime Provinces, 137. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Black, William. W President of New Brunswick Assembly, 1831; refuses to furnish information, 19; member of New Brunswick Legislative Council, retires, 72.

Black, William. W Of Halifax, father-in-law of Judge Wilmot, 137.

Blackader, Hugh W. (1808-1863). Descended from Loyalist stock. Began to learn the trade of printer at the age of twelve. Acquired an interest in the Acadian Recorder, 1837, and continued to publish the paper until his death. Closely identified with the Reform movement and a strong supporter of Joseph Howe. Index: H Called upon to prove publication of libel in the Nova Scotian, 24. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Black Rock. Bk Opposite Fort Erie, fortified, 197.

Blackfoot Indians. A Western confederacy, of Siksika stock. First described in the journal of Anthony Hendry, 1754-1755, and again by Matthew Cocking, 1772-1773. They were then known to the Crees as the Archithinue. Cocking also gives the following for the five tribes in the confederacy: Powestic-Athinuewuck or Water-fall Indians; Mithco-Athinuwuck or Bloody Indians; Koskitow-Wathesitock or Black-footed Indians; Pegonow or Muddy-water Indians; and Sassewuck or Woody-country Indians. Their habitat was then, and until comparatively recent times, in the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains, on the upper waters of the Saskatchewan. They are now for the most part on reservations in Alberta. Bib.: Petitot, Traditions Indiennes du Canada Nord-Ouest; Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales; Hendry Journal (R.S.C., 1908); Cocking Journal (R.S.C., 1909); Franklin, Polar Sea; Catlin, North American Indians.

Blair, Andrew George (1844-1907). Born in Fredericton, New Brunswick. Educated there, and called to the bar, 1866. In 1878 member of the New Brunswick Assembly for York; in 1879 leader of the opposition; and in 1883 premier of the province. In 1896 resigned and became minister of railways and canals in the Dominion government, under Laurier, retiring in 1903. In February, 1904, chairman of the Railway Commission of Canada, resigning in October of the same year. Index: T Premier of New Brunswick during Tilley's governorship, 138. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Who's Who, 1906.

Blair, Adam Johnston Fergusson (1815-1867). Member of the Legislative Assembly of Canada, 1848-1857; appointed to the Legislative Council, 1860; receiver-general, 1863; member of Executive Council and provincial secretary, 1863-1864; president of the Executive Council, 1866. Appointed president of the Privy Council and a member of the first Dominion Cabinet, 1867. Index: Md President of Privy Council in first Dominion Cabinet, 134; agrees to support coalition, 137; his death, 138. B Called upon to form ministry, but fails, 149. T Member first Confederation ministry, 129. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.[35]

Blake, Edward (1833- ). Born in Adelaide, Ontario. Educated at Upper Canada College and University of Toronto. Called to the bar of Ontario, 1859. From 1867 to 1872 a member of Alexander Mackenzie's Dominion ministry; in 1875-1877 minister of justice and attorney-general; and 1877-1878 president of the Council. From 1878 to 1887 leader of the Liberal opposition in the House of Commons. In 1892 went to Ireland and elected member for South Longford in the British House of Commons; retired, 1907. Index: Md Favours attacks Canadian Pacific Railway scheme, 235; resigns leadership of Ontario Liberals, 1872, 152; attacks government on Redistribution Bill, 274; supports Costigan's Home Rule resolution, 277; contrasted with Macdonald, 277-279; mutual antagonism, 277-279; supports Landry's motion that Riel's sentence should have been commuted, 280; not favourable to commercial union, 296; refuses to run in election of 1891, 315; denounces policy of unrestricted reciprocity, 315-316. B His speech at Aurora advocating Imperial federation, 235, 240. Mc On when rebellion is justified, 26, 27. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Who's Who, 1910; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Ewan, Hon. Edward Blake; Taché, Men.

Blake, William Hume (1809-1870). Born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and emigrated to Canada in his youth. During the Rebellion in 1837, paymaster of the Royal Foresters. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1838. A member of the Legislative Assembly for East York, 1847, and solicitor-general in the La Fontaine-Baldwin administration, 1848-1849. In 1850 chancellor of Upper Canada, retiring March, 1862. Index: BL Speaks before Reform Association, Toronto, 223; elected for York, 279; solicitor-general, 1848, 284; absent in Europe, 284; on Rebellion Losses Bill, 314-315; quarrel with MacNab, 315; burnt in effigy in Toronto, 318; raised to the bench, 337. E Returned in elections, 1847, 50; solicitor-general for Upper Canadian first La Fontaine-Baldwin Cabinet, 53; father of Edward Blake; attacks Family Compact; bitter conflict with Sir Allan MacNab, 69. B Speaks before Toronto Reform Association, 1811, 21; burnt in effigy, 36; in the fight for responsible government, 261. Md Challenged by John A. Macdonald, 36. Mc Solicitor-general, debate on Rebellion Losses Bill, 489. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por., and Last Forty Years; Read, Lives of the Judges; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Blanchard, Hiram. H Supports Confederation, 186; member of Nova Scotia government, 1867, 198; elected to Legislature, but unseated, 202.

Blanchard, Jotham. H Associated with Joseph Howe in The Club, 10; in House of Assembly, 18.

Blanchet, F. Bk Arrested, 127; discharged, 128.

Blanshard, Richard. Appointed governor of Vancouver Island by Earl Grey; left England, 1849, and reached Victoria in March of the following year by way of Panama. Resigned office in 1850, and in 1851 returned to England. Index: D First governor of Vancouver Island, 1849, 203; relations with the Hudson's Bay Company, 203-204; nominates provincial government and leaves for England, 204. Bib.: Begg, History of British Columbia.

Bleury. P Joins Papineau party, 78.

Bliss, Daniel (1740-1806). Born in Concord, Mass. Educated at Harvard University, Cambridge, graduating in 1774. In 1778 proscribed as a Loyalist, and served with the British army as commissary. At the end of the war,[36] moved to New Brunswick; appointed a member of the provincial Council, and later chief-justice of the Court of Common Pleas. Index: W Becomes member of New Brunswick Council, 4. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Bliss, John Murray (1771-1834). Born in Massachusetts. Came to New Brunswick in 1786; called to the bar; and elected to the House of Assembly for the county of York. Appointed to the bench in 1816; became a member of the king's Council; and in 1824 administrator of the province for one year. Subsequently a judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. Index: W Judge of New Brunswick Supreme Court, 4. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Bliss, Jonathan (1742-1822). Born in Springfield, Mass. Educated at Harvard University, Cambridge. Emigrated to New Brunswick in 1783. In 1785 elected a member of the provincial Legislature and appointed attorney-general. From 1809 to 1822 chief-justice. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Blue, Archibald (1840- ). Born in Orford, Ontario. From 1867 to 1881 engaged in journalism. In 1882 appointed secretary of the Ontario Bureau of Industries, which he organized. Deputy minister of agriculture, 1884, and director of the Bureau of Mines, 1891. Appointed Dominion census commissioner, 1900. Index: B Witnesses shooting of George Brown by Bennett, 255-256. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Bodega Bay. On the coast of California, lat. 38° 18' 20" N., long. 123° 2' 28". Index: D Russian colony there in 1812, 45.

Boileau, Maître. Ch Lawyer, employed to contest Champlain's will, 265.

Bolduc, Father. D Jesuit missionary—supposed to be first priest on Vancouver Island, 178; at Whidby Island, 179.

Bolton, Colonel. Hd Commander at Niagara, lost in foundering of Ontario, 163.

Bompas, William Carpenter (1853-1906). Born in London, England. Ordained deacon, 1859; priest, 1865; came to Canada latter year and assigned to the Mackenzie River district. In 1874 consecrated bishop of Athabaska. In 1884 transferred to see of Mackenzie River, and in 1891 to that of Selkirk. Author of a number of primers in the Athabaskan and Algonquian languages, as well as in Eskimo. Bib.: Diocese of Mackenzie River; Cody, An Apostle of the North; Machray, Archbishop Machray; Mockridge, Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland. For his native primers, see Pilling, Bibliography of Athabaskan Languages.

Bond, William Bennett (1815-1906). Born in Truro, England. At an early age went to Newfoundland. Removed to Quebec, 1840; the same year admitted deacon, and ordained priest, 1841. For some time engaged as a travelling missionary; assistant to the rector of St. George's Church, Montreal, 1848; rector 1862; archdeacon of Hochelaga, 1871; dean of Montreal, 1874. In 1879 consecrated bishop of Montreal; in 1901 archbishop, and in 1904 primate of all Canada. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.; Who's Who, 1905; Mockridge, Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland.

Bonne, Captain de. Born in France, and before coming to Canada served in the regiment of Condé. At the siege of Quebec, 1759, in command of the Quebec and Three Rivers militia, and took part in the battle of the Plains and the battle of Ste. Foy. Index: WM Commands Quebec and Three Rivers militia, 105. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec.

Bonnécamps, Joseph Pierre de (1707-1790). Born in France. Entered the Jesuit order, and came to Canada in 1741, when he was appointed instructor of hydrography at the Seminary of Quebec. Held that position until the fall of[37] Quebec in 1759. In 1765-1766 laboured among the French refugees on the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.

Bonnerme. Ch Physician, accompanied Champlain to Quebec, 41; death of, 46.

Bonnycastle, Sir Richard Henry (1791-1848). Born in England. Served in Canada in 1812, and engaged in the capture of Fort Castine. During the Rebellion of 1837-1838 commanded the engineers in Canada West, and defended Kingston in 1838; knighted for distinguished service, 1837. Afterwards commander of engineers in Newfoundland. Bib.: The Canadas in 1841. For biog., see Dict. Nat. Biog.

Bonsecours, Chapel of. L United to parish of Montreal, 176; commenced by Sister Bourgeois, 177; held in high honour, 178.

Bontemps, Captain. Ch Brings out settlers, 252.

Books. S Scarcity of, in Upper Canada, 175. See also Libraries.

Borden, Robert Laird (1854- ). Born in Grand Pré, Nova Scotia. Called to the bar, 1878, and practised at Kentville and Halifax; appointed Q.C., 1890. In 1896 elected for the city and county of Halifax to the Dominion Parliament, and for Carleton County, Ontario, 1905. In 1901 succeeded Sir Charles Tupper as leader of the Conservative party. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Borgia's House. WM Wolfe occupies, 189; set on fire by Canadians, 193.

Boscawen, Edward (1711-1761). Born in England. Served at Porto Bello, 1739-1740; at Cartagena, 1741; and in the West Indies, 1747. Commanded on the North American station between 1755 and 1757, and in 1758 commander-in-chief of the fleet at the siege of Louisbourg. In 1759 defeated the French in Lagos Bay, and in 1760 commanded the fleet in Quiberon Bay. Index: WM In command of naval forces at Louisbourg, 73. Bib.: Wood, Logs of the Conquest of Canada; Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Dict. Nat. Biog. See also Louisbourg.

Bossuet, Jacques Benigne (1627-1704). Churchman and orator; bishop of Meaux; took a leading part in the Gallican controversy. Index: L On poverty and liberty, 123. Bib.: Works: Histoire Universelle; Oraisons Funèbres. For biog., see Chambers, Biog. Dict.

Boston. Bk Flags hung there at half-mast on declaration of war against Great Britain, 208. Hd Rebellious sentiment comes to head at, 84; Haldimand doubts wisdom of closing the port, 85; dangerous condition of affairs at, 95-96, 97-98; reception to General Gage, 96; Haldimand's removal to, 103, people of, revile Haldimand, 105; Haldimand's house at, 107; loss at Bunker Hill, 108; Louis Haldimand at, 109; Loyalists leave, 110; Haldimand's rank at, 121. L Americans of, their designs against priests and missionaries, 11.

Boston. D Attacked by natives of Nootka, 1803, and crew murdered, 37.

Botsford, Bliss (1813-1890). Born at Sackville, New Brunswick. Educated at King's College, Fredericton; called to the bar, 1838, and practised at Moncton until 1870. A member of the New Brunswick Assembly, with brief intervals, from 1851 to 1870. In 1865 surveyor-general in the Smith ministry, and a member of the Executive Council, of which he was Speaker from 1867 to 1870. From 1870 to 1890 judge of the County Court. Index: T Surveyor-general in Smith government, 91; adds no strength to the government, 92; represents Westmoreland, 115. Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Bouchard. L Founder of the Montmorency family, 16.

Boucher de Grosbois et de Boucherville, Pierre (1622-1717). Came to Canada in 1634 with his father; served as a soldier of the little garrison of Quebec in[38] 1641. Four years later settled at Three Rivers, and having made himself familiar with several Indian languages, employed as interpreter. For nearly a quarter of a century served the town of his adoption in various capacities, civil and military. Filled the office of governor of Three Rivers, with short intervals, from 1652 to 1667. Visited France in 1661-1662, received by Louis XIV, and given a patent of nobility, and on his return to Canada brought out a number of colonists. In 1667 retired to his seigniory of Boucherville. Left a brief but interesting history of New France, written in 1663, while he was still governor of Three Rivers, and published the following year. Index: L His opinion of Laval, 29. Bib.: Histoire Veritable et Naturelle des Mœurs et Productions du Pays de la Nouvelle France. Paris, 1664. Reprinted, 1849, 1882, 1883, 1896. The last is in the Trans. of the Royal Society for that year, and is edited by Benjamin Sulte, with biographical and bibliographical notes.

Bouchette, Captain. Dr Conducts Carleton safely to Three Rivers, 113.

Bouchette, Joseph (1774-1841). Entered the naval service, 1791; in command of the forces on Lake Ontario; and served in the Royal Canadian volunteers. In 1813 on active service; and in 1814-1816 in England, where he published his topographical and geographical description of Canada. Employed as surveyor-general in delimiting the boundary line between Canada and the United States, 1817-1818. Bib.: Topographical Description of the Province of Lower Canada; British Dominions in North America.

Bouchette, Robert Shore Milnes. P Exiled to Bermuda for his participation in Rebellion of 1837, 138; commissioner of customs, Ottawa, 149; sides with Papineau, 149; arrested as a rebel, 149; his letter to Colonel Dundas, 150-153.

Boudon, Abbé Henri-Marie. L Succeeds Laval as archdeacon of Evreux, 23.

Boues, Charles de. Ch Vicar-general of Pontoise, contributes to building of Récollet convent, 117; syndic of Canadian missions, 148.

Bougainville, Louis Antoine, Comte de (1729-1811). Born in Paris. Educated for his father's profession of notary; and soon obtained recognition as an advocate in the Parliament of Paris. As a student displayed a remarkable talent for mathematics, and at the age of twenty-two wrote the first volume of a treatise on the Integral Calculus. His mathematical work recognized by the Royal Society in electing him to a fellowship. Joined the army in 1755, and the next year came to Canada as Montcalm's aide-de-camp. Played an important part in the siege of Quebec, and wrote an elaborate journal of the campaign, much of which appears to have been incorporated in Montcalm's Journal, published by Abbé Casgrain. Returned to France in 1760, and after serving in Germany, joined the navy. From 1766 to 1769 made a voyage around the world; served in the West Indies during the Revolutionary War, and commanded the van of the French fleet in the action off Chesapeake Bay. Retired from active service, 1790; nominated by Napoleon to the Senate, and raised to the nobility. Index: WM Aide-de-camp to Montcalm, 1; despatched to France to represent desperate state of colony, 62; commands Grenadiers along Beauport shore, 85; incurs Bigot's hostility, 88; ordered to protect country west of Quebec, 151, 158; interview with Montcalm at Beauport, 160; Vaudreuil writes that safety of colony is in his hands, 161; duped by Wolfe's strategy, 177; criticized by Chevalier Johnstone, 177; his promotion due to court favour, 177; disregards instructions of governor by changing commander at Le Foulon, 178; great reliance placed on him, 178; his failure to reinforce post at the Foulon, 178, 184; his failure to follow British fleet down from Cap Rouge, 184; held responsible for disaster, 210; his delay at Sillery, 211;[39] arrives after battle, 222; his letter to Ramezay, regarding provisions, 226; holds his position at Cap Rouge while rest of army retreats, 229; on march to Quebec, hears of capitulation, 234; replaces Lusignan at Ile-aux-Noix, 245; congratulates Lévis on victory of Ste. Foy, 267. Bib.: Works: Traité du Calcul Intégral; Voyage autour du Monde; Essai Historique sur les Navigations Anciennes et Modernes (Acad. des Sciences Morales et Pol., Vol. I); Notice Historique sur les Sauvages de l'Amerique Septentrionale (ibid., Vol. III). His letters are printed in Doughty, Siege of Quebec; and his manuscript journals are in the Canadian Archives. See also De Kerallain, La Jeunesse de Bougainville; Michaud, Biog. Univ.; Larousse, Grande Dict. Univ.; Casgrain, Montcalm et Lévis; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Hart, The Fall of New France, 1755-1760.

Boulay, Angelique Louise Talon du. WM Wife of Montcalm, 5; her grief at his departure for Canada, 8.

Boulduc. F Prosecutor of Prévoté, dismissed, 138.

Boullé, Eustache. Ch Brother-in-law of Champlain, 134, 145; appointed by Champlain as his lieutenant, 155; returns to France, 209; converted to Roman Catholicism, receives bequest from his sister, 267.

Boullé, Hélène. Ch Marries Champlain, 66; spends four years in Quebec, 141; returns to France, 141; studies Algonquian language, 263; her life at Quebec, 263-264; enters Ursuline convent, 266; dies, 1654, 266.

Boullé, Nicholas. Ch Champlain's father-in-law, secretary of the king's chamber, 66; pays his daughter's inheritance to Champlain, 67.

Boulton, D'Arcy. Born in England. Came to Canada, 1797, and settled at York, 1803. Called to the bar of Upper Canada by special Act of the Legislature, 1803; solicitor-general, 1805. While on his way to England, 1810, captured by a French privateer, and remained a prisoner in France until 1814. Appointed judge of Assize, 1818. Died in York about 1830. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges; Scadding, Toronto of Old.

Boulton, Henry John. Son of D'Arcy Boulton; born in England, 1790. Studied law and called to the English bar. Emigrated to Canada, 1816, and practised in Upper Canada. In 1818 appointed solicitor-general; attorney-general, 1829; elected to the Assembly for Niagara; removed from attorney-generalship by colonial secretary on account of his independent votes in Assembly, 1833; proceeded to England to vindicate his actions; appointed chief justice of Newfoundland, 1833; removed from office, 1838, and returned to Canada. Represented town of Niagara in Assembly, 1841-1844, and Norfolk County, 1848-1851. Index: Mc Solicitor-general, reprimanded, 152-153; dismissed from office of attorney-general, 232; threatens rebellion, 233; chief justice of Newfoundland, 235. E Responsible for amendment of Union Act, 123. BL Removed from office of attorney-general, 16; in Clergy Reserves debate, 349. Bib.: Short Sketch of Upper Canada. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.

Boundaries of Canada. Dr Not defined by Constitutional Act, 260.

Bouquet, Henry (1719-1765). Born in Switzerland. Served in Holland, Sardinia, and with the Prince of Orange. Was Captain-commandant of the Swiss Guards at the Hague, 1748. Entered the British army; came to America in 1754; with Haldimand and the "Royal Americans"; and held a leading command for several years in the French and Indian wars. Died at Pensacola, Florida. Index: Dr His services in Pontiac's War, 6; death of, 6; Bouquet papers in British Museum, 7. Hd Life-long friend of Haldimand, 5; his[40] early military service, 6; his studious habits, 8; member of Swiss Guards at the Hague, 8; recommended for command in Royal American Regiment, 9; experiences ill-feeling between American colonists and British troops, 12; in Carolina, 13; his letters throw side-lights on the affairs in the colonies, 14-15; popular in military profession, 16; Indian warfare, 16; at Fort Pitt, 16; Haldimand advises him not to leave the service, 40; defeats Indians at Bushy Run, 58; thanked by the king and promoted, 58; death of, 58, 63; Haldimand laments his loss, 62; his tomb, 63; his papers preserved in Canadian Archives, 319; some of his letters missing, 338. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe and Conspiracy of Pontiac; Canadian Archives Report, 1889.

Bourdages. P Assists Papineau in defeating motion for adoption of Lord Goderich's offer, 77. Bk Made colonel of militia by Sir George Prévost, 158.

Bourdon. L Brings out a number of girls as colonists, 79. Ch Industrious settler, 252, 253.

Bourdon, Sister Anne. F On divine protection of Quebec, 301.

Bourdon, Jean (1602-1668). Born in Normandy. Came to Canada, 1634. Engaged for some years as a civil engineer and land surveyor; sent on several embassies to the Iroquois; and in 1657 made a voyage towards Hudson Bay, but prevented by ice from entering the Strait. Mentioned as being at Quebec in 1665.

Bourgard. L On the zeal of the missionaries, 61.

Bourgeoys, Marguerite (1620-1700). Born at Troyes, in Champagne. Entered the convent of the Congregation of Notre Dame at the age of twenty, and while there decided to devote her life to the colony of New France. Arrived in Quebec in September, 1653, and went on immediately to the new settlement of Montreal. In 1657 opened the first school, in a stable granted her by Maisonneuve. In the same year built a wooden chapel in Montreal. Founded the Congrégation do Notre Dame de Montreal in 1659, and in 1686 built the convent. In 1675, with funds obtained from France built the church of Bonsecours. Index: L Establishes school at Ville Marie (Montreal), 9; her services to the sick on board the St. André, 32; her labours in instruction of the young, 91; her educational work, 126; Abbé Verreau on influence exerted by, 127; founds Bonsecours Chapel, 177. F Establishes Congrégation de Notre Dame, 29, 39; impressed on arrival by poverty of country, 39. Bib.: Ransonet, Vie de la Sœur Bourgeoys; Faillon, Vie de la Sœur Bourgeoys; Parkman, Jesuits in North America and Old Régime; Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Régime.

Bourget, Ignace (1799-1885). Born at Point Lévis, Quebec. Ordained in 1822; vicar-general of Montreal, 1836; coadjutor bishop of the diocese, 1837; bishop of Montreal, 1840, and created the first cathedral chapter of that city. Founded several religious orders, colleges, and asylums, among others, in 1864, the institution for the deaf and dumb, Montreal. In 1862 created a Roman count and assistant at the Pontifical Throne. In 1876 archbishop of Martianopolis, in partibus. Index: C His character, 80; dispute with Cartier, 80-83; calls on Cartier, 84. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Bourinot, Sir John George (1837-1902). Born in Sydney, Nova Scotia. Educated at Trinity University, Toronto. Chief official reporter to the Nova Scotia Assembly, 1861-1867, and in 1880 appointed chief clerk of the Dominion House of Commons. For many years honorary secretary of the Royal Society of Canada. Index: BL On Baldwin's University Bill, 293; on Tory opposition to Rebellion Losses Bill, 313, Bib.; Works: Canada under British Rule;[41] Federal Government in Canada; How Canada is Governed; Manual of Constitutional History of Canada; Parliamentary Procedure and Government in Canada; Canada; Builders of Nova Scotia. For biog., see Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Bourlamaque, de. Born in France. Governor of Guadaloupe; sent in 1756 with Montcalm to Canada as third in command and colonel of engineers. In command at Ticonderoga in 1759; promoted brigadier-general, and took part in the defence of Quebec. Died, 1764. Index: WM Third in command, 12; holds Amherst in check, 131; evacuates Forts Carillon and Frederic and falls back on Ile-aux-Noix, 146; which he reports himself able to hold till fall, 158; joins army of Lévis on march against Quebec, 245; repairs bridges over Cap Rouge River, 248; occupies position at Lorette and Ste. Foy, 249; in battle of Ste. Foy, 256; wounded, 260. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada.

Bouteroue, Claude de. Born in France. Came to Canada to act as intendant during the absence of Talon from 1668 to 1670. Returned to France, 1671, and died there, 1680. Index: L Acts as intendant during Talon's absence, 116. Bib.: Charlevoix, History of New France.

Bouthillier. Ch Negotiates restoration of Quebec, 220.

Bow River Pass. Through the Bow Range of the Rocky Mountains, head waters of Bow River. Index: D Entered by David Thompson, 1805, 58.

Bowell, Sir Mackenzie (1823- ). Born in England. Came to Canada with his parents, 1833, and engaged in journalistic work. In 1867 elected to the Dominion House of Commons for North Hastings. In 1878 appointed minister of customs, holding that office until 1891; minister of militia, 1892; and minister of trade and commerce, 1892-1894. In 1894 succeeded Sir John Thompson as premier, and resigned office in 1896. Created a K. C. M. G., 1895. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Bowen, Edward (1780-1866). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada in 1797; studied law and called to the bar in 1803. From 1809 to 1812 represented Sorel in the Assembly; and in the latter year appointed to the Court of King's Bench. In 1821 appointed a member of the Legislative Council, and in 1835 elected Speaker. In 1849 chief-justice of the Superior Court for Lower Canada. Index: E Made a judge of the Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.

Bowes, Colonel. Bk Of the 6th Regiment, assumes command on death of General Hunter, 69; leaves Canada, 73.

Bowring, Dr. Sy An associate of Sydenham's, 13; trade commissioner to France, 29.

Boyd, Colonel. T Represents Charlotte County in New Brunswick Assembly, 102.

Boyd, John (1828-1893). Born in Ireland. Emigrated to New Brunswick, and engaged in business at St. John. In 1880 called to the Senate, and on Sept. 22, 1893, succeeded Sir S. L. Tilley as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. Index: T Succeeds Tilley as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 138. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Braddock, Edward (1695-1755). Born in Scotland. Entered the army, 1710, and in 1743 major of the Coldstreams. Served in the expedition to L'Orient, 1746; and under the Prince of Orange in Holland, 1746-1748. Colonel of the 14th Foot at Gibraltar, 1753. In 1755 general and commander-in-chief in British North America; and on July 9, 1755, commanded the British expedition against Fort Duquesne, where he was defeated and mortally wounded. Index: WM Death of, at Fort Duquesne, 22. Hd His defeat rouses Pennsyl[42]vania Assembly to vote military supplies, 13. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, The Fight with France.

Bradstreet, Simon (1603-1697). Born in England. Educated at Cambridge; and emigrated to Massachusetts, where he became assistant judge of the Court in 1630. In 1631 one of the founders of Cambridge, Mass.; from 1630 to 1679 assistant governor of Massachusetts; from 1679 to 1686 governor; and from 1689 to 1692 president of the administration of the colony. Index: F Made governor of Massachusetts, 266; on failure of expedition against Quebec, 301. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Bragg's Regiment. WM On British right, 189; in battle of Ste. Foy, 259, 261.

Brandon House. Built by the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1794, on the head waters of the Assiniboine River, about seventeen miles below the present city of Brandon. The buildings were burnt about 1814, and the post abandoned. Index: MS Built by Hudson's Bay Company, 6. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Brandy Question. F Condemned by Champlain, 25; subject of dispute between civil and religious authorities, 46, 115; king's instructions regarding, 116, 118, 120; question referred to a meeting of the principal inhabitants, 121; opinions expressed, 122, 123; king's decision thereon, 125; evils depicted, 335. L Sale of liquor to Indians, 7, 36-39, 113; Frontenac's opinion and Colbert's instructions, 170, 171; conference on the subject, 172; Laval's attitude, 173-175; Dollier de Casson's testimony, 175. See also Liquor question. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac and Old Régime.

Brant, Isaac. S Son of Joseph Brant, commits murder, 191; attacks his father and is killed by him in self-defence, 192.

Brant, Joseph (1742-1807). A Mohawk Indian chief, whose native name was Thayendanegea. Educated at an Indian school in Connecticut. Visited England in 1775. In the Revolutionary War sided with the British and rendered valuable service. Revisited England after the war. Translated the Book of Common Prayer and St. Mark's Gospel into the Mohawk tongue (London, 1787). Index: S Mohawk Indian, distrusted by Simcoe, 75, 125; visits Philadelphia and received by Washington as Indian emissary, 121; part taken by, in subsequent negotiations, 124, 125; loss of influence with his own people, 125; his motives and policy, 126, 128, 129; kills his son Isaac in self-defence, 192. Hd Commands scouting parties, 153; made a colonel of Indians on Haldimand's recommendation, 154; did not harm women or children, 154, 170; his success against rebel force under Lockerby, 169; advises reserve for Six Nation Indians, 258; highly esteemed by Haldimand, 300; Allan MacLean's opinion of, 308; visits Haldimand in London, 327. Bib.: Stone, Life of Brant; Cruikshank, Joseph Brant in the American Revolution; Eggleston, Brant and Red Jacket; Ke-che-ah-gah-me-qua, Life of Brant; Dent, Can. Por.

Brant, Molly. Hd Sister of Joseph Brant, her influence with Indians, 154; pensioned, 155.

Brantford. City of Ontario, on the Grand River. Named after Joseph Brant, the Mohawk chieftain. Founded about 1820.

Brassy. T Offers to build European and North American Railway, 25, 27.

Breadalbane, John Campbell, second Marquis of (1796-1862). Represented Okehampton in Parliament, 1820-1826, and Perthshire, 1832. Index: Sy Offers to go to Canada as governor-general, 58. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Brébeuf, Jean de (1593-1649). Born of a noble family of Normandy. Came[43] to Canada, 1625; spent the winter of 1625-1626 among the Algonquins. In the latter year, after a long and difficult journey by way of the Ottawa and Lake Nipissing, reached the villages of the Hurons, on Georgian Bay, where he established the first mission. Returned to Quebec in 1629, and in 1634 re-established the Huron mission. In 1640 made an unsuccessful attempt to establish a mission among the intractable Neutral Nation, north of Lake Erie. Returned to the Huron mission, where, in 1649, he was captured by the Iroquois, and burned at the stake with unmentionable cruelties. His skull is preserved in the Hôtel-Dieu at Quebec. Index: Ch Sails for New France on De Caën's vessel, 152; returns to College of Rouen, 207; returns to Canada, 228; goes to Huron country, 249. L Sufferings and death of, 5, 62. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Ragueneau, Relation des Hurons, 1649; Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Régime.

Breda, Treaty of. Signed between England and France, 1667. Brought to a close the disastrous war with the Dutch. By its terms Nova Scotia was handed over to France. Bib.: Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions.

Brésolles, Sister de. L Her labours in the hospital at Montreal, 91.

Bretonvilliers, De. L Sulpician, makes liberal contribution towards erection of church at Montreal, 88; foundation stone laid on his behalf by M. Dollier de Casson, 89; devotes his fortune to religious work at Montreal, 135; succeeds M. Olier as superior of seminary in France, 162.

Briand, Jean Olivier (1715-1794). Born in France. Ordained priest, 1739; came to Canada, 1741; canon of Quebec Cathedral until 1760. In 1766 appointed bishop of Quebec, and resigned, 1784. Rebuilt the cathedral and palace, destroyed during the siege of Quebec, 1759. Index: L Bishop of Quebec, 12. Dr Appointed Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, 23.

Bride. Ch English vessel seized by French, 221.

Bright, John (1811-1889). British statesman and orator. Index: T Friendly to Anti-Confederation party, 123. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

British American League. Md Formed in 1849 in Montreal as a reply to the Annexation Manifesto—branches followed throughout the country, 40; its objects, 40-41; largely due to John A. Macdonald's inspiration, 95; Confederation one of its main objects, 95; commercial national policy another, 219. H Howe's correspondence with the president, George Moffatt, 113-115. B Formed in Upper Canada—convention held at Kingston, 1849, 37; its policy, 38; part of Conservative case for Confederation, 38. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

British Chronicle. Newspaper published in New York. Index: B Established by Peter and George Brown, 4; its objects, 4.

British Columbia. Area 372,630 square miles. Vancouver Island became a crown colony in 1849; ten years later the mainland was organized as a separate colony; in 1866 island and mainland became one; and in 1871 the colony became a province of the Dominion of Canada. Index: D Organic existence since 1859, or including Vancouver Island, since 1849, 1; origin of name, 57; gold-fields, 22; created separate colony, 1858, 229; early government of, 231-235; revenue, 232; roads, etc., 232, 237-238, 249-253; relations with the Hudson's Bay Company, 233; character of early population, 241-243; formal establishment of colony at Fort Langley, 1858, 245-246; Hill's Bar affair, 248-249; plans for transcontinental road, 253-254; population in 1859, 256; agriculture, 256-257; financial problems, 258-262; dissatisfaction with dual governorship, 289; popular grievances, 290-291; views of Douglas, 291-293;[44] Legislative Council, 294-297; union of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, 297-300, 308; British Columbia Legislature meets for first time in Victoria, Dec. 17, 1867, 311; entry into Dominion, 311-316; terms of union, 313-315; first Legislative Assembly after the union, 315; transcontinental railway, 317-328; population, 1900,328; agriculture, 329-330; fisheries, 330-331; lumber, 332-333; minerals, 333-334; industrial problems, 335; oriental labour, 336-337; education, 338-340. Md Opposition to entry into Confederation, 149; difficulties removed, 149; terms of union, 149-150; union completed, July 20, 1871, 150; difficulties over building of Canadian Pacific Railway drive province to verge of secession, 215, 233-234. Bib.: Begg, History of British Columbia; Bancroft, History of British Columbia; Macdonald, British Columbia and Vancouver's Island; Macfie, Vancouver Island and British Columbia; Morice, The History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia; Herring, Among the People of British Columbia; Fitzgerald, The Hudson's Bay Company and Vancouver Island; Mayne, Four Years in British Columbia; Baillie-Grohman, Sport and Life in Western America and British Columbia; Métin, La Colombie Britannique; Indians of British Columbia (R. S. C., 1888); Langevin, Report on British Columbia.

British Law. Sy Attempts to introduce after passage of Quebec Act, 65. S Introduced into Upper Canada, 85.

British Legion. Dr Loyalists commanded by Tarleton, 202.

British Newspapers. Hd Sympathy with rebels expressed in, 190. See also Newspapers.

British North America Act. The constitution of the Dominion; the Act by which the scattered colonies of British North America were united in one Confederation. Drafted at the Quebec Conference, 1864; discussed and passed in the form of resolutions, in the Legislature of Canada, 1865; put in final shape at the Westminster Conference, 1866; passed by the Imperial Parliament, and proclaimed, 1867. The essential feature of this Act, and that which distinguishes it most clearly from the Constitution of the United States, is the provision that all matters not specifically assigned to the provinces belong to the Dominion, the reverse being the case under the United States Constitution. Broadly speaking, the Act gives the Dominion exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of trade and commerce, the postal service, customs and inland revenue, military and naval service, navigation and shipping, currency and coinage, banking, weights and measures, patents and copyrights, naturalization, Indians. To the provinces it gives exclusive jurisdiction over direct taxation, management and sale of public lands, timber, provincial prisons, hospitals, asylums, etc., municipal institutions, administration of justice, education. Index: Md Conference in London—Macdonald's letter to Tilley, 125-126; the sixty-nine resolutions passed, 126; draft bill drawn up—completed bill submitted to House, and received royal assent, March 29, 1867, 127; royal proclamation fixes July 1 as date upon which it should come into force, 127; opposition develops in Maritime Provinces, 129; provides for Intercolonial Railway, 151; and acquisition of North-West Territories, 156; question of legislative union, 245; federal system introduced by, 250; provincial rights under, 253; the franchise, 258. C Delegation sent to London to see it through Parliament, 67; proposal to amend it in the interests of the New Brunswick Roman Catholics, 77, 82; strained relations of Macdonald and Cartier over terms of, 102-103. H Passed by Imperial Parliament, 192; opposed by Joseph Howe, 192; its repeal sought by Nova Scotia Anti-Confederates, 204. T Quietly received in New Brunswick, 127. Bib.:[45] Bourinot, Constitution of Canada; Houston, Constitutional Documents; Doutre, Constitution of Canada; Munro, Constitution of Canada; Ashley, Constitutional History of Canada; Gooch, Manual of the Constitution of Canada; Howland, The New Empire; Confederation Debates, 1865; Pope, Confederation Documents.

Brock, Daniel De Lisle. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, becomes chief magistrate of Guernsey, 70.

Brock, Elizabeth. Bk Sister of Sir Isaac, 71.

Brock, Ferdinand. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, served in Royal Americans, 6; death of, 7, 70.

Brock, Harriet. Bk Married to Sir Thomas Saumarez, 124.

Brock, Sir Hugh. Bk Supposed ancestor of General Brock, 5.

Brock, Irving. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, 102; an able pamphleteer, 132, 140; estrangement between, and his brother William in connection with latter's failure, 163; reconciliation, 297.

Brock, Sir Isaac (1769-1812). Bk Birth and descent, 6; enters army at age of fifteen, 7; joins 49th Regiment with rank of captain, and is sent to West Indies, 8; returns to England on sick leave, 9; senior lieutenant-colonel of his regiment, 10; takes part in expedition to Holland under Sir Ralph Abercromby, 13; his account of battle of Egmont-op-Zee, 17; quartered in Jersey and visits home in Guernsey, 22; joins expedition to the Baltic, 24; his regiment ordered to Canada, 31; arrives at Quebec, 34; his regiment ordered to Upper Province, 48; his vigorous pursuit of deserters, 60; quells mutiny at Fort George, 61-63; assumes command at the fort, 64; recommends establishment of corps of veterans who on discharge might receive grants of land, 64; impressed by comfortable condition of loyalist settlers, 65; contrasts their character with that of settlers of the later (1793) immigration, 66; takes special interest in Sergeant-Major (afterwards Colonel) James FitzGibbon, 66; quartered in Quebec, 69; made a full colonel and goes to England on leave, 70; returns to Canada, 73; assumes chief military command at Quebec, 73; recommends strengthening of the fortifications of Quebec, 75, 94; differences with President Dunn, 77; leaves control of Indian affairs in Upper Canada to lieutenant-governor, 78; examines accounts of the deputy commissary-general, 78, 79; effects improvements in marine department, 80; tries to make Quebec impregnable, 86; dissatisfied with measures of defence adopted by the civil government, 94; letters to James Cuthbert of Berthier, 95, 98; confident that Canadians would vigorously resist American invasion, 97; leaves Quebec to take command in Montreal, 99; appointed acting brigadier-general 99; his social qualities, 101; returns to Quebec, 115; anxious for service in Europe, 123, 124; considers war with United States (1809) imminent, 124; his opinion of the Lower Canada Assembly, 126; ordered to Upper Canada, 133; his books, 135; literary tastes, 136; application for leave not entertained, 136-138, 155; correspondence with Lieutenant-Governor Gore respecting grant of land to Colonel Vesey, 138; high opinion entertained of, at headquarters, 141; pleasantly entertained by Lieutenant-Governor Gore, 143; anxiety as to management of Indians, 149-152; made major-general, 157; made president and administrator of Upper Canada in absence of Lieutenant-Governor Gore, 159; financial misfortune, 161; letter to his brother Irving, 163-165; his strong family affection, 163; his energy as administrator, 168; his opinion of the Little Belt affair, 173; his endeavours to avert Indian warfare, 176; sends plan of campaign to General Prévost, 177-179; recommends increase of naval force on lakes, 178; offered service in Spain, but does not accept it, 180; his plan for formation of flank companies adopted, 181;[46] speech on opening of Legislature of Upper Canada, 183; measures proposed by, to Legislature, 184; recognizes presence of many persons of doubtful loyalty in the province, 185, 214; disappointed with action of Legislature, 185; urges importance of prompt seizure of Detroit and Michilimackinac, 195; selects Major-General Shaw to protect line between Kingston and Cornwall, 195; his Indian policy, 197; receives news of declaration of war, 203; establishes headquarters at Fort George, 204; instructs Captain Roberts to capture Michilimackinac, 210; commends militia in general order, 212; recognizes the great odds against Canada, 215; sends Colonel Procter to Amherstburg, 215; his proclamation in answer to Hull's, 217; proclamation as president of province, 219, 221; opens the Legislature, 222; hears of capture of Michilimackinac, 223; prorogues Legislature, 229; proceeds to western frontier, 231; meets Tecumseh for the first time, 245; describes him to Lord Liverpool, 247; forms three brigades, 247; decides on attacking Detroit, 248; summons Hull to surrender, 250; attacks, 251-254; his daring in battle, 253; takes Detroit and makes Hull's army prisoners of war, 255, 256; praises his army, 258; his message to his brothers, 260; his proclamation to inhabitants of Michigan territory, 261; armistice concluded by Prévost deranges his plans, 261; arrives at York, and is warmly welcomed, 262; letter to his brothers, 266-268; arrives at Kingston, 268; proposes to attack Sackett's Harbour, but is overruled by Prévost, 270, 271; letter to Prévost asking for reinforcements, 272, 273; replies to objections made by Prévost to Fort Wayne expedition, 275-277; instructed to evacuate Detroit, 277; extreme anxiety not to alienate Indians, 277, 278, 280; health, discipline, and morals of his army, 279; letter to his brother Savery, 280, 281; his force on Niagara frontier, 287; his account of capture of brigs Detroit and Caledonia by Americans, 290-293; rejoicing in England over the victory at Detroit, 295; Brock made K.C.B., 296; Prince Rupert's high opinion of, 297; last despatch to Prévost, 298; in battle at Queenston Heights, 298-304; his death, 304; a national loss, 312; his burial and monument, 312, 313. BL Sydenham ranked with, 112. Bib.: Tupper, Life and Correspondence of Sir Isaac Brock; Read, Life of Brock; Nursey, Isaac Brock; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Dent, Can. Por. See also War of 1812.

Brock, John. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac Brock, 15; killed in a duel, 70.

Brock, John. Bk Father of Sir Isaac Brock, 6.

Brock, Mary. Bk Sister of Sir Isaac Brock, 71.

Brock, Savery. Bk Younger brother of Brock, 15; gallant conduct of at Egmont-op-Zee, 17-19; his resemblance to his brother Isaac, 18; with Sir John Moore in Spain, 123; affected by his brother William's failure, 161, 166.

Brock, William. Bk Brother of Sir Isaac, a London merchant, 70; disastrous failure of, 161-164; his letter to his brother Isaac, 165.

Brock, William. Bk Grandfather of Sir Isaac Brock, 5.

Brock's Battery. Bk Name at first given to king's battery in Quebec citadel, 94.

Brockville. Chief town of Leeds County, Ontario, on left bank of St. Lawrence. Formerly known as Elizabethtown. Raided by a detachment of troops from Ogdensburg in 1813. The town assumed its present name shortly after the death of Brock. Index: BL Early municipal government of, 298.

Broglie, Achille Charles Léonce Victor, Duc de (1785-1870). Foreign secretary under Louis-Philippe, 1832-1834, and prime minister, 1835-1836. Lived in retirement after, 1851. Index: Sy Poulett Thomson (Sydenham) meets in Paris, 20. Bib.: Écrits et Discours; Souvenirs.[47]

Brooke, Frances. Hd Her novel of Canadian life, 222. Bib.: History of Emily Montague, London, 1777.

Brouage. Ch In Saintonge, birthplace of Champlain, 1.

Brougham, Henry Peter, Baron (1778-1868). Born in Scotland. Educated at Edinburgh University. Secretary to Lord Rosslyn and Lord St. Vincent on a mission to Portugal. In 1810 entered Parliament; in 1830 received the great seal and elevated to the peerage. In 1828 founded London University, and in 1860 elected chancellor of Edinburgh University. Index: S Secretary to the Portugal Commission, 220. W His sarcastic reference to Glenelg, 42. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Broughton, William Robert (1762-1821). Born in England. Entered the navy, 1774, and served on the American station until 1778. In 1790 explored and surveyed the Columbia River; and in 1794 surveyed the north-west coast of America. Served in Lord Gambier's expedition, 1809; at Mauritius, 1810, and at Java, 1811. Index: D Sails a hundred miles up the Columbia, 24; surveys coast northwards of Cape Mendocino, 34. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Brouillan, De. Born in France. Governor of Placentia, Newfoundland, 1690. Made a chevalier of St. Louis, 1698. In 1701 commandant in Acadia, and governor of that colony, 1702-1705. Died the latter year. Index: F French governor of Placentia, Newfoundland, 346. Bib.: Charlevoix, History of New France.

Brouse, W. H. R Graduate of Victoria College, 144.

Brown, George (1818-1880). B His place as a Maker of Canada, ix; complains that Upper Canada is inadequately represented and dominated by Lower Canada, ix; an ardent advocate of Confederation, x; relations with John A. Macdonald, x; and with Roman Catholic Church, x; his birth and parentage, 1; character, 1; lifelong opposition to slavery, xi, 1-2; views on Presbyterian Church government, 2; emigrates to America, 2; establishes the British Chronicle at New York, with his father, 4; comes to Canada, 1843, 4, 5; described by Samuel Thompson, 4-5; establishes the Banner at Toronto with his father, 5-6; character of the Banner, 5-7; begins fight for responsible government, 9-10; establishes the Globe, 1844, 20; its objects, 20-21; speech before Toronto Reform Association, 1844, 21-22; refuses to drink toast to Metcalfe, 27-28; presents address to Elgin, 36; his quarrel with the Clear Grits, 40; defeated in Haldimand by W. L. Mackenzie, 40; defines political situation in 1850, 42-43; his reply to Cardinal Wiseman's pastoral letter, 44-45; his political principles, 46-47; takes issue with Hincks's government, 48-49; advocates secularization of Clergy Reserves, 55-57; runs for Kent—his platform, 61; advocates free schools, 62; views on higher education, 62-64; his election for Kent, 64; arouses French-Canadian hostility, 65; attacks Hincks-Morin government, 66-67; increasing power in the Legislature, 69; prodigious industry and capacity for work, 69; attitude towards Lower Canada and Roman Catholic institutions, 70; advocates representation by population, 71; becomes the mouthpiece of Nonconformist sentiment in Upper Canada, 71; tribute of the Cobourg Star, 72-73; pen-picture by James Young, 73-74; growth of the Globe—its declaration of principles, 74-75; in favour of prohibition, 75,76; defeats Malcolm Cameron in Lambton, 77; the alliance with the Rouges, 78-79; his friendship with Dorion, 80-81; presses for representation by population, 84; attacked by Macdonald, 87-91; his interest in prison reform, 91-93; personal charges disproved, 93-97; elected for Toronto, 1857, 99; carries a motion disapproving of selection of Ottawa as capital, 100; government defeated and he forms ad[48]ministration, 101-102; relations with Sir Edmund Head, 103-104; defeated on question of dissolution, 106; the "Double Shuffle," 106-108; his fight against negro slavery, 112-119; relations with Roman Catholics, 121-128; opposes denominational schools, 121-123; and clerical control, 123-128; views on Confederation, 130-132; 137-138; his temporary retirement from public life, 139, 141; defeated in East Toronto, 141; opposes "double majority," 143; sails for England, 1862; interview with Duke of Newcastle, 143; marries Anne Nelson, 144; reception in Toronto on his return, 144; assails Separate School Bill in the Globe, 145; accepts Act of 1863 as a final settlement, 145, 146; his letters on the political crisis, 1864, 150; proposes a federation system of government either for Canada alone, or for all the British North American provinces, 150; the negotiations looking towards Confederation, 151-161; opposes an elective Senate, 164-165; well satisfied with the results of the Quebec Conference, 165-166; convert to Intercolonial Railway scheme, 166; explains the new constitution in Toronto, 166-167; writes Macdonald from England on favourable reception of the Confederation scheme, and deplores almost universal sentiment in England in favour of Canadian independence, 167; his speech in Parliament on Confederation, 171-175; writes of need of haste in putting through Confederation, 182; opposes submission of Confederation scheme to the people, 185; Macdonald's negotiations with, as to formation of new administration, 189-191; accepts Belleau as premier, 191; his interest in reciprocity, 192; differences with his colleagues on reciprocity terms lead to his resignation from Cabinet, 193-197; his connection with Confederation, 199-209; Holton's appeal to, 201; his interest in the North-West Territories and their acquisition by Canada, 211-221; his connection with the Reciprocity Treaty of 1874, 223-233; attacks protectionist budget, 233; hostile to Canada First party, 237-238, 239, 241; his family relations, 243-244; death of his wife, May 6, 1906, 244; his children, 244; writes Holton as to his retirement from public life, 245-246; defines his attitude as a journalist, 246-247; relations with Liberal leaders after his retirement, 247-248; farming on his Bow Park estate near Brantford, 248; appointment to the Senate, December, 1873, 248; the Simpson libel suit, 249-250; attacks Judge Wilson in the Globe, 250-252; sued for contempt of court, 252; his defence, 253; shot by George Bennett, 255-256; his death, May 10, 1880, 258; estimate of his character and public life, 258-265; as a journalist, 265. C Cauchon's antagonism, 24; relations with Quebec Liberals, 28; his policy of representation by population, 28; fights for Protestant and English supremacy, 28; Cartier takes strong stand against his aggressiveness, 68; comes into power with the Reformers, 99. E Arrives in Canada and enters journalism, 111; attacks French-Canadians, 112, 113-114, 137, 225; becomes leader of the Clear Grits, 112; enters Parliament, 113; his influence there, 114; urges representation by population, 117-118; attacks Hincks, 125, 140; distrusted by Liberals, 138; his warm support of Confederation, 225. R Opposes Sir Charles Metcalfe, 126; opposes separate schools, 224, 225-226; conflict with Ryerson over separate schools, 233. BL His speech before Reform Association, Toronto, 1844, 223-224, 225; establishes Globe, March 5, 1844, 223-224; his relations to the Reformers and the Clear Grits, 224, 342; attacks Roman Catholicism, 343. T Makes overtures to government, looking towards Confederation. 69; at Charlottetown Conference, 74, 75; delegate to Quebec Conference, 76; opposes coalition government, 128. Mc Defeated by W. L. Mackenzie, 486; relations with Mackenzie, 487; Haldimand election, 488; Alexander Mackenzie's good offices, 496. Md Macdonald's great antagonist in Canadian public life, 51;[49] pre-eminent as a reformer, 52; comes to Canada from Scotland in 1844, 52; founds the Globe, 52; his character, 52-53; contrasted with Macdonald, 53-54; first opposes Clear Grits, then becomes their leader, 54; attacks racial and religious ideals of Quebec, 54-55; question of Clergy Reserves, 55; his solution of representation by population, 71-72; opposes proposal for elective Legislative Council, 75; his quarrel with Macdonald, 80-81; opposes separate school system, 82; forms ministry with Dorion—the "Short administration," 85; its defeat, 86; his influence declining, 89; opposes Sandfield-Macdonald-Sicotte ministry, 89; they join forces, 89; proposes coalition to further Confederation, 92-93; enters Taché ministry, 102; quarrel with Macdonald patched up, for the time, 102; delegate to England in regard to Confederation, defence, reciprocity, etc., 120-121; his entrance into coalition ministry largely due to Lord Monck, 121; resigns from Cabinet, 123; supports Confederation, but resumes old hostility to Macdonald, 123; attempts to break up coalition, 136-137; appointed to Senate by Mackenzie, 138. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Mackenzie, Life and Speeches of the Hon. George Brown.

Brown, George Mackenzie (1869- ). Son of George Brown. Born in Canada. Educated at Upper Canada College, Toronto, Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh, and at Cambridge. Moved to Edinburgh, Scotland, and in 1900 elected to the British House of Commons for Central Edinburgh. Managing trustee of Thomas Nelson & Sons, Edinburgh. Index: B Only son of George Brown, a member of the publishing firm of Thomas Nelson & Sons, 244. Bib.: Who's Who, 1910.

Brown, Henry. WM Lieutenant of Grenadiers, helps to carry Wolfe off the field, 200. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec.

Brown, James. W Represents Charlotte County in New Brunswick Assembly, brings in bill for teachers' training school, 88. T Surveyor-general in Fisher ministry, 32, 33, 43. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Brown, John Gordon (1827-1896). Brother of George Brown. Born in Scotland. Educated in Edinburgh and New York. In 1844 engaged on the Toronto Globe; in 1851 editor, and in 1880 managing director. In 1882 retired from the Globe; appointed registrar of the Surrogate Court of Toronto, 1883. Index: B Consulted by George Brown on political situation, 143; George Brown's brother, 243; enters Globe office—his connection with the newspaper, 244, 245; E.W. Thomson's estimate of, 245; his death, June 9, 1896, 245. Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Brown, John Storrow. P With Papineau at St. Charles meeting, 1837, 125; preaches rebellion, 126; heads the Patriotes at St. Charles, 128, 133; charged with cowardice, 133; his letter to Dr. Nelson, 133. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Brown, Peter (1784-1863). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to New York in 1838; was owner and editor of the British Chronicle. Removed to Toronto, 1843, and founded the Banner, a Free-Church Presbyterian organ. In 1844 with his son, George Brown, established the Toronto Globe, and contributed to it for some years. Index: B Father of George Brown, 1; his hatred of slavery, 1; emigration to America, 1838, 2; contributes to Albion, 2; publishes The Fame and Glory of England Vindicated, 2; establishes the British Chronicle, New York, 4; removes to Toronto, and with his son establishes the Banner, 5; on committee of Anti-Slavery Society, 113; his work on the Globe, 243-244; his death, 1863, 244. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dent, Can. Por.

Brown's Point. Bk On Niagara River, battery at, 299, 301.[50]

Bruey. F Agent of Governor Perrot at Montreal, 97.

Brûlé, Étienne. A famous coureur de bois who accompanied Champlain on his exploration of the Ottawa, in 1615, and subsequently made extensive explorations in the country of the Hurons and the Iroquois (1615-1618). Treacherously murdered near the present town of Penetanguishene by a party of Hurons in 1632. Index: Ch Interpreter, accompanies Champlain to Quebec, 41; accompanies Champlain to the Ottawa River, 88; at Cap de la Victoire, 139; learns Huron language, 144; sent on mission to Three Rivers, 163; sides with the Kirkes, 194; conduct in the Huron country, 202; his death, 203, 246. Bib.: Champlain, Voyages; Sagard, Voyage du Pays des Hurons; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Butterfield, History of Brûlé's Discoveries and Explorations; Sulte, Étienne Brûlé (R. S. C., 1907).

Brulon, Jean Gauthier de. L Canon and confessor of chapter of Quebec, 197.

Bruyères, Lieutenant-Colonel R. E. Bk Reports on condition of forts in Upper Canada, 157.

Bryce, George (1844- ). Born at Mount Pleasant near Brantford, Ontario. Educated at Toronto University and Knox College. Took part in the skirmish at Ridgeway during the Fenian Raids. In 1871 removed to Manitoba and organized Manitoba College. Professor of English literature in Manitoba College, 1871-1909; and head of the faculty of science and lecturer in biology in Manitoba University, 1891-1904. Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, 1902-1903. President of the Royal Society of Canada, 1909-1910. Index: Md On causes of Riel Rebellion, 158. Bib.: Works: Manitoba; Short History of the Canadian People; Apostle of Red River; Hudson's Bay Company; Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.; Canadian Who's Who.

Bryce, James (1838- ). Born in Belfast. Educated at the universities of Glasgow and Cambridge. Entered Parliament in 1880. In 1886 under-secretary of state for foreign affairs; in 1892 chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and in 1894 president of the board of trade. Chief secretary for Ireland, 1905-1906, and in 1907 appointed British ambassador at Washington. Index: E On the disadvantages of congressional government, 255-257. Bib.: Works: Holy Roman Empire; American Commonwealth. For biog., see Who's Who, 1910.

Brymner, Douglas (1823-1902). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, 1857. For some time editor of the Presbyterian, and associate editor of the Montreal Daily Herald. In 1872 appointed Dominion Archivist, and held the position up to the time of his death, laying the foundations of the present splendid collection of manuscript material bearing on the history of Canada. Index: Hd His services as Dominion Archivist, 319; his opinion of Haldimand, 320; his translation of Haldimand's diary, 321. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Buade, Antoine de. F Grandfather of Frontenac, 61.

Buade, Henri de. F Father of Frontenac, 61.

Buade, Louis de. See Frontenac.

Buchanan, Isaac (1810-1883). Born in Scotland. In 1833 emigrated to Canada and entered into business life. Strongly opposed the Rebellion of 1837. Elected for York to the first Parliament of Canada. In 1864 appointed president of the Council in the Taché-Macdonald ministry, retiring the same year. From 1878 to 1883 a Dominion arbitrator. Index: H Joseph Howe's letter to, 1866, 190. BL On responsible government, 90; in political controversy, 1844, 238; his "Five Letters against the Baldwin Faction," 239-240.[51] B Retires from government with Foley and Simpson, to make room for George Brown, Mowat, and Macdougall, 159. Mc Urges Mackenzie's amnesty, 474; generosity of, 504. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Buchanan, James (1791-1868). Fifteenth President of the United States. Index: E His tribute to Lord Elgin, 123-124. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Buckingham, Richard Plantagenet Grenville, third Duke of (1823-1889). Born in England. Entered Parliament, 1846; lord of the treasury, 1852; and privy councillor, 1866; president of the Council, 1866-1867, and colonial secretary, 1867-1868. Governor of Madras, 1875-1880. Index: Md Referred to by Sir John A. Macdonald in connection with Confederation negotiations, 128-129. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Budé, General de. Hd Haldimand's letters to, 116, 117, 119, 191, 222; Haldimand gives Carleton letter of introduction to, 191; consulted on housekeeping matters by Haldimand, 328; his interest in Mathews, 331; Grenville's plan for placing him in Duke of York's family, 333; mentioned in Haldimand's will, 342.

Bulkeley, Richard. Came to Nova Scotia with Governor Cornwallis, 1749. Appointed secretary of the province, 1759, and continued to hold office under thirteen successive governors, until 1793. Member of the Council of Nova Scotia, 1759. Administrator of Nova Scotia, 1791; judge of the Admiralty Court; brigadier-general of militia. Died, 1800. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Buller, Charles (1806-1848). Born in Calcutta. Entered Parliament in 1830; and called to the bar, 1831. In 1838 secretary to Lord Durham and accompanied him on his momentous mission to Canada. In 1846 judge advocate-general, and in 1847 chief poor law commissioner. Index: BL His connection with Durham's Report, 235; on colonial self-government, 235. Sy Lord Durham's chief secretary, 98; object of great dislike to Upper Canada Tories, 98; his speech in House of Commons on union resolutions, 122; advocates responsible government for Canada, 123. Mc Credited with authorship of Lord Durham's Report, 82, 83. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Strachey, Charles Buller: Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada.

Bullion. Ch Negotiates restoration of Quebec, 220.

Bullion, Mme. de. F Benefactress of Hôtel Dieu at Montreal, 29.

Bulyea, George Headley Vickers. Born in Gagetown, New Brunswick. Educated at University of New Brunswick. For a time principal of the Sunbury County Grammar School. Removed to Qu'Appelle, North-West Territories, 1883. Elected to the North-West Council, 1894; special representative to the Yukon, 1896; commissioner of agriculture and public works in the Territorial government; appointed first lieutenant-governor of Alberta, 1905. Bib.: Canadian Who's Who.

Bunker Hill. Hd Battle of, 108.

Burel, Brother Gilbert. Ch Jesuit, 152; returns to France, 208.

Burgoyne, John (1723-1792). Born in England. Educated at Westminster, and entered the army in 1740. In 1775 served in New England; second in command, 1776, and lieutenant-general, 1777. In the latter year succeeded General Carleton as commander-in-chief of the forces in Canada. After several successful engagements with the Americans, defeated at Saratoga in October, 1777. In 1782 commander-in-chief in Ireland. Index: Dr Arrives with reinforcements, 144; marches up Richelieu, 146; returns to England, 163; returns[52] to Canada, haying been promoted over head of Carleton, 171; his personal charm, 174; his previous career, 175, 176; occupies Ticonderoga, 178; injudicious speech of, 178; his surrender at Saratoga, 180; his defence of himself, 182. Hd A court favourite, supersedes Carleton, 112; his disastrous campaign, 113, 126; Hamilton's expedition compared to his, 168. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Burk, Rev. J. S Censured by Simcoe, 190.

Burke, Edmund (1729-1797). Born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin; and entered Parliament in 1765. In 1771 agent for New York province; and in 1774-1775 strongly opposed war with America. In 1782 paymaster of the forces. One of the leaders in the impeachment of Warren Hastings, 1788-1795. Index: Dr Wants more information on Quebec Act, 67; discusses Constitutional Act in House of Commons, 265. S Supports division of province, 7; his quarrel with Fox, 8, 9. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Burlamaché. Ch Commissioner in dispute between Kirke and De Caën, 217, 218; sent to France in connection with restoration of French possessions, 220. Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Burlington Bay Canal. An open cut across a sand-bar at the entrance of Burlington Bay, designed to enable vessels to reach the city of Hamilton from the lake. It was authorized by the Legislature, 1823, and completed, 1832. Enlarged, 1841. Index: BL Provision made for by government in 1841, 98.

Burns. S Presbyterian minister, establishes school at Niagara, 167.

Burns, Edward. S Clerk of Crown and Pleas, 178.

Burns, Robert Easton (1805-1863). Born in Niagara. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1827. Practised at Niagara, St. Catharines, and Hamilton. Appointed judge of the Niagara District, 1836; judge of the Home District, 1844; judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1850. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges.

Burpee, Isaac (1825-1885). Born at Sheffield, New Brunswick. Represented city of St. John in Dominion Parliament, 1872-1885; minister of customs, 1873-1878. Died in New York. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.

Burr, Aaron (1756-1836). Born in New Jersey. In 1775 served in the Revolutionary army, and accompanied Arnold on his expedition to Quebec. In 1791 elected to the Senate, and in 1801 vice-president of the United States. In 1804 killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. Index: Dr Aide-de-camp to Montgomery, 122. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Jenkinson, Aaron Burr; Todd, The True Aaron Burr.

Burton, Sir Francis. P Lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada—meets views of Assembly as to the budget, 60; his action repudiated by Dalhousie, 61; acting governor during absence of Dalhousie in 1825, 70.

Burton, Ralph. Served in the siege of Quebec. On July 29, 1759, in command of thirteen companies of Grenadiers, and on September 2 wounded at the battle of Montmorency. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec after the capture of the city. Index: WM Of the 48th, in action at Montmorency, 142; holds troops in readiness on south shore opposite Wolfe's Cove, 172, 183; commands reserve in battle of Plains, 189; Wolfe's last orders to, 200; in battle of Ste. Foy, 258. Hd Governor of Three Rivers, 41; ordered to West Indies, 42; leaves his family in charge of Haldimand, 51; returns to Three Rivers, 53; replaces Gage at Montreal, 53. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada.

Buteux, Jacques (1600-1652). Born in France. In 1634 sent as a missionary to Canada, and arrived at the new settlement of Three Rivers in September. Worked among the Indians there for several years. Superior of the missions[53] from 1639 to 1642, and from 1647 to 1652. Index: Ch Stationed at Three Rivers, 256. Bib.: Charlevoix, History of New France.

Butler, John. Born in Connecticut. In 1759 served under Sir William Johnson in the Niagara campaign, and in 1760 in the Montreal expedition. During the Revolution served on the British side in New York and in Canada. Appointed superintendent of Indian affairs. Died in Niagara, 1794. Index: Hd Of Rangers, lays waste Wyoming district, 151; value of his services, 154; acts for Guy Johnson, 155; conduct of Indians commanded by, disapproved, 170; cruelties practised upon his Rangers, 172; disbands Rangers and takes up land on Niagara frontier, 256; entertained by Haldimand, 327. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Butterfield, Major. Dr Surrenders post at Cedars to British force, 142.

Buttes-à-Neveu. WM Name given to rising ground extending to city walls, Quebec, 186, 256.

By, John (1781-1836). Born in England. Entered the army in 1799. In 1802 came to Canada; returned to England in 1811; and served in the Peninsular War. In 1826 again came to Canada, and engaged on important military and engineering works until 1832. Constructed the Rideau Canal from Bytown (Ottawa) to Kingston, the first steamer passing through in the spring of 1832. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Women's Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, Trans., vol. 1.

Byng, John (1704-1757). Born in England. Entered the navy in 1718. In 1727-1736 stationed at Mahon, Minorca; and in 1747-1748 commanded in the Mediterranean. In 1756 engaged the French at Minorca and after an indecisive battle retreated to Gibraltar, leaving Minorca to its fate. Recalled to England, court-martialled, and shot on March 14, 1757. Index: WM His reserve at Minorca, 33. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Bytown. Former name of the city of Ottawa. Index: Md Chosen by the queen as capital, 85; suggestion came from Sir Edmund Head, 85; opposition to decision in Parliament, 85. BL An all-water route between Montreal and Kingston, 75; favoured by some persons as capital, 1843, 181. E Water communication established with Montreal, 98. See also Ottawa. Bib.: Women's Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, Trans., vols. 1 and 3.

Cabir-Coubat. Ch Indian name of St. Charles River, 148.

Cables. The first submarine cables in America were those laid between New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, 1851; and between Cape Breton and Newfoundland, 1856. Newfoundland was connected with Ireland by cable in 1858. In 1902 the Pacific Cable was laid, between Canada and New Zealand and Australia. See also Gisborne; Fleming. Bib.: Bright, Submarine Telegraphs; Johnson, The All Red Line.

Cabot, John. Probably a native of Genoa. Became a citizen of Venice, March 28, 1476, and at that time had been a resident of the city for fifteen years. Went to England, and in 1497, under the direct authority of Henry VII, sailed to the westward on a voyage of discovery. Landed on the shores of America, but his exact landfall has been a moot point. It is now generally believed that it was the easternmost cape of Cape Breton. The following year sailed again, but there is no record that he ever returned from this second voyage. Bib.: Beazley, John and Sebastian Cabot; Dawson, The Voyages of the Cabots (R. S. C., 1894, 1896, 1897); Deane, Voyages of the Cabots, in Winsor, Nar. & Cr. Hist. of America, vol. 3; Harrisse, John Cabot, the Discoverer of North America; Weare, Cabot's Discovery of North America; Ober. John and Sebastian Cabot.[54] Cabot, Sebastian (1477?-1557?). Son of John Cabot. His share in the discovery of North America has been the subject of much controversy. From having once been regarded as the sole discoverer, it is now considered doubtful that he had anything to do with the voyages of 1497 and 1498. He was in the service of Spain, and also of England, receiving from Edward VI the title of Grand Pilot of England. Bib.: Biddle, Memoir of Sebastian Cabot; Nicholls, Life of Sebastian Cabot; Tarducci, John and Sebastian Cabot. These are favourable to Sebastian's claims. See references under preceding entry for the other side of the controversy.

Cadboro. D First sea-going vessel on Fraser River, 116; arrives at Victoria from Fort Vancouver, 180; leaves for the Columbia, 180; built 1824, destroyed 1862, 180.

Cadet, Joseph Michel. Began life as a butcher; won the confidence of the intendant Bigot, and as commissary-general seconded him in his infamous schemes for plundering the colony. Index: WM Commissary of stores, 88; makes his headquarters at Beauport, 88; feeds his poultry with grain, while the people starve, 88. See Bigot.

Cadieux. A French coureur de bois, whose tragic death forms the subject of one of the popular chansons of Quebec. His reputed grave is at the foot of Grand Calumet Island, on the Ottawa. Bib.: Le Moine, Legends of the St. Lawrence; Bourinot, The Ottawa Valley in the Canadian Monthly, January, 1875; Gagnon, Chansons Populaires.

Cadillac, Antoine de la Motte. Came to Canada as an officer of the Carignan Regiment. In 1694 appointed to the command of the post at Michilimackinac. In 1701 built a fort at Detroit, and remained in command there until 1710. From 1712-1717 governor of Louisiana. Subsequently appointed governor of Castel Sarassin, in Gascony, his native province. Died there Oct. 16, 1730. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime; Cadillac Papers (Michigan Pion. & Hist. Coll., vol. 33).

Cadot, Jean-Baptiste. Pioneer fur trader in the West. When the French abandoned their fort at Sault Ste. Marie, Cadot remained behind with his native wife and family. Alexander Henry found him there in 1762; in charge of the fort when Carver visited the place five years later. Is said to have been still alive in 1812. Bib.: Henry, Travels and Adventures in Canada; Carver, Travels through the Interior Parts of North America; Morice, Dict.

Caën, Emery de. Ch Nephew of Guillaume, 137; left in command of colony, 141; prohibits psalm-singing by Huguenots on his ships, 156; his character, 182; actively defends colony, 183; captured by Thomas Kirke; returns to France, 185; his ship the Hélène restored to him, 221. F Takes over Quebec from the English, 23. Bib.: Douglas, Quebec in Seventeenth Century; Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Caën, Ezechiel de. Ch Brother of Guillaume, 137.

Caën, Guillaume de. Ch Head of Company formed by Montmorency, 131, 132; difficulties with the old Company, 133 et seq.; returns to France, 136; comes out to Canada, and returns to France, 138; arrives with supplies, June, 1624, 140; sails for France, 141; brings out Jesuit fathers, 152; appoints Raymond de la Ralde as admiral of Company's fleet, 155; disposed to overlook murder of a Frenchman by an Indian, 161; his character as given by Theodat-Sagard, 182; Cardinal Richelieu suspicious of, 183; his merchandise seized by Kirke, 183; disagreement with Kirke as to goods seized at Quebec, 217-222. F Head of trading Company, 23. Bib.: Douglas, Quebec in Seventeenth Century;[55] Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Cæsar, Sir Julius (1558-1636). Sat in Parliament, 1589-1622; chancellor of the exchequer, 1606; master of the Rolls, 1614-1636. Index: Ch English commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Cahaigué. Ch Largest of the Huron villages, 89.

Caire, M. de. WM Engineer, constructs defences on river St. Charles, 86.

Caldwell, Henry. Dr His house occupied by Arnold, 111; commands British militia in siege of Quebec, 115; his house burnt by Arnold, 121. Bib.: Lemoine, The Hon. Henry Caldwell, L.C., at Quebec.

Caldwell, Sir John. Eldest son of Sir James Caldwell, the third baronet. Succeeded his father, 1784. Appointed receiver-general of Lower Canada, and found to have misappropriated the public funds. Made restoration afterwards of the greater part of the amount. Died in England, 1830. Index: P Receiver-general, Lower Canada,—misappropriates public funds, 56; government fails to prosecute him, 57. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada; Morgan, Cel. Can.

Caledonia. Bk Brig belonging to North West Company, 210; captured by Americans at Fort Erie, 289.

Callicum. Indian chief. D His relations with Meares at Nootka, 27.

Callières, Louis-Hector de (1646?-1703). Born at Cherbourg, son of Jacques de Callières, governor of Cherbourg. Entered the army, and became captain of the regiment of Navarre. In 1684 came to Canada as governor of Montreal; and in 1699 appointed governor-general of the colony. Died at Quebec. Index: F Memorandum by, on French claims in Hudson Bay, 204; commands regular troops in attack on Iroquois, 209; sent to France to represent situation of colony, 230; leads eight hundred men from Montreal to defence of Quebec, 292; commands vanguard in attack on Onondagas, 351; commended in despatches, 353; succeeds Frontenac as governor, 362. L Placed in charge of Fort Frontenac (Cataraqui), 214; proceeds to France, 218; succeeds Frontenac as governor, 235; death of, 235. Bib.: Sulte, La Famille de Callières (R. S. C., 1890); Parkman, Half Century of Conflict.

Calvinistic Agents. Ch Fanaticism of, 86.

Camaret, Marie (Mme. Hersault). Ch Cousin of Champlain, contests his will, 265.

Cameron, David. Brought up as a draper; drifted to the West Indies, where he had charge of an estate; and thence to New Caledonia. In 1852 superintendent of the coal mines at Nanaimo. Nominated by Douglas as chief justice of Vancouver Island, 1853, and the appointment confirmed by the colonial office the same year. Succeeded by Needham in 1858. Retired from the bench, 1864. Died at Belmont, Vancouver Island, 1872. Index: D First chief justice of Vancouver Island, 200; charges preferred against, 200. Bib.: Bancroft, History of British Columbia.

Cameron, Duncan. Son of a United Empire Loyalist; born at Schenectady, on the Mohawk. His father brought the family to Canada, and settled in Glengarry. The son entered the service of the North West Company, in 1786, and was for many years in charge of the Nipigon district. In 1814 sent to Red River, to oppose Selkirk's plans. In 1816, before the Seven Oaks affair, seized by Colin Robertson, of the Hudson's Bay Company, carried to York Factory, and sent to England, where he was promptly released. Returned to Canada, settled at Williamstown, and represented Glengarry from 1820 to 1824 in the Assembly of Upper Canada. Index: MS Sent by North[56] West Company to Red River to break up Red River Colony, 173; wins ten colonists from their allegiance to Selkirk, 173; takes them to Upper Canada, 174; captured by Semple and sent to York Factory, and finally to England, 178. Bib.: Bryce, Manitoba and Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. Cameron's Sketch of the Customs, etc., of the Natives in the Nipigon Country, and Nipigon Journal, 1804-1805, are in Masson, vol. 2.

Cameron, James. Mc Attempts to kidnap Mackenzie, 464.

Cameron, John Hillyard (1817-1876). Solicitor-general, Upper Canada, 1846-1848; represented Cornwall in Legislative Assembly, 1846-1847 and 1848-1851; Toronto, 1854; Peel, 1861-1866. Represented Peel in first Dominion Parliament, 1867-1872; Cornwall, 1872-1874; and 1874-1876. Index: E Elected 1848, 50. B Opposes Confederation scheme, his motion for an appeal to the people defeated, 185. BL Defeated in elections of 1848, 279. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Cameron, Malcolm (1808-1876). Elected to Assembly of Upper Canada for Lanark, 1836. A persistent opponent of the Family Compact. Appointed inspector of revenue, under Bagot. Held various offices in the La Fontaine-Baldwin and Hincks administrations. In 1863 resigned his seat, to accept appointment as Queen's Printer. Represented South Lanark in Dominion House, 1874-1876. Index: B Opposes George Brown in Kent and Lambton, 1851, 40, 41; a Clear Grit, who had joined Hincks-Morin government, 40-41; defeated by Brown, 77. BL Opens discussion on responsible government, 1841, 90; assistant commissioner of public works, 1848, 284; a bitter opponent of Sir F.B. Head—held minor office under Bagot, radical in his sympathies, 284; his resignation, 337; a leader of the Radicals, 341. E Elected 1847, 50; becomes assistant commissioner of public works, in La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 53; a leading member of Clear Grits, 110; joins Hincks-Morin government, 112; president of the Executive Council, 113; becomes minister of new department of agriculture, 117; postmaster-general, 1853, 126; defeated in Lambton, 134; advocates complete secularization of Clergy Reserves, 163. R Opposes separate schools, 224. Bib.: Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Morgan, Cel. Can.

Cameron, Sir Matthew Crooks (1822-1887). Born in Dundas, Ontario. Educated at the Home District Grammar School, Toronto, and at Upper Canada College; studied law and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1849. Sat in the Assembly for North Ontario, 1861-1863 and 1864-1867. Defeated in North Ontario for election to the House of Commons, 1867. Elected to the Ontario Assembly for East Toronto; provincial secretary, 1867-1871; commissioner of crown lands, 1871-1872; leader of the opposition in the Assembly, 1872-1876. Appointed judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1878; chief-justice of the Common Pleas Division of the High Court of Justice, 1884. Index: B Seconds motion to submit Confederation scheme to the people, 185. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Read, Lives of the Judges.

Cameronians. Bk 26th Regiment, stationed at Fort Niagara, 57.

Camosun. D Indian village on site of Victoria, B.C., 175; meaning of name, 175.

Campbell, Captain. Dr Accused in connection with Walker affair, 36; tried and acquitted, 38.

Campbell, General. Dr Commissioner for exchange of prisoners, 207.

Campbell, Sir Alexander (1821-1892). Studied law under John A. Macdonald,[57] with whom he later formed a partnership; and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1843. Elected to the Legislative Council, 1858; and Speaker, 1863. Commissioner of crown lands, 1864-1866; postmaster-general in first Dominion ministry, 1867-1873; minister of the interior, 1873; receiver-general, 1878-1879; postmaster-general, 1879-1880; 1880-1881; 1885-1887; minister of militia and defence, 1880; minister of justice, 1881-1885. In 1887 appointed lieutenant-governor of Ontario, an office which he retained up to the time of his death. Index: Md Enters J. A. Macdonald's law office as a student, 6; forms partnership with Macdonald, 10; his letter to Macdonald on the political situation, 31; postmaster-general in first Dominion Cabinet, 134; consults Imperial government as to proposed withdrawal of troops from Canada, Fenian Raids, etc., 168; his attempt to merge the two Canadian Pacific Railway syndicates, 200. T Delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 74; to Quebec Conference, 76; postmaster-general in first Dominion Cabinet, 129. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada.

Campbell, Sir Archibald (1769-1843). Born in Scotland. Entered the army, 1787. Served throughout the Peninsular War, 1808-1814; in 1821 commanded a regiment in India; conducted the Burmese War; and 1826-1829, governor of British Burmah. From 1831 to 1837 lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. Index: W Lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, correspondence with Goderich on crown lands, 23; with Stanley on same subject, 25; addressed by Assembly on question of revenues, 27; refuses to lay before Assembly his correspondence with colonial secretary, 28; dissolves the Assembly, 29, 31-32; opposed to popular reform, 35; refuses to assent to Civil List Bill, 44-45, 46; resigns, 47. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Campbell, Sir Colin (1776-1847). Served in India, 1801-1804, and afterwards in Denmark and the Peninsula; attached to Wellington's staff at the battle of Waterloo; promoted major-general, 1825; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1834-1840; governor of Ceylon, 1840-1847. Index: H Lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 45, 58; antagonizes popular party, 62; his removal asked for at the instance of Joseph Howe, 65-67; defended by James W. Johnstone, 67; succeeded by Lord Falkland, 69. Bib.: Howe, Letters and Speeches; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Chisholm, Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia. See also Joseph Howe.

Campbell, Robert (1808-1894). Entered service of Hudson's Bay Company, 1832, and sent to the Mackenzie River district, 1834. For the next eighteen years, engaged in exploring the upper waters of the Liard and Yukon Rivers, and establishing the fur trade in this region. In 1852 made a remarkable journey on snow-shoes, from Fort Simpson to Crow-wing, Minnesota, about three thousand miles. Made a chief factor, 1867, and retired from the service of the Company, 1871. Index: D Builds Fort Dease, 1838, 123-124; ordered to Mackenzie River department, 1834, 124; crosses to Pacific by Stikine, 124; Fort Dease burned, 124; ascends Liard River to Lake Francis, crosses to Lake Finlayson, and reaches Pelly River, 124; builds post on Lake Francis, and at Pelly Banks, 124; descends Pelly to junction with Lewes, 124; builds Fort Selkirk at mouth of Lewes, 124; descends Yukon to mouth of Porcupine, and returns to Fort Simpson by Porcupine and Mackenzie, 125. MS Ascends Liard River and discovers the Upper Yukon, 111; a Perthshire Highlander, 228; discoverer of Upper Yukon, 228. Bib.: Discovery and Exploration of the Youcon River. For biog., see Bryce, Sketch of the Life and Discoveries of Robert Campbell[58] and Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Campbell, Stewart. H Chosen leader of Anti-Confederation party in Nova Scotia, 187; chairman of Halifax meeting on behalf of Joseph Howe, 194; elected to House of Commons for Guysborough, 1867; supports Confederation, 203. Bib.: Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Campbell, Major William. Dr His correspondence with General Wayne, 286. S Placed in command of fort at rapids of Miami, 136; refuses to evacuate fort at summons of General Wayne, 139; his conduct highly approved by Simcoe, 140.

Campbell, Sir William (1758-1834). Born in Scotland. Enlisted as a private in a Highland regiment; came to America during the Revolutionary War; took part in the battle of Yorktown, 1781; after his release determined to remain in America. Studied law and called to the bar of Nova Scotia; practised his profession for nineteen years; elected to the Assembly of Cape Breton; attorney-general. Appointed to a puisne judgeship in Upper Canada, 1811; chief-justice, 1825; retired, 1829; knighted, 1829. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Read, Lives of the Judges.

Camperdown. Bk Naval victory of, 12.

Canada. Discovered by John Cabot in 1497. First settlement made by Jacques Cartier, in 1535, on the banks of the St. Charles. In 1608 Champlain founded the city of Quebec, almost on the spot where Jacques Cartier had wintered; the country ceded to Great Britain by France, by the treaty of Paris, 1763; civil government provided by Quebec Act, 1774; and a measure of responsible government by the Constitutional Act, 1791; invasion by Americans, 1775-1776; War of 1812; Rebellions of 1837-1838, in Upper and Lower Canada; union of Upper and Lower Canada, 1841; Confederation of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, 1867; Manitoba added to the Dominion, 1870; British Columbia, 1871; Prince Edward Island, 1873; provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta created, 1905. Index: Dr Surrender of, 2; under military rule till conclusion of peace, 2; acquisition of, by Britain, hastened American Revolution, 3; ceded by treaty of Paris to Great Britain, 7; its wide extent at that time, 8; French population of, at cession, 9; English-speaking population, 9; petition for restoration of its ancient limits, 61; division of, into two provinces proposed, 248; political possibilities after conquest, 253-257; boundaries of, not defined by Constitutional Act, 260. B Party government—origin of the double ministries, 81-82; election frauds in 1857, 99-100; process of expansion—Confederation and after, 264. E First railway in, 99; early political conditions in, 17-40; difficulties connected with responsible government in, 26; principles of responsible government, 228; her political system contrasted with that of United States, 241 et seq. WM Interests French commanders and their men but little, 11; its vulnerable points, 17; its strong social and political organization gave it an advantage in war, 24; but was unfavourable to internal development, 24. Sy Rapid progress made in Anglicizing previous to passing of Quebec Act, 63; unfortunate change of policy regarding, 64. F Population of, 36, 55, 58, 131, 147, 148; poverty of impresses Sister Bourgeoys, 39; morals of the people, 58, 59; overgoverned, 131; trade, 148; affected by all the vicissitudes of mother country, 150, 151; "farmers" of revenue appointed for, 154; Bishop St. Vallier's first description of country and inhabitants, 192; Governor Denonville's description, 192; St. Vallier's revised opinion, 193; real character of the people, 193-195;[59] state of depression throughout the country, 219, 240; drinking habits of people, 223; described by Laval as the country of miracles, 301; exhaustion of, after departure of New England fleet, 305, 317. See also New France; Cartier, Jacques; Cabot, John; Champlain; Quebec Act; Constitutional Act; Union Act; Upper Canada; Lower Canada; Confederation.

Canada Act. See Constitutional Act.

Canada Company. Founded in London, 1824, by John Gait, as a colonizing scheme. A large tract of land was purchased in what is now western Ontario. Dunlop, Talbot, Strickland, and other pioneers of Upper Canada were associated with Gait in the enterprise. The company is still in existence. Index: E An agency in settlement of Upper Canada, 145; its unpopularity, 145. R Offers to buy Clergy Reserves, 50. B Recommends whiskey to intending immigrants, 75. See also Galt, John; Dunlop, William; Talbot, Thomas. Bib.: Lizars, In the Days of the Canada Company; Strickland, Twenty-seven Years in Canada West; Galt, Autobiography; Jameson, Winter Sketches; Talbot, Six Years in the Canadas; McTaggart, Three Years in Upper Canada; Dunlop, The Backwoodsman.

Canada Corn Act, 1843. C Builds up flour industry in Canada, 43.

Canada First Association. B Platform, 235; criticized by the Globe, 236; suspected of aiming at national independence, 237; Goldwin Smith, leader of party, attacked by Globe, 237; his reply, 238; spirit of the movement, 239; its effect, 240-241; Liberal party injured by hostility to movement, 240-242. Md Formed in Toronto, 1870, 226; its policy, 226. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years; Canada First: A Memorial of the Late William A. Foster; Denison, The Struggle for Imperial Unity.

Canada Trade Act. Passed by Imperial Parliament in 1822, with the object of correcting the injustice to Upper Canada in the apportionment of duties collected. The Quebec Legislature had refused to re-enact the old Acts apportioning a share of duties to Upper Canada, and these Acts were now made permanent. Lower Canada was debarred from imposing new duties on imports by sea without the consent of Upper Canada and the approval of the Imperial Parliament. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada.

Canadian Alliance Society. Mc Founded, December, 1834, 258; its objects, 258. BL Founded at York, 16; its political programme, 16.

Canadian Contingents in the Boer War (1899-1902). Consisted of the Royal Canadian Infantry, Canadian Mounted Rifles, Royal Canadian Artillery, and Strathcona's Horse. The first contingent, which sailed for South Africa from Quebec, Oct. 30, 1899, numbered 1141. The second contingent, which sailed from Halifax in January and February, 1900, mustered 1320. These two contingents comprised the official Canadian contribution to the British forces in the war, but Lord Strathcona also raised a contingent at his own expense. This contingent, known as Strathcona's Horse, sailed from Halifax in March, 1900, the force numbering 540 officers and men, and 599 horses. Over 3000 Canadians therefore took part in the war against the Boers. Throughout the operations in South Africa, the Canadians signally distinguished themselves, particularly at the battle of Paardeberg on Feb. 27, 1900, when with the Gordon Highlanders and the Shropshires they led the final attack on Cronje's position. Bib.: Evans, The Canadian Contingents; Marquis, Canada's Sons on Kopje and Veldt; Doyle, The Great Boer War.

Canadian Freeman. Mc Newspaper, published by Collins, in 1825, 111.

Canadian Institute. Founded at Toronto, June 20, 1849, by Sandford Flem[60]ing, and Kivas Tully, with several other surveyors, civil engineers, and architects practising in and about Toronto. A royal charter was granted Nov. 4, 1851, in which the objects of the society are declared to be "the encouragement and general advancement of the physical sciences, the arts and the manufactures," etc. Among the early presidents were Sir W. E. Logan, Sir Henry Lefroy, Sir John Beverley Robinson, George W. Allan, W. H. Draper, Sir Daniel Wilson, and Sir Oliver Mowat. The publications of the Institute began with the Canadian Journal, 1852, and have been continued, as Proceedings, Transactions, etc., to the present time. Bib.: The Canadian Journal, 1852-1878; Proceedings, 1879-1890; Transactions, 1890- . A semi-centennial memorial volume, published 1899, contains Early Days of the Canadian Institute by Sir Sandford Fleming.

Canadian Magazines. Among the earliest magazines published in what is now Canada were the Nova Scotia Magazine, Halifax, 1789; the Quebec Magazine, Quebec, 1791-1793; L'Abeille Canadienne, Quebec, 1818-1819; the Canadian Review, 1824-1826; the Bibliothéque Canadienne, Montreal, 1825; Literary Garland, Montreal, 1838; Acadian Magazine, Halifax, 1826; and the Revue Canadienne, 1845. There have been several periodicals bearing the name of Canadian Magazine, the earliest published at Montreal in 1823; a second published at Toronto in 1833; another at Toronto, 1871; and the present periodical of the same name, which dates from 1893. Of the earlier magazines, the Literary Garland and the Revue Canadienne alone lived for any considerable time, the former having been published for over thirteen years, and the latter still survives. Bib.: Hopkins, Canada: An Ency., vol. 5.

Canadian Northern Railway. The first link in this transcontinental railway dates back to 1896, when construction was commenced on the line from Gladstone towards Lake Winnipegosis. Since then the system has been extended east and west, and within a few years will reach from the Atlantic to the Pacific, with numerous branches. Bib.: Historical Sketch of the Canadian Northern Railway in Canadian Annual Review, 1906.

Canadian Pacific Railway. The contract for construction of the railway was signed Oct. 21, 1880, the surveys having already been carried out under the direction of Sandford Fleming. Work was begun on the railway in May, 1881, and the last spike driven by Sir Donald A. Smith (now Lord Strathcona), Nov. 7, 1885. A summary of the evolution of the project will be found in Johnson's First Things in Canada. Index: Md Compact with British Columbia for its construction, 150; the Pacific Scandal, 200-211; difficulties of construction, 232; terms of agreement, 233; Mackenzie government adopts policy of government ownership, 233; Macdonald, on his return to power, reverts to original scheme, 234; contract signed September, 1880, and railway completed in five years, 234; Mackenzie's views as to time needed for completion, 234-235; Blake attacks railway policy, 235; Globe criticizes, and British financiers pessimistic, 235; directors of the syndicate, 236; terms of contract, 236; Howland syndicate, 237; financial difficulties, 237; last spike driven at Craigellachie, Nov. 7, 1885, 238; problems of operation, 238; what the great enterprise means to Canada, 238-239; its military value, 239; conflict with Manitoba as to its monopoly of transportation, 284-285; its effect on Macdonald government, 301. C First charter engineered by Cartier, 51; the railway the crowning work of Confederation, 51; its eastern terminus, 52; the Allan Company and the MacPherson Syndicate, 53; the Pacific Scandal, 53-54; bill in Parliament, 131. B Its building approved by country as a measure of national[61] growth and expansion, 241. D Revolutionizes old conditions of trade in British Columbia, 265; Imperial government asked to guarantee its completion, 315; delays in building, 317, 323; movement for a transcontinental railway, 317-318; negotiations, 318-320; Pacific Scandal, 321; Carnarvon Terms, 320-322; building operations, 324-326; completion, 1885, 326; terminus, 327. Bib.: Hopkins, Canada: An Ency., vol. 2; Parkin, The Great Dominion; Begg, History of the North-West; Fleming, Reports on Canadian Pacific Railway, 1874, 1877, 1878, 1879, 1880.

Canadian Sharpshooters. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 259, 263.

Canadien. Bk Newspaper founded in 1806, appealed to race prejudices, 92; claimed unconstitutional power for Legislative Assembly, 92, 93; on the rights of Parliament, 116; seized and temporarily suppressed by Governor Craig, 127; seizure not approved by British authorities, 147. Bib.: Dionne, Pierre Bédard et Son Temps (R. S. C., 1898).

Canals. The earliest canal in Canada and in North America was that at Lachine, which dates back to the beginning of the eighteenth century. Between 1779 and 1783, lock canals were built by the Royal Engineers, at the Coteau and the Cascades, on the St. Lawrence. In 1798 a boat canal was built at Sault Ste. Marie by the North West Company. A canal to connect the St. Lawrence and Lake Champlain was advocated as early as 1775, by Silas Deane of Connecticut, but was not actually undertaken until 1831. The Welland Canal was commenced in 1824; and the Rideau Canal two years later. These artificial waterways of Canada are controlled by the Department of Railways and Canals, of the Dominion government. Index: Bk First in American continent made in Canada, 48. BL Construction and improvement of, provided for by government in 1841, 98; completion of St. Lawrence canals, 286-287. B Improvement of, advocated by George Brown, 61; extension of, approved by Quebec Conference, 166; enlargement of, suggested by Fish, United States secretary of state, in 1874, 227. S Four made at different points on St. Lawrence, 112. P Opposed by Papineau, 172. See also Waterways; and under names of individual canals, as Lachine; Rideau; Welland, etc. Bib.: Keefer, Canals of Canada (R. S. C., 1893); Waterways of Canada (Women's Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, Trans., vol. 2); Kingsford, Canadian Canals; Report of Royal Commission on Canals, 1871; Annual Reports on Railways and Canals, Ottawa.

Cânanée. Ch Famous French seaman, joins Champlain at Gaspé, 141; the Turks capture his ship, the Ste. Madeleine, on the coast of Bretagne, and put him to death, 141.

Canard River. A small stream in Essex County, Ontario, falling into the Detroit River. Index: Bk Americans repulsed at, in War of 1812, 237.

Candiac, Chateau of. WM Birthplace of Montcalm, 3; position of, still remains, 5.

Canning, Charles John, Viscount (1812-1862). Postmaster-general, under Aberdeen and Palmerston. Governor-general of India, 1855, and through the period of the Indian Mutiny. Index: E His record in India, 217. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Canning, George (1770-1827). Entered British Parliament, 1793; foreign secretary, 1807; ambassador to Portugal, 1814; president of Board of Control, 1816; succeeded Londonderry as foreign secretary, 1822; prime minister, 1827. A consistent advocate of constitutional principles. Index: Sy Foreign secretary and afterwards prime minister, 16; death of, 16.[62] Bk Secretary of war, 81; deals with matter of Leopard and Chesapeake, 83, 85; disapproves of Walcheren expedition, 118; foreign secretary, 120. Bib.: Canning, Speeches; Stapleton, Political Life of George Canning; Stapleton, George Canning and His Times; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Cannon, Captain. WM Repulses landing of English, 107.

Canterbury, John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton, Viscount (1814-1877). Born in England. Entered Parliament, 1841; home secretary from 1841 to 1846 in Peel's ministry. From 1854 to 1861, lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick; in 1864-1866 governor of Trinidad; and in 1866-1873 governor of Victoria. Index: T Dissolves New Brunswick Assembly, 38-39. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

"Canvas House." S Purchased by Simcoe from Captain Cook, and used as winter residence at York, 204.

Cap de la Victoire. On St. Lawrence, near mouth of Richelieu. Index: Ch Fur trade carried on at, 119, 139.

Cap du Ciel. Ch French vessel seized by English, 222.

Cap Rouge. On the St. Lawrence, above Quebec. Index: WM Vaudreuil orders posting of two hundred men at, 162; Bougainville's headquarters at, 163; difficulty of crossing the river, 248.

Cape Breton. An island at the eastern extremity of Nova Scotia, now forming part of that province. Discovered by John Cabot in 1497. First settlement made by the French in 1712. Town of Louisbourg built and strongly fortified. It was captured by Pepperrell and Warren in 1745; restored to France by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748; again captured by the British, under Amherst and Boscawen, 1758. Cape Breton was a separate colony of Great Britain, 1784-1820, with Sydney (founded 1785) as its capital. In 1820 it was incorporated with Nova Scotia. Index: Ch Named St. Lawrence Island by Champlain, 236; Jesuit mission at, for benefit of Micmacs, 236; maintained until 1659, 237. See also Louisbourg; Sydney; Nova Scotia. Bib.: Brown, History of Cape Breton; Bourinot, Cape Breton and its Memorials; Grant, Cape Breton, Past and Present.

Cape Diamond, Quebec. Ch Fortified, 157.

Cape St. Vincent. Bk British naval victory of, 10.

Car Brigade. Bk Formed, 196.

Carden, Major. Dr Killed in dispersing Ethan Allen's force, 99.

Cardinal Joseph. P At meeting of Constitutional Committee, 1834, 88.

Carey. Sy Made deputy inspector-general, 333.

Carheil, Étienne de. A Breton, of noble birth. Came to Canada as a Jesuit missionary in 1666. After two years spent at Quebec, left in 1668 for his mission among the Cayugas. Spent a number of years there in a zealous but largely fruitless effort to convert the Indians to Christianity. In 1683 sent to the Hurons at Michilimackinac, and laboured among that tribe for many years. Finally returned to Quebec, where he died. Bib.: Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America; Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites.

Cariboo Gold-fields. D History of, 284-289.

Carignan-Salières. The first regiment of regular troops sent to America from France. Raised in Savoy by the Prince of Carignan in 1644; employed for some years in the service of the king of France, and after the peace of the Pyrenees, was regularly incorporated in the French army. Fought against the Turks in 1664, and ordered to America the following year. With the original regiment was incorporated the fragment of a regiment of Germans, the whole under the[63] command of Colonel de Salières. The regiment served with distinction in Canada until 1668, when it was ordered home; a large number of officers and men, however, remained in the colony, where they were given generous grants of land. The regiment was reconstructed in France, and under the name of the Regiment of Lorraine existed until 1794. Index: L Gives strength to the colony, 53; discharged soldiers of, become settlers, 77; further detachment of, arrives, 79. E Officers settle on lands along the Richelieu, 178-179, 181. F Sent out, 51; some of the officers settle in Canada and become seigneurs, 57. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime; Susane, Ancienne Infanterie Française, vol. 5.

Carillon, Fort. Hd Repulse of British forces at, 18-21. WM The fort defended by Montcalm with De Lévis and Bourlamaque, 54-55; attacked by the British under Abercromby, 55-60; failure of the attack, 60-61; Bourlamaque evacuates the fort and destroys it, 146. See also Ticonderoga. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Carion, Philippe de. L Lays second foundation stone of church at Montreal, 88. F Officer at Montreal, refuses to recognize Frontenac's order for arrest of coureurs de bois, 91.

Carleton, Christopher. Dr Father of Guy Carleton, 29; his widow marries Rev. Thomas Skelton, 29.

Carleton, Sir Guy. See Dorchester.

Carleton, Lady Maria. Dr Gains social popularity at Quebec, 162; lives to great age, 308; her extreme hauteur, 309.

Carleton, Thomas (1736-1817). Served with Wolfe in 1755; quartermaster-general of the army in Canada, 1775; wounded in the naval battle on Lake Champlain, 1776. Appointed first lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 1784. Returned to England in 1803; the colony was governed by administrators until 1817, when General Smyth was appointed governor. Index: Dr Nephew of Lord Dorchester, 249; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 249. W First governor of New Brunswick, 5; his Council, 5; opposes reforms in government, 13; grants charter to Fredericton Academy, 86. Hd Devastates country bordering on Lake Champlain, 149; his expedient for obtaining rebel letters, 194; his connection with the Du Calvet case, 280, 281. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bradley, The Making of Canada.

Carleton Island. Hd Indians of, 148; projects of Americans against, 150; reinforcements sent to, 153; depot for stores established at, great cost of transporting provisions to, 184.

Carling, Sir John (1828- ). Represented town of London in Legislative Assembly, 1857-1867; and continued to sit for the same constituency in the Dominion Parliament. Appointed receiver-general in Cartier-Macdonald ministry, 1862; and commissioner of agriculture and public works in Ontario government, 1867. Entered federal government as postmaster-general, 1882; minister of agriculture, 1885-1892. Called to the Senate, 1891; resigned, 1892; again called, 1896. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.

Carlton House. Two forts of this name were founded by the Hudson's Bay Company. One stood on the banks of the Saskatchewan, above the forks; the other on the upper waters of the Assiniboine. Both were established about the end of the eighteenth century. Index: MS Built by Hudson's Bay Company, 6.

Carnarvon, Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, fourth Earl of (1831-1890). Colonial secretary, 1866-1867, and as such introduced the British North America Act; colonial secretary again, 1874-1878; chairman of Colonial Defence Commission, 1879-1882. Joined Imperial Federation League, 1884. Index: Md[64] President of Westminster Conference in London, 126; effect of his resignation on Confederation, 128; Macdonald's letter to, on the franchise, 259. T Conference with, on Confederation scheme, 122. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Caroline. Mc Steamboat, goes over Niagara Falls, 419; cutting out of, 420; merits of act, 421; international complications, 423. Bib.: Drew and Wood, The Burning of the Caroline; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Caroline Almanac. Mc Mackenzie publishes, 459.

Caron, Sir Joseph Philippe Réné Adolphe (1843-1908). Born in Quebec. Studied law; entered public life in 1873 as member of Dominion House for Quebec County; elected for Rimouski, 1891. Minister of militia and defence, 1880-1892; postmaster-general, 1892. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.

Caron, Réné Édouard (1800-1876). Born in the parish of Ste. Anne, Lower Canada. Educated at the Seminary of Quebec and at St. Pierre College; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1826. Mayor of Quebec, 1833-1837; sat in Assembly, 1834-1836; appointed a member of the Legislative Council of Lower Canada by Lord Gosford, but did not take his seat. Member of the Legislative Council of Canada, 1841; Speaker, 1843-1847 and 1848-1853; member of the La Fontaine-Baldwin government and of the Hincks-Morin government; judge of the Superior Court of Quebec, 1853; afterwards judge of the Court of Queen's Bench and judge of the Seigniorial Court. Index: BL Mayor of Quebec, and member of Legislative Council, 1841, 83; a man of liberal views, 83; member of La Fontaine's ministry, 83; Speaker of Legislative Council—acts as go-between for Draper and La Fontaine, 259-263; president of Legislative Council, 284. E Refuses to enter Draper ministry, 43; becomes president of Council in first La Fontaine-Baldwin Cabinet, 53; leading member of Liberal party in Lower Canada, 109; president of Council in Hincks-Morin government, 113; raised to Bench, 126; judge of Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib.: Turcotte, R. E. Caron; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty Years and Can. Por.

Carondelet. S Spanish governor of Louisiana, his proposition to Simcoe to assist in repelling expected French invasion, 134-136.

Carroll, Charles (1737-1832). Represented Maryland in the Congress at Philadelphia, 1776, and signed the Declaration of Independence. Afterwards elected to the Senate of Maryland and the federal Senate. Index: Dr Accompanies Franklin to Canada, 135. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Carter, Sir Frederic Bowker Terrington (1819-1900). Born at St. John's, Newfoundland. Studied law and called to the bar of Newfoundland, 1842; appointed Q. C., 1859. Member of the Legislative Assembly, 1855-1878; Speaker, 1861-1865; premier, 1865-1870 and 1874-1878; knighted, 1878; chief-justice of Newfoundland, 1880. Represented Newfoundland at the Quebec Conference, 1864. Index: T Speaker of Newfoundland Assembly, delegate to Quebec Conference, 77. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Morgan, Can. Men.

Carter, Sir James (1805-1878). Born in England. Educated at Cambridge; called to the bar, 1832. In 1834 a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick, and in 1851 chief-justice of the province, retiring on a pension in 1865. In 1859 knighted. Spent the latter part of his life in England. Index: W Appointed to New Brunswick Bench and afterwards chief-justice, 74, 130; releases Doak and Hill, 75. T Appointed to New Brunswick Bench, 17, 31; resigns as chief-justice, 1865, 93. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Cartier, Sir Georges Étienne (1814-1873). Md Associated with Macdonald in MacNab-Taché ministry, 75; forms administration, 86-88; member of mis[65]sion to England to confer with British government on Confederation, defence, reciprocity, etc., 120; acquisition of North-West Territories, 156-157; supports demand of Red River for self-government, 160; takes advantage of Macdonald's illness to attempt to forestall the Wolseley expedition, 161-162; leads the House during Macdonald's absence in Washington, 173; defeated in Montreal, his influence weakened in Quebec, 195; his early life and alliance with Macdonald, 266; his splendid work for Confederation and its inadequate recognition, 267; the C. B. replaced by a baronetcy, 267; his defeat in Montreal East, 1872, 268; his death in England in 1873, 268; Macdonald's tribute to, on unveiling of his statue, 268. T Delegate to England in union negotiations, 63; at Charlottetown Conference, 74; at Quebec Conference, 76; presented to the queen, 124; in first Confederation ministry, 129. P A man of action, 1; lacking hi personal magnetism, 2; compared with Papineau, 2; blames Papineau and his friends for expelling Mondelet from Assembly, 72. E On Papineau's responsibility for amendment to Union Act, 122; first elected to Legislature in 1849—government candidate for speakership in 1854, defeated, 135,136; his statue, 226. C Follows Papineau, 1; subsequent loyalty to British constitution, 1; born at St. Antoine, on the Richelieu, 3; a descendant of Jacques Cartier, 3; parentage, 3; education, 3-5; Papineau's influence, 5; studies law with Édouard Rodier, 7; Rodier's influence, 7; the poet of Les Fils de la Liberté, 7; takes part in the Rebellion, 7, 8; his escape and exile, 8-9; returns to Montreal, 9; statesmanlike attitude towards Union Act, 16; takes the field against D. B. Viger, 17; his maiden speech, 17, 19; bitterness against Papineau, 18; enters the Assembly, 1849, for Verchères, 21; a born leader, 21; offered seat in Hincks-Morin ministry, 1851, and again in 1853, 22; enters Cabinet, 1855, 22; his law practice, 22-23; causes of his success as a political leader, 23-24; and clerical influence, 28; helped by Radicalism of Liberals, 29; defeated at general election, 1872, by Le Parti National, 30; member of Executive Council, 1855, 31; alliance with Sir Allan MacNab and John A. Macdonald, 31, 33; urges settlement of Seigniorial Tenure, 32; his political principles, 32-33; defends alliance with Upper Canada Conservatives, 33-34; bitterly attacked in Verchères election, 34; breadth of his political activities, 35; reorganizes system of public instruction, 37-38; protects interests of Protestant minority, 38; establishes judicial districts, 38; codifies the laws, 39; gives civil status to parishes, 39-40; his independence, 40-41; his interest in railways and other means of transportation, 45-50; his connection with Pacific Scandal, 53-54; works for Confederation, 55-56; insists on the federal principle, 57-58; and Confederation, 59-65: delegate to London to see British North America Act through Parliament, 67; guest of the queen, 67; elected practically without opposition, 67; premier of Canada, 1858, 62, 67; advises Lord Monck to intrust Taché with duty of forming Cabinet, 68; purchase of Hudson's Bay Company's territories, 68; his definition of the position of French-Canadians, 69; ignores Bishop Taché's warning as to trouble in North-West, 70; introduces Manitoba Bill, 71; safeguards interests of Roman Catholics in Manitoba as to their schools, 71-73; separate schools in New Brunswick, 73; defends federal policy of non-interference, 74-76; loses support of the Ultramontanes, 79-84; defeated in Montreal East, 84; his illness, 85; resigns upon defeat of Militia Bill, 1862, 87; reorganizes the militia, 1868, 87-88; his speeches on British connection, 92; protests against withdrawal of British troops, 92; his political wisdom, 98; establishes political union of the country, 99-100; secret of his Power, 101; relations towards Macdonald, 101-103; his character and policy,[66] 105-108; his personal appearance, 108; his optimism and humour, 109-110; his conservatism, 111; advice to his fellow-countrymen, 112; views on property, 113-114; his economic creed, 115-116; Sir Wilfrid Laurier on, 116-117; religious views, 117; early home influences, 118-122; his social qualities, 122-124; difficulty over his refusal of the honour of C. B., 124-129; made a baronet, 128; quarrel with Wolseley, 130; his last appearance in Parliament, 131; his health breaks down, 131-132; his death in London, May 23, 1873, 132. B And the "Double Shuffle," 107; called on in 1864 to form ministry, but fails, 149; Brown's motion for constitutional changes, 1864, 150; meeting with Brown, 152; Brown's alliance with, for Confederation, 153; suggested by John A. Macdonald as premier of coalition ministry, 191; asks Brown to reconsider his resignation, 196; his prejudice against the Rouges, 200; compared with Joseph Howe, 204. H Accompanies Sir John Macdonald to Halifax in 1868, 210. Bib.: Author of Speeches on the Militia Bill, and of the popular song, O Canada! Mon Pays, Mes Amours! For biog., see David, Esquisse Biographique; Morgan, Cel. Can.: Taylor, Brit. Am.: Dent. Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Turcotte, Sir G. E. Cartier.

Landing of Jacques Cartier at Quebec, 1535 From the painting by A. Suzor Cote Landing of Jacques Cartier at Quebec, 1535 From the painting by A. Suzor Cote

Cartier, Jacques (1491-1557). In 1534, sailing out of St. Malo, made his first voyage to the New World, entering the Gulf of St. Lawrence by way of the Straits of Belle Isle, landing on the Gaspé shore, and coasting around the eastern end of Anticosti. Returned to France. The following year again sailed to the gulf, and entered the river St. Lawrence. Continuing his voyage, passed the mouth of the Saguenay, and landed on the Island of Orleans, which he named Île Bacchus. Brought his little ships into the St. Charles River, upon whose banks stood the Indian village of Stadaconé. After exploring the St. Lawrence as far as the Indian town of Hochelaga (Montreal), returned to Stadaconé, where he wintered. In the spring of 1536 sailed back to France, taking with him the Iroquois chief, Donnacona. In 1541, made a third voyage to Canada. Roberval was to have followed with a number of colonists, but did not actually sail until the spring of 1542. When he reached Newfoundland, he met Cartier on his way home. Roberval's colony proved disastrous, and Cartier undertook a fourth voyage to the New World to rescue the survivors. Index: Ch Names Hare Island, 13; ravages of scurvy among his men, 23; finds a remedy in the plant aneda, 29; Membertou pretends to have met him in 1534, 36; his winter quarters identified by Champlain, 44-45; his Rivière de Fouez identified as the St. Maurice, 52. F His voyages, 1; attempt at colonization, 2. L With his men, receives communion from bishop of St. Malo, 7. C Sir Georges É. Cartier a descendant of the explorer's family, 3. Bib.: For a complete list of the original editions of Cartier's voyages, see Harrisse, Notes pour Servir, etc. Tross, Paris, reprinted them as follows: D'Avezac, Bref Récit et Succinte Narration de la Navigation Faite par le Capitaine Jacques Cartier aux Îles de Canada, etc. (1863); Michelant et Ramé, Voyage de Jacques Cartier au Canada en 1534 (1865); Michelant et Ramé, Relation Originale, du Voyage de Jacques Cartier au Canada en 1534 (1867). The first English version is that of Florio (1580). In 1600 Hakluyt included a more accurate translation in his Principal Navigations. H. B. Stephen's essay, Jacques Cartier and his Voyages to Canada, is accompanied by a new translation of the voyages. The Cartier voyages are discussed in the Trans. R. S. C., by W. F. Ganong (1887), (1889); Paul de Gazes (1884), (1890); Abbé Verreau (1890), (1891), (1897); Archbishop Howley (1894); and in the Quebec Lit. and Hist. Soc. Trans., Voyages de Découvertes au Canada (1843); Demazieres,[67] Notes sur Jacques Cartier (1862). See also Pope, Jacques Cartier; Winsor, Cartier to Frontenac; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Des Longrais, Jacques Cartier; Dionne, La Nouvelle France de Cartier à Champlain; Dent, Can. Por.

Cartwright, J. S. Sy Opposes union of provinces in Upper Canada Assembly, 207, 211.

Cartwright, Rev. Richard. Sy Assists in funeral service of Lord Sydenham, 344.

Cartwright, Richard (1759-1815). Born at Albany, New York. On the outbreak of hostilities with the mother country came with his parents to Upper Canada. For a time served as secretary to Colonel Butler of the Queen's Rangers, and later engaged in business at Kingston in partnership with Robert Hamilton. Made judge of the Court of Common Pleas for the district, and on the formation of Upper Canada into a separate province appointed to the Legislative Council. Urged to accept a seat in the Executive Council, but repeatedly refused. Created lieutenant of the county of Frontenac by Simcoe, and during the War of 1812 served as colonel of the militia. Occupied a position of great prominence in the political and business life of the province. Index: BL Offered and refuses solicitor-generalship of Upper Canada, 120; his letter of explanation, 121. R His influence on Strachan, 37. Bk Brock's high opinion of, 179. S On later emigration from United States, 57; member of Legislative Council, 79; his report on marriage question, in Upper Canada, 86; accused by Simcoe of republicanism, 97, 98; asserts his loyalty, 98; advises Simcoe in regard to land regulations, 103; describes methods of business in early times, 109. Bib.: Cartwright, Life and Letters of Hon. Richard Cartwright.

Cartwright, Sir Richard John (1835- ). Grandson of the preceding. Born at Kingston. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Entered public life, 1863, as member for Lennox and Addington. Minister of finance in Mackenzie Cabinet, 1873-1878. On the return of the Liberals to power, in 1896, became minister of trade and commerce. Index: Md Favours commercial union, 297; introduces unrestricted reciprocity resolution, 1888, 298-299; his modified resolution of 1889, 299. B His account of pre-confederation scenes in the house, 153-154. C Discussion with Cartier in 1872, on the militia, 110. Bib.: Works: Remarks on the Militia of Canada; Memories of Confederation. For biog., see Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Carver, Jonathan (1732-1780). Born at Stillwater, New York. Joined the company of rangers raised by John Burk of Northfield, 1756-1757. After the treaty of Paris, 1763, conceived the idea of exploring the Western territory acquired by England. Between 1766 and 1768, travelled from Michilimackinac to the Mississippi, ascended the Minnesota River, and returned by way of Grand Portage, Lake Superior. Went to England, 1769, to secure government support for his plans of Western exploration, but failed. Died there, Jan. 31, 1780. Index: D His River of Oregon, 19; reference to Oregon, 56-57. Bib.: Travels through the Interior Parts of North America, in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768. The best edition is the third, published at London, 1781. For a bib. of the various editions, and translations, see Lee, Bibliography of Carver's Travels (Wisconsin State Hist. Soc. Proc., 1909). See also Durrie, Jonathan Carver and "Carver's Grant" (Wisconsin Hist. Soc. Coll., vol. 6); Gregory, Jonathan Carver: His Travels in the North-West (Parkman Club Pub., No. 5); Bourne, Travels of Jonathan Carver in Amer. Hist. Review, 1906; Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac.

Cas Reservé. L In connection with sale of liquor to Indians, 171, 174.[68]

Cascades. On the St. Lawrence River. Hd Improvements in navigation at, 185.

Case, William. R Visits England, 1831, 90; his connection with split in Methodist body, 105.

Casgrain, Henri Raymond (1831-1904). After studying medicine, decided to enter the church, and ordained a priest in 1856. In 1872, owing to an affection of the eyes, compelled to abandon the ministry, and thereafter devoted himself entirely to literature. His first work, Légendes Canadiennes, appeared in 1861; and this was followed by many other publications, in history, biography, and belles-lettres. One of the principal contributors to the Soirées Canadiennes, the Foyer Canadien, and other French-Canadian periodicals. A charter member of the Royal Society of Canada; elected president of that body in 1889. Index: L His pen-portrait of Mme. de la Peltrie, 153-154. Ch On the question of Champlain's tomb, 261-262. Bib.: Among his principal works are: Histoire de la Mère Marie de l'Incarnation; Biographies Canadiennes; Un Pélerinage au Pays d'Evangéline; Montcalm et Lévis. For bib., see R. S. C., 1894, 21. For biog., see Routhier, Éloge historique de H. R. Casgrain (R. S. C., 1904); Morgan, Can. Men.

Cass, Lewis (1782-1866). Served under General Hull in War of 1812. Drew up Hull's flamboyant proclamation to the people of Canada. Opposed surrender of Detroit. Governor of territory of Michigan. Index: Bk On surrender of Detroit, 257. Bib.: Contributed to Historical Sketches of Michigan, 1834. For biog., see McLaughlin, Lewis Cass; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Castillon, Jacques de. Ch Assisted in forming Company of New France, 168; presents pictures to church of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance, 240.

Castle Frank. S Country chalet built for Simcoe near York, 215.

Castle of St. Louis. See Château St. Louis.

Catalogne, Gédéon de. Employed for some years on military and other engineering works in Canada. In 1701 commenced a canal from Lachine to the Little River, with the object of providing a boat channel around the rapids. The work was abandoned, and resumed in 1717, but was again abandoned, owing to the cost of the rock cutting. Accompanied Denonville on his expedition against the Iroquois, in 1687.

Cataraqui. A fort, built by the engineer Raudin in 1673, under Frontenac's orders, the site having been selected by La Salle. The fort stood at the mouth of the Cataraqui, on the site of the present city of Kingston. Here Frontenac held a great Council with representatives of the five Iroquois nations, 1673. On Frontenac's recommendation, Cataraqui was granted to La Salle as a seigniory, upon his repaying the amount the fort had cost the king. Fort Frontenac, as La Salle named it, became the base of his ambitious scheme of western explorations. Index: F Expedition of Courcelles to, 59; of Frontenac, 76-84; fort, afterwards known as Fort Frontenac, erected at, 83. Hd Lands allotted to Loyalists in neighbourhood of, 236, 255; settlers at, 258, 265. S Barracks of, on site of old Fort Frontenac, 51; Loyalist settlements in surrounding country, 58; detail of, 59. See also Kingston; Fort Frontenac; La Salle. Bib.: Machar, Old Kingston; Sulte, Le Fort de Frontenac (R. S. C., 1901); Girouard, L'Expédition du Marquis de Denonville (R. S. C., 1899).

Cathcart, Charles Murray, Earl (1783-1859). Served in Holland, 1799; saw service through Peninsular War; fought at Waterloo; assumed title, 1843; succeeded General Jackson as commander-in-chief of the forces in British North America, 1845; administrator the same year, on the departure of Sir[69] Charles Metcalfe; governor-general, 1846; succeeded by Lord Elgin, 1847. Index: Md Succeeds Metcalfe as governor-general, 25; correspondence with Draper over Macdonald's appointment to Cabinet, 26. BL Becomes administrator, and afterwards governor-general, 265-266; his character and attitude towards political questions in Canada, 266. E Succeeds Metcalfe as governor-general, more interested in problems of defence than in politics, 38; replaced by Elgin, 40; his instructions to Rebellion Losses Commission, 65. B His appointment and character, 28; warns British government of disaffection in Canada, 31. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Morgan, Cel. Can.

Catherine. Ch Champlain sails for France in (1626), 155.

Cauchon, Joseph Édouard (1816-1885). Educated at the Séminaire de Québec; studied law and called to the bar, but turned immediately to journalism. Edited Le Canadien for a time; and in 1842 established the Journal de Québec. Entered public life, 1844, as member for Montmorency, which county he represented continuously until 1872. Entered MacNab government, 1855, as commissioner of crown lands. Became commissioner of public works in Cartier-Macdonald ministry, 1861-1862. Speaker of the Senate, 1868-1872. Accepted presidency of the Council in Mackenzie administration, 1875-1877; minister of inland revenue, 1877. Resigned the same year to accept the lieutenant-governorship of Manitoba, 1877-1882. Index: C As journalist and politician, 24; attitude towards Cartier, 24; his writings, 24; praises Cartier in the Journal de Québec, 88. E Brings up question of Seigniorial Tenure in Parliament, 126; votes against secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 164. Bib.: Works: Remarks on the North-West Territories; Étude sur l'Union Projectée des Provinces Britanniques; L'Union des Provinces de l'Amérique du Nord. For biog., see Revue Canadienne, 1884; Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.

Caughnawaga Indians. A community of Iroquois, chiefly drawn from the Oneida and Mohawk, and speaking a modification of the Mohawk tongue. Having been converted by the Jesuit missionaries, they were induced to settle in 1668 at La Prairie, near Montreal. In 1676 they removed to Sault St. Louis, and the majority have remained in that vicinity ever since. About 1755 a new settlement was formed at St. Regis, farther up the St. Lawrence. Many accompanied the fur traders to the west as hunters. In the narratives of the fur trade they are referred to as Iroquois. Index: Hd Their sympathies secured for Congress by Jesuits, 130; village of, burned by Sir John Johnson, 156; their disloyalty, 189. Bib.: Colden, Five Nations; Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Caumont. Ch Pont-Gravé's clerk, 121; chief clerk of De Monts's (Rouen) company at Quebec, 133.

Cayahoga. Bk United States schooner carrying Hull's stores and baggage, captured, 218.

Cayet, Victor Palma. Ch His work on French navigation, 15.

Cayley, William. Inspector-general, 1845-1848, and again, 1854-1858. By the Act of 1859, the office was changed to minister of finance. Index: E Inspector-general, 1854, 140; favours division of Clergy Reserves among various denominations, 163. B Galt takes his place in government, 107. Bib.: Finances and Trade of Canada. For biog., see Dent, Last Forty Years.

Cayugas. One of the tribes of the Iroquois confederacy. Parkman gives four forms of the name: Cayugas, Caiyoquos, Goiogoens, Gweugwehonoh. Their fighting strength is given in the Relation of 1660 as 300. At this time, however, they had been weakened by continual warfare. The Cayuga villages[70] stood on the shore of Cayuga Lake, and their territory extended from that lake to the Owasco, both included. The tribe lay between the Senecas on the west and the Onondagas on the east. By the beginning of the nineteenth century they had been crowded off their ancestral lands, and scattered abroad. Some seven hundred are now on the Six Nation reserve, in the Niagara peninsula. The remainder are for the most part in the western United States. Index: Ch Iroquois tribe, 50. See also Iroquois; Senecas; Onondagas; Mohawks; Tuscaroras. Bib.: Pilling, Iroquoian Languages. See also Iroquois.

Cazeau, François. Hd Arrested on charge of treason, 279.

Census. The first census in Canada seems to have been taken in 1640, when the inhabitants numbered 375, distributed as follows: married men, 64; married women (three born in Canada), 64; widower, 1; widows, 4; unmarried men, 35; boys (30 born in Canada), 58; girls (24 born in Canada), 48; nuns, 6; Jesuits, 29; others, 66. Benjamin Sulte finds the population in 1650 to have been 705; and in 1663 about 2500. The census of 1665 gives the total population as 3251. The first census of the Dominion was taken in 1871, when the population was 3,635,024; the census of 1881 gave a total of 4,324,810; of 1891, 4,833,239; of 1901, 5,371,315. See also Acadians. Index: E Provided for by La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 86; placed under Department of Agriculture by Hincks-Morin government, 117. F Of 1666, 55. Bib.: Census of Canada, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901. See also Johnson, First Things in Canada; and General Index, Trans. R. S. C., under Census.

Centurion. WM Admiral Saunders's ship, in action off Beauport shore, 136.

Chabanel, Noél. Jesuit missionary in the Huron country, 1643. Had been a professor of rhetoric in France, before coming to Canada. When the Hurons were driven from their country by the Iroquois, in 1649, he and Garnier led their demoralized flock to the Island of St. Joseph, in Matchadash Bay, an inlet of Georgian Bay. Even here the Iroquois followed them, and attacked the mission of St. Jean, Dec. 7, 1649. Chabanel had left the place a short time before, and so escaped the general massacre. He, however, fell a victim to one of his own Hurons, who confessed that he had murdered the missionary and thrown his body into a river. Index: L Died a martyr, 62. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America.

Chabot, J. (1807-1860). Born at St. Charles, Bellechasse, Lower Canada. Studied law and practised in Quebec. Sat in the Assembly for Quebec, 1843-1850; for Bellechasse, 1851-1854; and for Quebec, 1854-1856. Became chief commissioner of public works, 1849, and again in 1852; government director of the Grand Trunk, 1854; and Seigniorial Tenure commissioner the same year. Appointed judge of the Superior Court of Lower Canada, 1856. Index: E Commissioner of public works, 1853, 126; and again in coalition ministry, 1854, 141; votes against secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 164; commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 186. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Chalmers, Thomas. R Offered, but declines, charge of educational policy in Upper Canada, 37.

Chamberlain, Joseph (1836- ). British statesman. Mc Justifies Upper Canada Rebellion, 29, 30. Bib.: Who's Who.

Chambers, Captain. Bk Sent to Moraviantown to oppose enemy, 219, 235; in command of 2d Brigade, 247.

Chambly, Jacques de. An officer of the Carignan Regiment; built Fort St. Louis, on the Richelieu, 1665, and given its command. In 1672 the seigniory of Chambly granted to him. Succeeded De Grandfontaine as governor of[71] Acadia; transferred to Grenada; and later to Martinique, where he died. Index: F Appointed governor of Acadia, 90, 269; taken prisoner to Boston and there set at liberty, 269; again governor, 270; governor of Grenada (W. I.), 270. Bib.: Sulte, Régiment de Carignan (R. S. C., 1902).

Chambly. Fort, otherwise known as St. Louis, on the Richelieu. Built by Jacques de Chambly, 1665. Index: F Fort erected at, 51. Dr Captured by Montgomery, 99; abandoned, 146. L Fort erected at, 53. Hd Weak defences of, 134.

Champdoré. Ch Carpenter to De Monts's expedition, 22.

Champlain, Antoine. Ch Father of Samuel Champlain, 1.

Champlain, Samuel (1567?-1635). WM His elevated sentiments, 20. Ch Birth and education, 1; sails to West Indies, Mexico, and Panama in command of Spanish vessel, 3, 4; suggests channel through isthmus, 5; captures English vessels and returns to France, 6; publishes account of travels, 7; obtains pension and made hydrographer to king of France, 8; accepts offer of Aymar de Chastes of Dieppe to go to Canada, 9; arrives at Tadoussac, 10; explores Saguenay, 12; ascends St. Lawrence to Sault St. Louis, anchors at Quebec, and explores Gaspesia, 13; sails for France, 14; submits narrative of his voyages to the king, 14; accompanies De Monts to Acadia, 19; explores country and gives names to places, 19; describes river St. John, 20; discovers a copper mine, 22; makes plan of Ste. Croix Island, 24; explores coast of Norembega, 25; describes Pentagouet (Penobscot) River, 27; further explorations, 30; describes settlement at Port Royal, 32; returns to France, 37; sails for Quebec, 40; resists Basque traders, 40; arrives at Quebec, 41; conspiracy formed against, 42; execution of chief conspirator, 43; explores vicinity of Quebec, 44; illness, 46; fits out expedition against Iroquois, 47; conference with Huron chiefs, 48; his Indian policy, 49-52; encounter with Iroquois on Lake Champlain, 53; sails for France, 54; has audience with the king, 55; consults with De Monts, 56; returns to Canada, 59; arrives at Quebec, 61; proceeds again to attack Iroquois, 61; wounded in encounter near mouth of Richelieu River, 62; returns to Quebec, 63; hears of the assassination of Henry IV, and sails for France, 64; marries Hélène Boullé, 65-67; returns to Canada, 67; arrives at Quebec, 68; makes a clearing at Montreal, 69; names St. Helen's Island after his wife, 69; sails for France, 70; final interview with De Monts, 71; motives for pursuing his work in Canada, 72, 82; becomes lieutenant in Canada of Charles de Bourbon, Comte de Soissons, 73; on death of Soissons, becomes lieutenant of the Prince de Condé and returns to Canada, 73; arrives at Quebec and proceeds to Falls of St. Louis, 74; goes up the Ottawa River, 75; his astrolabe, 76; sails for France, 79; engages the services of missionaries for Canada, 83; brings to Canada three Récollet fathers and one friar, 85; arriving at Quebec, proceeds to Falls of St. Louis, 85; ascends Ottawa River, passes through Lake Nipissing into Georgian Bay and reaches territory of Hurons, 88; proceeds with Hurons on another campaign against Iroquois, 101; wounded in fight with Iroquois, 103; desires to return to Quebec, but is detained by Hurons, 103; settles quarrel between Algonquians and Hurons, 105; returns to Quebec, 106; convokes meeting to consider question of missions, 108; sails for France, 111; returns to Canada (1617), 112; sails for France (1618), 116; returns to Canada (1620), 121; his projects for the advancement of Canada, 124, 125; obtains letter from the king in his favour, 126; his commission renewed by Duc de Montmorency, 129; takes his wife to Canada, 129; receives letters from Montmorency and the king, 130, 131; his difficulties with rival Companies, 132, 136; confirmed as lieutenant of viceroy, 137; salary and trading privileges, 138; publishes or[72]dinances, 139; returns to France with his wife (1624), 141; meets Montmorency, 150; appointed by the Duc de Ventadour as his lieutenant, 152; sails for Canada (1626), 155; arrives at Quebec, 156; fortifies Cape Diamond, 157; reconstructs Fort St. Louis, 158; his treatment of the Indians, 159; tries to make an alliance with Iroquois, 160; his policy towards the Montagnais, 162; imprisons Montagnais suspected of murder, 165; receives three young Montagnais girls to be educated, 165; one of the Hundred Associates (Company of New France), 170; forms establishment at Cap Tourmente, 171; criticizes conduct of Roquemont, 175; summoned by David Kirke to surrender Quebec, 176; his answer, 178; builds mill for grinding pease, 180; sends part of population of Quebec to Gaspé, 181; asserts superiority of his commission over Pont-Grave's, 182; summoned by Kirke to surrender Quebec, 188; capitulates, 190; his action criticized, 192, 193; signs articles of capitulation on board Kirke's ship, 195; delayed several weeks at Tadoussac, 204; his two Indian girls, Esperance and Charité, taken back by the Indians, 205; embarks for France, 206; goes to London and sees French ambassador, 207; shows him map of the country, 211; names given by, to harbours and rivers of New England, 212; crosses over to France, and has interview with the king, 212; returns to Quebec (1633), 228; takes active part in civilization of Micmacs, 237; erects chapel of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance, 238; his bequest to it, 239; appointed governor, by Company of New France (Hundred Associates), 244; his last letter to Cardinal Richelieu, 246; defrays expenses of some families coming to Canada, 250; approves of exclusion of Protestants as settlers, 255; his piety, 258; death, 261; question of his tomb, 261; his will, 265; will set aside, 266; character and fame, 267; monument to, 268, 275; the Father of New France, 269; crossed the Atlantic twenty times, 270; his conduct towards and influence over Indian tribes, 271; his Indian alliances, 272; his writings, 274, 275; eulogies pronounced on, 276-279. F Early career of, 3; sails for St. Lawrence and explores river to Lachine Rapids, 4; explores Baie des Chaleurs, returns to France, 5; accompanies De Monts to Acadia, 7; founder of Quebec, 8; plot against his life, 8; expedition against Iroquois, 9; returns to France and sails again for Canada, 10; returns to France, marries, and sails again for Canada, 11; prospects island of Montreal, 12; returns to France (1611), sails for Canada (1613), again to France, again to Canada (1615), 13; brings out Récollet missionaries, 13; heads another expedition against Iroquois, 14; begins construction of Château St. Louis, 15; surrenders Quebec to English under Kirke, 20; lands in England, 21; urges restitution of Canada, 22; sails for Quebec (1633), 24; death of, 26. L His anxiety for the propagation of the faith, 4; his pious administration, 8. Bib.: Works: [OE]uvres de Champlain (Laverdière), 1870; Voyages (Laverdière), 1870; Voyages (trans. by Otis, with memoir by Slafter), 1878-1882; Grant, Voyages of Samuel de Champlain; Bourne, Champlain's Voyages; Biggar, Works of Samuel de Champlain (Champlain Society, in prep.). For bib. of the original editions, see Harrisse, Notes pour Servir, etc. For biog., see Gravier, Vie de Samuel Champlain; Sedgwick, Samuel de Champlain; Dix, Champlain: the Founder of New France; Verreau, Samuel de Champlain (R. S. C., 1899); Parkman, Pioneers of France; Dent, Can. Por.

Champlain Lake. Discovered by Samuel Champlain, July, 1609. Here took place the first hostile encounter between the French and the Iroquois. The French were the aggressors, and had bitter enough cause to remember the fact throughout the century. In 1666 the Sieur de la Motte built a fort on Île La[73] Motte, which was afterwards abandoned. Fort St. Frederic was built at Crown Point, 1731. It was enlarged and strengthened in 1734, and again in 1742. Lake Champlain became the war thoroughfare, not merely between the Iroquois and French, but between New France and New England. Fort Carillon was built, 1755-1756. With this lake are associated the names of Dieskau and Sir William Johnson, Montcalm and Abercrombie, Ethan Allen and Montgomery. Index: F Champlain reaches, in his expedition against the Iroquois, 9, 10. Hd Canada to be attacked by way of, 34; trouble among the settlers on, 89, 197; guarding against invasion from, 125, 133, 134; Major Carleton on, 149; messengers intercepted on, 129; forts captured by Ethan Allen, 198; Vermont negotiations held upon, 204; fear of rebel approach by, 208, 216; Ethan Allen offers to meet Haldimand upon, 214; Loyalists on shores of, 250. WM Montcalm at, 32, 34; 54-61; forts on, evacuated by Bourlamaque, 146. Dr Armed craft on, captured, 82; Americans evacuate Canada by way of, 146; route of attack on New England, 147; Carleton builds a fleet on, 149; description of the lake, 153; Carleton defeats Arnold on, 154-157. Ch Encounter with Iroquois at southern extremity of, 53. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Crockett, History of Lake Champlain; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Reid, Lake George and Lake Champlain; Palmer, History of Lake Champlain. See bib. note in Crockett.

Chandler, Edward Barron (1800-1880). Elected to New Brunswick Assembly, 1827, for Westmoreland, which he represented until 1836, when called to Legislative Council. Became executive councillor, 1844. Engaged in negotiations for Intercolonial Railway, 1850-1852; reciprocity, 1854; and Confederation, 1865. Succeeded Tilley as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 1878. Index: W Sent by New Brunswick Assembly to lay grievances before colonial secretary, 24; becomes member of government, 72; resigns, 76. T Goes to London to secure support for Intercolonial, 26-27; 54; member of Executive Council, 1856, 41; delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 73; to Quebec Conference, 77; Confederation delegate to England, 120. H Joins Joseph Howe in mission to Toronto on behalf of Intercolonial Railway project, 137; secures support of New Brunswick government, 139; his speech at Amherst on behalf of Howe, 140; accompanies Hincks to England on Intercolonial Railway mission, 142. B Complains at Quebec Conference, that proposed union legislative, not federal, 163. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick; Dent, Can. Por.

Chandler, Samuel. Mc Aids Mackenzie's escape, 397.

Chansons of French Canada. Most of the inimitable folk-songs of Quebec came in their original form from France, and have undergone more or less of a transformation in their new environment. A few originated in French Canada. Index: C Chansons de ronde among the habitants, 119-120; at Cartier's house, 123. Bib.: Gagnon, Chansons populaire; McLennan, Songs of old Canada; Burpee, Songs of French Canada; Wood, Footnotes to Canadian Folk-Songs (R. S. C., 1896); Bourinot, Songs of Forest and River in Rose-Belford Monthly, 1877; French Songs of Old Canada, pictured by W. Graham Robertson; Tiersot, French Folk-Songs.

Chapais, Jean Charles (1812-1885). Born in Rivière Oùelle, Quebec. Member of the Executive Council and commissioner of public works, 1864-1867. In 1867 privy councillor and minister of agriculture; and 1869-1873 receiver-general. In 1868 called to the Senate. Index: T Delegate to Quebec Conference, 76; minister of agriculture in first Dominion Cabinet, 129. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.[74]

Chapais, Joseph Amable Thomas (1858- ). Educated at Laval University. Called to the bar, 1879. Edited Le Courrier du Canada since 1884. Appointed member of Legislative Council of Quebec, 1892, and elected Speaker, 1895; president of the Executive Council, 1896, and minister of colonization, 1897. Index: F His work on Talon referred to, 57. Bib.: Works: Jean Talon, Intendant de la Nouvelle France; Discours et Conférences. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Chapleau, Sir Joseph Adolphe (1840-1898). Studied law and called to the bar, 1861. Elected to Quebec Legislature, 1867, and successively solicitor-general, and provincial secretary, of the province. Premier of Quebec, 1879. Entered Dominion Cabinet, 1882, as secretary of state. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1892; knighted, 1896. Bib.: Works: Léon XIII, Homme d'État; Question des Chemins de Fer. For biog., see J. A. Chapleau: Sa Biographie et Ses Discours; Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.

Chapman, Henry Samuel (1803-1881). Born in England. Came to Canada, 1823, and established at Montreal the Daily Advertiser, the first daily newspaper published in British America, 1833. Connected with several other newspapers. A strong supporter of the Reform party. Removed to England and called to the bar, 1840. Went to New Zealand, where he became a judge. Died in Dunedin, New Zealand. Index: H Attempts to secure Joseph Howe's support for agitation in Lower Canada, 50; Howe's reply, 50.

Charbonnel, Armand François Marie de. Roman Catholic bishop of Toronto, 1850-1860. Died, 1860. Index: R Opposes public schools, 219, 225; Ryerson's letter to, 224-225; referred to in Globe, 226; his letter to Ryerson, 226; his policy, 228; his complaints, 229; drafts Separate School Bill, 230; his pastoral letter, 234; resigns charge of Toronto diocese, 235.

Charest, Dufils. WM Commands party sent to heights of Lévis, 103.

Charles I (1600-1649). King of England; succeeded to the throne, 1625. Index: Ch His instructions to English ambassador at Paris, 215; restores New France and Acadia to France, 221. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Charles II (1630-1685). King of England; succeeded to the throne, 1660. Index: W Annuls charter of London and other towns, 54. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Charles Emmanuel III (1701-1773). King of Sardinia. Succeeded to the throne, 1730. Index: Hd His foreign policy, 5.

Charlesbourg. WM De Pontbriand retires to, 153.

Charlevoix, Pierre-François-Xavier de (1682-1761). First came to Canada in 1705, as an instructor in the Jesuits' College at Quebec. Returned to France in 1709. It was at this time that he gathered the material for his Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle-France. Again visited Canada in 1720 by order of the French government to report as to the best route for an overland expedition in search of the Western Sea. In the course of this journey visited the mission and posts of what was then the extreme western frontier of New France, returning to France in 1723, by way of Mobile. Index: L On the character of the Canadian population, 117; on the character of Frontenac, 144, 145. F On bravery of Canadians and indifferent conduct of French troops, 212; on Lachine massacre, 224, 227; on old age of François Hertel, 235; his account of "flag" incident in siege of Quebec, 295; on character and conduct of Frontenac, 333-336. Ch His opinion of Lescarbot, 37; his description of the French settlements in Canada, 243; his eulogy of Champlain, 276, 277. Bib.: Besides his Histoire du Paraguay and Histoire de l'Isle Espagnole ou de S. Dominique,[75] Charlevoix was the author of La Vie de la Mère Marie de l'Incarnation and of the first general history of Canada, Histoire et Description Generale de la Nouvelle-France. His Voyage dans l'Amerique Septentrionale was translated into English in 1756. Dr. J. G. Shea's translation of the History was published at New York in 6 vols., 1866-1872; and reprinted by F. P. Harper, New York, in 6 vols. An abridged translation of Charlevoix's Journal is found in vol. 3 of French Hist. Coll. of Louisiana. For biog., see J. E. Roy, Essai sur Charlevoix (R. S. C., 1907).

Charlottetown. Capital of Prince Edward Island. Originally founded by the French, about 1750, and then known as Port la Joie. In 1713 it was a fortified post, with a garrison of sixty soldiers. The population numbered 1354 in 1752; and in 1758 it had been increased to over 4000 by the arrival of a large number of Acadians from the mainland. It came under British rule in 1763, and received its present name about 1768. Bib.: Campbell, History of Prince Edward Island.

Charlottetown Conference, 1864. Md Arranged by Tupper, 104; the Canadian proposals, 104; terms of union, 107. H Joseph Howe invited to attend as delegate, but declines, 176-177; Sir Charles Tupper's connection with, 176-177; Nova Scotia delegates, 177; maritime union found impracticable, 178; Sir John Macdonald proposes Confederation, 178. B History of, 161. T Delegates to, 73; history of, 73-75. See Quebec Conference; Macdonald; Tupper. Bib.: Whelan, Union of the British Provinces; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Charny-Lauzon. See Lauzon-Charny.

Charron, Jean-François. L Charitable work of, and of his brother, 125; house of charity established by, 245; death of, 246.

Chartier de Lotbinière, Eustache Gaspard Michel. Dr Advised in connection with question of Canadian laws, 63, 68; elected Speaker of the Assembly, 277.

Chartier de Lotbinière, René Louis. L Appointed to Sovereign Council, 166. F Member of the Sovereign Council, 106.

Charton, François. Ch Jesuit, 152; returns to France, 208.

Chastes, Aymar de. Ch Governor of Dieppe, obtains charter for colonization of Canada, 8; suggests that Champlain should visit Canada, 9; death of, 9. F Trading patent granted to, 3; his death, 5.

Château de Ramezay. At Montreal. Index: Hd Purchased for government house, 186; belonged to William Grant, 186. BL Government offices in, during Elgin's governorship, 325.

Château Haldimand. At Quebec. Index: Hd Foundation stone laid by Haldimand, 344; used as school in connection with Laval University until 1892, then pulled down, 344.

Château St. Louis. At Quebec. Commenced by Governor de Montmagny, 1647, and completed by his successor, D'Ailleboust. Demolished, 1694, and rebuilt with new wing. Enlarged, 1723; and in 1808 renovated and again enlarged, by government of Lower Canada. Up to the close of French régime, it was the official residence of the governors of Canada; and after the cession, their British successors continued to occupy the building. It was destroyed by fire, 1834. The Château Frontenac hotel now stands immediately back of the site of the Château St. Louis, which occupied part of what is now Dufferin Terrace. See Habitation de Québec. Index: F Construction begun, 15. Bk Description of, 90; occupied by Sir James Craig, 90. Hd Governor's residence at Quebec, 169, 222, 304, 314; balls at, 223; wing added by Haldimand named[76] in his honour, 344. Bib.: Gagnon, Le Fort el la Château St. Louis; Doughty, Fortress of Quebec; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Châteaufort, Marc Antoine Bras-de-fer de. F Interim governor after death of Champlain, 27.

Châteauguay. Battle in War of 1812, Oct. 26, 1813. The stream from which the battle took its name, rises in Franklin County, New York, and falls into the St. Lawrence a few miles above Caughnawaga. The scene of the battle was about six miles above the confluence of the English with Châteauguay River. Hampton was in command of the Americans, and De Salaberry commanded the Canadian troops, with Colonel Macdonell in charge of the reserves. Although the former had an overwhelmingly superior force, the result of the battle was in favour of the Canadians; and the contemplated attack on Montreal was abandoned. The battle was won by French-Canadian militia under a French-Canadian commander. See also War of 1812; Salaberry. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Lighthall, An Account of the Battle of Chateauguay; Macdonell, The Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada; Kingsford, History of Canada.

Chateauneuf, Pierre Antoine de Castaguere, Marquis de (1644-1728). Ch French ambassador in London, instructions to, 214.

Chatel, Aimée. L Member of the Congregation de Notre Dame, 91.

Chatham, William Pitt, first Earl of (1708-1778). The "Great Commoner," who brought England "to a height of prosperity and glory unknown to any former age." He urged continually a conciliatory policy towards America, until it became apparent that the colonists would be satisfied with nothing less than independence. His broad outlook and unerring instinct in the choice of men were chiefly responsible for the triumphs of British policy at home and abroad. Sent Boscawen and Amherst to the capture of Louisbourg, and Wolfe and Saunders to victory at Quebec. Index: Dr Opposes Quebec Act, 65. Bib.: Almon, Anecdotes and Speeches of Chatham; Rosebery, William Pitt; Green, William Pitt, Earl of Chatham; Correspondence of William Pitt with Colonial Governors, ed. by Kimball. See his letters and instructions to Wolfe, Saunders, and Amherst, in Doughty, Siege of Quebec, and Wood, Logs of Conquest of Canada.

Chaumonot, Joseph. Came to Canada, 1639, with Madame de la Peltrie, Marie de l'Incarnation, and Fathers Vimont and Poncet. Accompanied Brébeuf as missionary to the Neutral Nation, whose country was along the north shore of Lake Erie, 1640. Sent to the Onondagas, 1655. Missionary in charge of the Hurons at Old Lorette, where, in 1674, he built the chapel in honour of Our Lady of Loretto. Died, Feb. 21, 1693. Index: L Accompanies mission to Gannentaha, 65; chief promoter of cult of Holy Family, 86. Bib.: Shea, Vie de Chaumonot; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America.

Chaussegros de Léry, Gaspard (1682-1756). Sent to Canada in 1716 to superintend the fortifications of Quebec, Montreal, and other places in the colony. Prepared a plan of the cathedral at Quebec in 1725; and of the fortifications at Quebec in 1730. Mentioned as having been at Fort St. Frederic in 1742; made a plan of Detroit in 1750. Index: L Makes plans for entrance to Montreal church, 90. WM Criticized by Montcalm, 79. Bib.: Traité de Fortification.

Chaussegros de Léry, Gaspard-Joseph. Son of preceding. Engineer; made a legislative councillor, in 1774.

Chauveau, Pierre Joseph Olivier (1820-1890). Born at Quebec. Educated at Quebec; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada. First entered[77] public life, 1844, defeating John Neilson in Quebec County. Represented the same constituency in the Assembly until 1855. Solicitor-general, in Hincks-Morin ministry, 1851; and provincial secretary, 1853. In 1855 succeeded Dr. Meilleur as chief superintendent of education of Lower Canada. In 1867 elected to the Dominion Parliament, as well as to the Quebec House, and the same year formed a provincial ministry. Resigned, 1873, and the same year Speaker of the Senate, retiring in 1874. Three years later sheriff of Montreal. Index: Md Leader of Quebec government, 141; the appointment revealed Macdonald's judgment, 141-142. C Conservative leader in Quebec, 24; superintendent of public instruction, 24, 37; premier of Quebec, 68; his character, 68. E One of leaders of the opposition in 1847, 45; returned in elections of 1848, 50; Solicitor-general for Lower Canada, 113; provincial secretary in Hincks ministry, 126; and in MacNab-Morin government, 141; votes against secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 164. Bib.: Works: Charles Guérin, Roman de Moeurs Canadiennes; François-Xavier Garneau, Sa Vie et Ses [OE]uvres; L'Instruction Publique au Canada; Souvenirs et Légendes. For biog., see Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Morgan, Cel. Can.

Chauvin, Pierre, Sieur de Tonnetuit. A Huguenot, born at Dieppe. Appointed captain of the garrison at Honfleur, 1589. Obtained trading monopoly for ten years in Canada. Made a trading voyage to Canada, 1600, bringing out a few colonists, whom he landed at Tadoussac. Sailed again the following year, with a larger fleet, but no colonists; and again in 1602. Died, 1603. Index: Ch Attempts to form settlement at Tadoussac, 8; left in charge of Quebec colony, 54. F Obtains patent for exclusive trade in Canada, 2; sails for the St. Lawrence, 3. Bib.: Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France.

Chedabucto, now known as Guysborough, Nova Scotia. Index: F Frontenac arrives at, 232.

Cheffault. Ch Agent of Company of New France, 244.

Cherououng. Ch Montagnais chief, sent on embassy to Iroquois, 163.

Chesapeake. Bk Affair of, 82-86.

Childers, Hugh Culling Eardley (1827-1896). Entered the House of Commons, 1860; financial secretary, 1865-1866; first lord of the Admiralty and privy councillor, 1868. In 1875 came to Canada on Lord Dufferin's invitation as a commissioner under the Prince Edward Island Land Purchase Act. Secretary of state for war, 1880-1882; chancellor of the exchequer, 1882-1885; and home secretary, 1886. Index: W Commissioner under Land Purchase Act, 136. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Chimeourimou. Ch Montagnais chief, sent on embassy to Iroquois, 163.

Chipman. W Judge of Supreme Court, New Brunswick, 8; one of Maine Boundary commissioners, 8.

Chipman, Ward. W Judge of Supreme Court, New Brunswick, 8; succeeds Saunders as chief justice, 74; resigns, 129. T Resigns as chief justice, 17.

Chippewa Indians. A large tribe, of Algonquian stock, formerly ranging along both shores of Lakes Huron and Superior, and westward as far as North Dakota. First mentioned in the Jesuit Relation of 1640, as living around Sault Ste. Marie. During the eighteenth century, they fought successfully against the Sioux, Foxes, and Iroquois. They numbered in 1764 about 25,000; and at the present time count over 30,000, of whom about one-half are on reservations in Canada. Index: Hd Sioux offer to attack, 148. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians; Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes; Grant, Sauteux Indians in Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest.[78]

Chisholm, G. C. Sy Sergeant-at-arms of Legislative Assembly, 334.

Chittenden, Thomas (1730-1797). First governor of Vermont, 1778-1797. Index: Hd Claims separation of Vermont from New York, 201; negotiates with Haldimand, 202; General Washington's letter to, 212-213; Ira Allen's proposed treaty with, 214-215. Bib.: Chipman, Thomas Chittenden; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Choiseul, Étienne-François, Duc de (1719-1785). Minister of foreign affairs; signed the treaty of 1759 with Austria; minister of war, 1761. Index: WM French minister, glad to get rid of Canada, 11.

Cholera Epidemic, 1832 and 1834. P Imported by immigrants, 87; government blamed for neglect to provide quarantine, 88; committee formed to inquire into causes, etc., 88-89; one of the grievances in the Ninety-Two Resolutions, 89. See also Epidemics.

Chouageun. See Oswega.

Chouart dit des Groseilliers, Médard. Born in France about 1621. Came to Canada, 1642. After serving the Jesuits for some years as a donné, or lay helper, engaged in the fur trade, and with his brother-in-law Radisson (q.v.) made extensive explorations in the West and North, 1659-1663. With Radisson afterwards went to England and was instrumental in establishing the Hudson's Bay Company, and laying the foundations of its gigantic fur trading monopoly on the shores of Hudson Bay. Bib.: Dionne, Chouart et Radisson (R. S. C., 1893); Sulte, Radisson in the North-West (R. S. C., 1904); Sulte, Découverte du Mississippi (R. S. C., 1903); Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Pathfinders of the West and Conquest of the Great North-West.

Christian Doctrine, Brothers of the. L Arrival of, in Canada, 125.

Christian Guardian. R Founded at York (Toronto), 1829, 82; Egerton Ryerson, first editor, 82; exponent of Methodist views on religious, educational, and political questions, 82-83; its policy, 94-95; Ryerson's articles in, 96, 97, 98, 100, 109, 110, 134, 137.

Christie, Alexander. MS Chief factor, Hudson's Bay Company, and later governor of Assiniboia, 222. Bib.: Ryerson, Story of my Life.

Christie, David (1818-1880). Born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Educated at Edinburgh High School. Came to Canada, 1833, and devoted himself to farming. Took a prominent part in politics as a leader of the Reformers. Sat for Wentworth in the Legislative Assembly, 1851-1854, and for East Brant, 1855-1858. Elected to the Legislative Council, 1858, and held his seat until Confederation. Appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867; secretary of state, 1873; Speaker of the Senate, 1874-1878. Administrator of Ontario during the illness of the lieutenant-governor, 1875. Died in Paris, Ontario. Index: B A leader of the Clear Grits, 39. E Well-known agriculturist, and a leader of the Clear Grits, 110. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Christie, Robert (1788-1856). Born in Nova Scotia. Repeatedly expelled from the Assembly of Lower Canada; re-elected after the union, and held his seat until 1854. Contributed to Quebec Gazette and Mercury. Index: F Papineau causes his expulsion on four occasions from Assembly, 80; his reconciliation with Papineau, 180; Papineau's letters to, 144, 181-182, 191-193. Mc On Union Act, 405. Bib.: History of the Late Province of Lower Canada, from the Commencement to the Close of its Existence as a Separate Province. For biog. see Morgan, Cel. Can.

Chronicle. Newspaper, published at Halifax. Index: H Published by Wm. Annand, 75; Joseph Howe contributes to, 90-93; letters of Howe in, on Irish[79] question, 75; Jonathan McCully editor, 186; Howe's "Botheration Scheme" articles, 186; action for libel, 188; opposes Confederation, 189; attacks Howe, 209; Howe's letter to editor of, 210-212.

Chronicle and Gazette. Newspaper published at Kingston. Index: Sy Praises Sydenham's policy, 351. BL On the debate on responsible government in the Legislature, 1841, 95; on Draper's speech, 27. Mc Question of government printing, 103.

Chrystler's Farm. Battle in War of 1812-1814, fought Nov. 11th, 1813. The scene of the fight was near the head of the Long Sault Rapids, on the St. Lawrence. Morrison commanded the British troops, about 800 men, and Boyd the Americans, numbering 1800, increased during the fight to 2400. The Americans were driven off the field. Morrison captured 100 men and a gun. The American loss was 300 men; and the British, 200 men. See also War of 1812. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Kingsford, History of Canada.

Chubb. F Commandant of Fort Pemaquid, fires on Indians while under flag of truce, 331; killed, 332.

Church. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index: BL Quoted on debate on responsible government in 1841, 90; on Bagot's letter to La Fontaine, 125; opposes Baldwin's University Bill, 197; on Rebellion Losses Bill, 319-320. B Controversy with the Banner—opposes responsible government, 6.

Church of England. The first Anglican church in what is now Canada was built at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1750, when Cornwallis was governor of the province. The first see was established in 1787. Dr. Charles Inglis as bishop of Nova Scotia had charge of the whole of British North America. The first service held in Quebec was in the Ursuline Convent, September, 1759. The first Anglican bishop of the diocese of Quebec was Dr. Mountain, appointed in 1793; and in 1839 Dr. John Strachan became first bishop of Toronto. As population grew, the eastern dioceses were subdivided into nine. The see of Rupert's Land, founded 1849, was subsequently divided into Rupert's Land, Moosonee, Saskatchewan, Calgary, Mackenzie River, Qu'Appelle, Athabaska, Keewatin, and Selkirk. In 1859 was established the see of British Columbia, divided later into New Westminster and Caledonia. In 1857 the Church of England Synod was legally constituted; and after that year bishops were elected by the votes of clergy and laity in Canada. The first Church Congress was held, 1883. The General Synod of the Church in the Dominion was established, 1893, and the metropolitans of Canada and Rupert's Land were made archbishops, the first of whom were Dr. J.T. Lewis and Dr. R. Machray. Index: B And the Family Compact, 11; and the Clergy Reserves, 48-49; privileges granted under Act of 1791, 51-52; Durham's estimate of numerical strength, 52-53; recognition of its exclusive claims said by Durham to have been chief cause of Rebellion, 53; E Its claims to the Clergy Reserves under the Constitutional Act, 1791, 145, 150 et seq. R Its relations with mother church in England, 39; advantages in Canada, 39; statistics in Upper Canada, 51. Dr Allowed use of Récollet church at Montreal, 241; Jesuit church transferred to them, 242; first Anglican conference and confirmation held in Récollet church at Quebec, 242, 272. W In New Brunswick, 7. T Controls King's College, 21. Bib.: Hopkins, Canada: An Ency., vol. 2; Cross, The Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies; Anderson, History of Church of England in the Colonies; Akins, Church of England in North American Colonies; Taylor, The Last Three Bishops Appointed by the Crown; Lowndes, Bishops of the Day; Machray, Life of Archbishop Machray; Mockridge, Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland;[80] Champion, The Anglican Church in Canada; Wynne, The Church in Greater Britain.

Churchill, Fort. See Prince of Wales, Fort.

Churchill River. Rises in La Loche Lake, lat. 56° 10' N., long. 109° 40' W., and after a course of 1000 miles, empties into Hudson Bay. The mouth of the river was discovered by Munk, a Danish navigator, in 1619, but it was not until 1774 that its upper waters were discovered by Joseph Frobisher (q.v.), and explored by Thomas Frobisher and Alexander Henry, the Elder (q.v.), in 1775. The Churchill was formerly known under various names: Danish River, in honour of Munk; English River, so called by Frobisher; and Missinipi, the native name. Bib.: Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Citizen. Newspaper published at Ottawa. Established, 1844. Index: Mc Newspaper, Mackenzie's obituary in, 517; urges monument to, 518.

Civil Law. Dr Importance of the question to the French population, after 1760,10-11; British authorities at Quebec find difficulty in defining, 11; attempt to enforce English law abandoned, 13; Murray establishes courts, 13; criticisms of the grand jury, 15; confusion of English and French codes, 40-41; dissatisfaction of the French-speaking inhabitants, 41; Masères suggests four plans to Carleton, 41-42; Maurice Morgan sent out to study legal situation, 43; Carleton favours the French civil code, 43; dishonest magistrates and tyrannical bailiffs, 51-54; report of Committee on Administration of Justice, 1769, 54; Ordinance of 1770, 54; French-Canadians petition for their own laws, 61; French law established by Quebec Act, 64; discussed in British Parliament, 65-68; confusion of civil procedure, 225-227. Bib.: Bourinot, Constitutional History of Canada and How Canada is Governed; Ashley, Earlier Constitutional History of Canada; Houston, Canadian Constitutional Documents.

Civil List. Sy Permanent provision for, considered necessary, 120; Sydenham asks for, 204; possible opposition to, 308. S In Upper Canada, under Simcoe, 177.

Civil Secretary. Sy Of the governor, large range of duties undertaken by, in pre-union times, 331.

Clarendon, George William Frederick Villiers, fourth Earl of (1800-1870). Ambassador at Madrid, 1833-1839; lord privy seal, 1839-1841; foreign minister, 1853-1858, 1865-1866, and 1868-1870. Index: Sy Governor-generalship of Canada tendered to, 58. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Clark, George Rogers (1752-1818). American frontier leader. Index: Hd Rebel leader, his cruel treatment of garrison of Vincennes, 168. Bib.: Campaign in the Illinois; English, Conquest of the Country North-West of the Ohio.

Clark, Peter. S Commands boat sent to meet Prince Edward, 183.

Clark, Samuel. T Rector of Gagetown, 5.

Clark, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas. Bk Command assigned to, on Niagara frontier, 206. Hd Death of his wife, 237.

Clark, Sir William Mortimer (1836- ). Born in Aberdeen, Scotland. Educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen; studied law at the University of Edinburgh, and admitted a writer to the signet, 1859. Came to Toronto, 1859; called to the bar of Ontario, 1869. Engaged largely in financial affairs. Lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1903-1908. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Clarke, Captain. F Killed at Fort Loyal, two daughters taken to Quebec, 303.

Clarke, Sir Alured (1745-1832). Lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada,[81] 1790-1795. Had been governor of Jamaica before coming to Canada; and after leaving the country, filled several high offices in India, finally becoming governor-general. Returned to England, 1802, and made field-marshal, 1830. Index: Dr Appointed lieutenant-governor, 249; administers government in Carleton's absence, 269; gives names to counties, 269. S Appointed lieutenant-governor of Lower Canada in absence of Dorchester, 47; Simcoe's harmonious relations with, 130. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Clarke, Jonathan. S Teaches school at Fredericksburg and Matilda, 167.

Claus, Colonel. Bk Command assigned to, on Niagara frontier, 206.

Clay, Henry (1777-1852). American statesman and orator. Index: Bk His confident prediction of conquest of Canada, 215. Bib.: Works, ed. by Colton, 1857; new ed., 1898; Schurz, Life of Henry Clay; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Clayoquot Sound. West coast of Vancouver Island. Index: D Natives of, attack Tonquin, 1811, and massacre crew, 37.

Clear Grits. B Leaders of the party, 39; origin of name, 40; denounced by the Globe, 40; platform, 41; significance of movement, 235. C Clamouring against institutions of Quebec, 25. E Leading members of party, 110; its platform, 111; George Brown becomes recognized leader, 112; influence of party—defection of Rolph and Cameron, 112; attack government on account of Gavazzi riots, 125; unite with Conservatives and Rouges to defeat Hincks government, 127; their strength in 1854, 134; fight for the speakership, 135; obnoxious to French-Canadians, 137; advocate secularization of Clergy Reserves, 161, 163. BL Beginnings of, 335; their programme, 341; Brown's connection with, 342. Md Struggle against religious and racial influence, 46; George Brown first opposes and later becomes leader of, 54. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years; MacKenzie, George Brown.

Clément, Pierre. Dr On causes of failure of West India Company, 149; on galley service, 215. Bib.: Histoire de Colbert; Madame de Montespan et Louis XIV.

Clergy, French-Canadian. Dr Faithful to the British government, 72, 80. Hd Illiterate but highly respected, 42; receive donations for fire sufferers, 44; refuse to believe that Canada would ever be ceded to Britain, 128; Quebec Act and, 174; Haldimand's attitude towards, 180, 181, 182; attempt to get French priests into Seminary, 187; their interest in establishment of public library, 191; alarmed at large numbers of Protestant settlers, 264.

Clergy Reserves. Md Question embitters public life of Upper Canada, 13, 28; nature and history of the dispute, 55-62; secularization of, carried out by MacNab-Morin coalition ministry, 63; Macdonald introduces bill, Oct. 17, 1854, 65; bill passed by Assembly, November 23, and by Legislative Council, Dec. 10, 65; provisions of the bill, 65-66. S Created by Constitutional Act, 12, 156. Dr Created by Constitutional Act, 267. Sy Designed for support of state church, 77; treatment of, in Durham's report, 93; conflict over, 238-244; Sydenham's plan for settlement of questions, 245-246; attitude of Reform party respecting, 246; bill recommended by governor passed and sent home for approval, 248; question settled by Imperial Parliament, 249. BL Set apart by Constitutional Act, 1791, 42; William Morris's connection with, 83; and Upper Canada College, 192; and Ryerson, 240; pressing for settlement, 339; secularization of, advocated by Clear Grits, 342; history of question, 343-349. B Taché advises French-Canadians to oppose secularization of, 48; history of question, 51-60. R Ryerson enters the controversy, 19, 26-27; endowment of established church provided for, in Act of 1791, 34-35; influence of John Strachan, 36-37;[82] dominance of Church of England party, 38-40; extent and value of the Reserves, 47; question comes up in Legislature, 47; claims of Church of Scotland, 48-49; petition and claims referred to select committee of British House of Commons, 1827, 50; Ryerson proposes sale and appropriation of proceeds to general educational purposes, 115; Sir George Arthur proposes division among various religious bodies, 119; Ryerson's attitude towards division, 119-120. E Granted to Protestant clergy by Constitutional Act, 1791,102; Baldwin's attitude towards, 102-103; La Fontaine's attitude towards, 102-103; Canadian Legislature receives power to settle question, 119; settlement delayed, 126, 132; secularization proposed by Sicotte, 126-127; secularization a condition of MacNab-Morin coalitions, 140; history of the question, 145-169; report of select committee, 147; Imperial Act passes, 158-159; its repeal proposed by Price, 161; value of the Reserves, 161—162; provincial Legislature given power to vary or repeal Union Act, and to settle Clergy Reserves, on certain conditions, 167; bill introduced by John A. Macdonald, finally settling question, 168; terms of bill, 168. Mc Created by Constitutional Act, 70; details of, 70; Durham on, 71; Mackenzie's views on, 94-95; grievance report on, 72; Glenelg's position, 283. Bib.: Lindsey, The Clergy Reserves; Hincks's Letters in Montreal Herald, December, 1882; Dent, Last Forty Years; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Ryerson, Story of my Life; Bethune, Memoir of Bishop Strachan.

Clermont, Chevalier de. F Killed in skirmish on Beauport flats, 294.

Clermont, College of. L Laval studies at, 21.

Clinton, Sir Henry (1738-1795). Sent to America, 1775; served in the South, and with Howe at Philadelphia; succeeded him as commander-in-chief, 1778; Captured Charleston, 1780; succeeded by Sir Guy Carleton, and returned to England, 1782. Index: S Replaced as commander-in-chief by Sir Guy Carleton, 39; secures promotion for Queen's Rangers, 39. Dr Returns to England, 192. Hd In command at New York, 131; succeeded by Dorchester, 188; his efforts to bring Vermont back to allegiance to Britain, 199-200; Haldimand's report to, on Ira Allen's diplomacy, 207; Haldimand's letter to, on the policy of Vermont, 208; and his proposed proclamation to the people of, 211; Haldimand's letter on crisis in spring of 1782, 212; his list of rebels, 280; his emoluments in America, 330. Bib.: Works: Narrative of the Campaign in North America, Rejoinder to Cornwallis's Observations; Observations on Stedman's American War. For biog. see Dict. Am. Biog.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Clitherow, John (1782-1852). Entered army, 1799; lieutenant-colonel, 1812; served in the Egyptian campaign, 1801; the Hanover campaign, 1805; the Walcheren expedition, 1809, and throughout the Peninsular War. Appointed major-general, 1830; lieutenant-general, 1841. Adminished the government of Canada after the death of Sydenham, 1841. Index: Sy Closes session of 1841, 342; senior military officer at Kingston, 342. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Closse, Major. L His piety, 8.

Cloutier, Zacharie. Ch Joiner, accompanies Robert Giffard to Canada, 252.

Club Démocratique. C Their appeal to the public, 26-27.

Cobb, Sylvanus (1709-1762). A native of Plymouth, Mass. Served in the expedition against Louisbourg, 1745. For some years engaged in the coast defence of Nova Scotia. Served at the second siege of Louisbourg under Amherst and Boscawen. Removed to Liverpool, Nova Scotia. Died of the plague at the siege of Havana, 1762. Bib.: Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Cobden, Richard (1804-1865). British statesman. Index: Sy A more ad[83]vanced radical than Sydenham, 20. Bib.: Morley, Life of Richard Cobden; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Cochrane, Thomas (1777-1804). Born in Nova Scotia. A member of the English bar. Chief-justice of the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island, 1801; judge of the King's Bench of Upper Canada, 1804. Drowned in wreck of the Speedy, while on his way to hold court. Index: Bk Drowned in foundering of the Speedy, 69. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Read, Lives of the Judges.

Cockburn, James (1819-1883). Born in Berwick-on-Tweed, England. Came to Canada, and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1846. Practised his profession at Cobourg. Represented West Northumberland in the Assembly, 1861-1867; solicitor-general for Upper Canada, 1864-1867. A delegate to the Quebec Conference. After Confederation sat in the House of Commons for West Northumberland, 1867-1874, and during that time was Speaker of the House. Again elected to the House of Commons, 1878, and retained his seat until 1881, when he retired to accept the chairmanship of the commission on the consolidation of the statutes of Canada. Index: T Solicitor-general, West, delegate to Quebec Conference, 76. E Last Speaker of the House of Commons to exercise privilege of addressing the governor-general on measures of the session, 1869, 130. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Cockrel. S Establishes school at Niagara and afterwards at Ancaster, 167.

Coffin, William Foster (1808-1878). Born in Bath, England. Came to Quebec with his father, an army officer, 1813. Returned to England, 1815, and until 1824 was a student at Eton. Came back to Canada, 1830. Called to the bar, 1835. Took part in the suppression of the Rebellion of 1837. Joint sheriff of Montreal, 1840-1851. Appointed commissioner of ordnance lands, 1856, and one of the Intercolonial Railway commissioners, 1868. Held many important offices under the government of Canada and in the militia. Bib.: Works: History of the War of 1812; Three Chapters on a Triple Project; Thoughts on Defence from a Canadian Point of View; Quirks of Diplomacy. For biog., see Morgan, Annual Register, 1878.

Coke, Sir John (1563-1644). Sat in Parliament, 1621-1629; secretary of State, 1625; a commissioner of the treasury, 1635-1636. Index: Ch English Commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Colbert, Jean Baptiste (1619-1683). First minister to Louis XIV. Index: F Creates West India Company, 49; disapproves Frontenac's action in summoning "three estates," 67; anti-clerical tendencies, 73; Madame Maintenon's opinion of, 74; advice to Courcelles in relation to ecclesiastical power, 115; asks for particulars as regards effect of liquor traffic, 118; speaks of bishop as aiming at too much power, 119; overthrow of his commercial policy, 151. L Minister of marine and colonies, not favourable to emigration, 80; enjoins Frontenac to act with more moderation, 165; prejudiced against clergy, 170; his despatch on subject of liquor traffic, 170. Bib.: Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Régime; Chambers, Biog. Dict.

Colebrooke, Sir William Macbean George (1787-1870). After serving in the army, and as political agent in the East, became lieutenant-governor of the Bahamas, 1834-1837; governor of the Leeward Islands, 1837; and in 1841 succeeded Sir John Harvey as lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick. Afterwards governor of Barbados and the Windward Islands, 1848-1856. Index: W Appoints son-in-law as provincial secretary, New Brunswick, 76; action resented by members of government, 76-80; his unpopularity, 100-101. Bib.: Hannay,[84] History of New Brunswick; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Coles, George (1810-1875). T Delegate to Quebec Conference, 77.

Collins, Francis. Mc Reports legislative debates, 106; publishes Canadian Freeman in 1825, 111; convicted of libel, 134; fined and imprisoned, 134. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Collver, Jabez. S Presbyterian minister, the first to come to Upper Canada, 165.

Colonial Advocate. Newspaper, published by William Lyon Mackenzie. Index: Mc Newspaper, published at Queenston, May 18, 1824, 85; reviews condition of provinces, 86, 87; topics discussed in, 94-97; reports debates, 102, 103; granted a subsidy for printing, 103; moved to York, January, 1825, 106; House refuses publication of reports in, 108; destruction of, 113; W.J. Rattray on, 116; defendants made to pay £625 damages, 129; criminal prosecution of, 130; second destruction of, 221; last issue, November, 1834, 259. BL Its extravagant language, 12; established by Mackenzie, 13; aids in consolidating Reform party, 13; its office attacked by Tories, 14-15. R Edited by W. L. Mackenzie, 64, 66; attacks Egerton Ryerson, 98.

Colonial Conference, 1894. Opened at Ottawa, June 28, with Mackenzie Bowell in the chair. Delegates present from the Imperial government, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Cape Colony, and Canada. Resolutions were passed in favour of an Imperial Customs Union and a Pacific Cable. Conference adjourned, July 11. See also Imperial Conference. Bib.: Proceedings of the Colonial Conference, 1894; Ewart, Kingdom of Canada.

Colonial Empire. Newspaper, published at St. John. Index: T Brings charge against government, 51.

Colonial Gazette. Newspaper, published in London. Index: Sy Publishes article on Poulett Thomson's mission to Canada, 135-141; not entirely confident of his success, 140.

Colonist. Newspaper, published in Toronto. Index: B Edited by Samuel Thompson, 4; George Sheppard, editorial writer on, 135.

Colonization. L Laval's interest in, 77; arrival of colonists from La Rochelle, 1663-1664, 77; system of apprenticeship, 77-78; Sovereign Council asks for men from north of France, 78; Bourdon brings out a ship-load of girls, 79; soldiers of Carignan Regiment come out as colonists, 79; Talon's immigration policy, 80; Colbert's opposition, 80. F Cartier's attempts at, 2; settlement at Port Royal, 6-7; at Quebec, 7-8; and the trading Companies, 19, 28; of Montreal, 33-34; marriageable girls sent out, 57. Ch Character of, in New France, 143-147; by Company of New France, 168-169. D Impetus to, from western side, 2.

Coltman, W. B. A merchant of Quebec, and lieutenant-colonel in the militia. Sent by Governor Sherbrooke, 1816, to Red River, to investigate dispute between the Hudson's Bay and the North West Companies. Index: MS Sent to Red River to investigate troubles, 195; his report, 196.

Columbia. D Hudson's Bay Company, vessel, 183.

Columbia Fur Company. D Organized, 1822, by recruits from the North West Company, 134. See also Astor; Astor Fur Company.

Columbia River. Rises in Upper Columbia Lake, lat. 50° 10', long. 115° 50', and flows into Pacific Ocean. Total length about 1150 miles. Its mouth was discovered by Robert Gray, of Boston, May, 1792, and named by him after his vessel. It was first reached overland by Lewis and Clark, in 1805; and first[85] explored throughout its entire length by David Thompson, of the North West Company, 1807-1811. Its principal branch is the Kootenay. Index: D Carver's "River of Oregon," 19; Russian colony projected at, 44; named by Gray, 57; Fraser raised mistaken for, 59; Lewis and Clark on, 67.

Comfort, Thomas. Mc Aids Mackenzie's escape, 384.

Commerce. Bk In Upper Canada, 50. See also Trade.

Commercial Union. Complete and entire free trade with the United States, first proposed by Ira Gould, before Montreal Board of Trade, February, 1852. (See Montreal Gazette, Feb. 18-22, 1852.) The question was repeatedly discussed in succeeding years, down to 1890, in and out of Parliament, and for a time was adopted by the Liberal party as a trade policy, but abandoned before they came into power in 1896. Index: Md Brought forward by Liberals as an alternative to protection, 261-262; history of the movement, 291-292; the Commercial Union League, 293-298. See also Unrestricted reciprocity; Reciprocity; Zollvrein. Bib.: Canadian Emancipation and Commercial Union; Adam, Handbook of Commercial Union; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

Commissariat Department. S Abuses in, 212.

Company of Canada (Merchant Adventurers of Canada). Organized by David Kirke, and chartered by Charles I, to exploit the fur trade of the St. Lawrence. The restoration of Canada to France in 1632 brought the operations of Kirke, Sir William Alexander, and their associates to an untimely end. Index: Ch Letters patent granted to, 176. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Company of De Caën. Organized by William de Caën and his nephew Emery, merchants of Rouen. Monopoly granted the company on usual terms as to settlement, missionaries, etc., 1621. Absorbed Champlain's Company, 1622, and the united Companies carried on trade until 1633. Index: Ch Organized, 130-132; rivalry with Company of Rouen, 133-137; amalgamation of two companies, 136-137. Bib.: Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Company of New France (Compagnie des Cent-Associés). Established, 1627, by Cardinal Richelieu, on the advice of Isaac de Razilly. A monopoly of fifteen years was granted, with full ownership of the entire valley of the St. Lawrence, in return for which the Company was to take out three hundred colonists every year up to 1643. No serious effort was made to carry out this obligation, although the Company continued to enjoy its monopoly until 1663. Index: L Resigns its charter, 41; renders assistance to missions, 50; succeeded by the West India Company, 145. Ch Established, 169; list of directors, 170; documents relating to, 171; sends out four vessels, 172; equips ships to retake Quebec, 213; terms of grant to, 222; bears expense of Jesuit mission stations, 228; sincerely interested in conversion of savages and progress of colonization, 244; special committee for its financial affairs, 244; appoints Champlain governor, 244. F Created by Cardinal Richelieu, 19; colonists sent out by, 28; cedes some of its rights to colonists, 36; new arrangement works badly, 37; surrenders all its powers to the king, 1663, 49; its failure to fulfil its engagements, 55. E Creates seigniories, 175. Bib.: Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Company of Notre Dame de Montreal. L Consecrates the island of Montreal to the Virgin, 85; makes over its rights to the Seminary of St. Sulpice, in 1663, 108, 135; its debts discharged by De Belmont, 135.[86]

Company of Rouen and St. Malo (Champlain's Company). Established at the instance of Champlain, in 1614. The shares were divided among the merchants of Rouen and St. Malo. The terms of their charter required the Company to bring out colonists, but as usual they did not take this obligation very seriously. They did, however, make one notable addition to the population of New France, for in the spring of 1617 they brought out Louis Hébert and his family. Hébert's experience as a colonist was not such as to encourage others to follow his example. The Company's monopoly was cancelled in 1620. Index: Ch Formed by Champlain, 122; its chief members, 122; terms of its charter, 122; pays large salary to the Prince de Condé, 122; Champlain has trouble with 123, 125; the king intervenes on his behalf, 126; colonists to be brought out, 127-129; absorbed by Company of De Caën, 130, 137; conflict with new Company, 133-137. Bib.: Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Company of the West Indies (Compagnie des Indes Occidentales). Chartered by Louis XIV, 1664, following the cancellation of the charter of the Company of New France. Its field of operations was enormous, covering the west coast of Africa, the east coast of South America from the Amazon to the Orinoco, Canada, Acadia, and Newfoundland. The Christianization of the native tribes was given as the principal object of the Company, commerce being of only secondary importance. Despite its many privileges, and the readiness with which its stock was subscribed, it did not prosper, and by 1672 was hopelessly in debt. Three years later its charter was revoked, so far as Canada was concerned. Index: L Resigns its charter, 145. E Creates seigniories, 175. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World; Parkman, Old Régime.

Condé, Prince Henri de (1588-1646). Ch Licenses three vessels to trade in St. Lawrence, 78; letter to, in Champlain's Quatrième Voyage, 79; contributes to building of Récollet Convent, 117; source of trouble to the colony, 122; incarcerated for conspiracy, 122; released, and transfers his commission to the Duke of Montmorency, 127. F Lieutenant-general of New France, 12. Bib.: Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Confederation. The first definite step in the movement looking towards the union of the British North American colonies, was the Charlottetown Conference, 1864. Delegates from the three Maritime Provinces met to consider the union of those provinces. At the Conference, delegates from Canada (constituting what are now the provinces of Ontario and Quebec) appeared, and urged the broadening of the discussion to cover all the provinces. Out of this meeting grew the Quebec Conference, of the same year, attended by delegates from Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; the two latter subsequently withdrew from the movement. The Quebec Conference drew up a series of resolutions, which were made the basis of the final legislation. In 1866 delegates from the provinces met at the Westminster Hotel in London, and framed the British North America Act. The Act was passed by the Imperial Parliament, and received the queen's assent, March, 1867. It was proclaimed throughout the new Dominion of Canada, July 1, 1867. Manitoba was created a province, July 15, 1870. British Columbia joined the union, July 20, 1871; and Prince Edward Island, July 1, 1873. The provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created Sept. 1, 1905. Index: Mc Mackenzie advocates, 104-105; Robinson reports on, 105. T History of, 59-71, 73-87; defeated in New Brunswick, 89-110; accepted by New Brunswick, 111-125; completion of, 127-132. Md History of the movement,[87] 93; outlined by Durham, 93-95; principle adopted by British American League, 95; and by Legislature of Nova Scotia, 95; advocated by Howe and Haliburton, 96; in speech from throne, 1858, 96; Galt's speech, 96; Cartier, Galt, and Rose confer with Imperial government, 96-97; growth of the movement, 97-100; attitude of Macdonald and George Brown, 100-103; the Charlottetown Conference, 104; Quebec Conference, 104-114; legislative versus federal union, 106-110; resolution of Quebec Conference debated in Parliament, 118-119; passed by Assembly, 120; mission sent to England to confer with home government on this and other questions, 120-121; Imperial government strongly in favour of, 121; supported by Brown in Globe, 123; Monck's impatience over delays, 123-124; Macdonald's reply, 124; Westminster Conference, 125-127; British North America Act passed and receives royal assent, 127; Macdonald's letter to Lord Knutsford, 128-129; opposition to Confederation, 129; negotiations with Newfoundland, 146-147; and Prince Edward Island, 147-149; and British Columbia, 149-150. Sy Favoured at first by Lord Durham, afterwards deemed impracticable, 120. H J. W. Johnstone's speech in favour of, 174; Joseph Howe's attitude towards, 180-182, 185, 186; opposition to, 186-192; abandons opposition, 214-216; advocated by Sir Charles Tupper, 186-189; opposed by Halifax Chronicle, 189. C Cartier's connection with, 55-65; Cartier insists on federal principle, 57-58; Macdonald favours legislative union, 57; Canadian constitution compared with that of the United States, 58-61; weak points of the former, 61-62; its advantages, 62-63; opposed in Quebec, 63-64. E Only feasible solution of difficulties arising out of Union Act, 118. B Ardently championed by George Brown, x, xi; indirectly promoted by United States Civil War, xi; the British American League advocates, 38; McGee on, 129-130; founders of movement, 129; George Brown and, 130-132, 137-138, 139; Reform Conventions of 1857 and 1859 discuss question, 131, 135-138, 208, 217; Galt advocates federal union, 132-133; step towards, 133; question of defence one of forces tending towards, 142; events leading up to, 147-161; the Quebec Conference, 163-166; approval of British government, 167; the debate in Parliament, 169-179, 181-185; Quebec Resolutions passed, 185; the mission to England, 186; the question in the Maritime Provinces, 187-188; attitude of Brown and the Reform party, 199-210; first and greatest step in process of expansion, 264. BL The Toronto Church proposes federal union of all British North American provinces, 125. P Papineau's opposition to, 199. See also Charlottetown Conference; Quebec Conference; Westminster Conference; Macdonald; Tupper; Brown; Howe; Cartier. Bib.: Whelan, Union of the British Provinces; Cauchon, Union of British North American Provinces; Howe, Organization of the Empire; McGee, Two Speeches on Union of the Provinces; Hamilton, Union of the Colonies of British North America; Pope, Confederation Documents; Rawlings, Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Parliamentary Debates on Confederation, 1865; Bourinot, Constitutional History of Canada. References to pamphlet and other material on this subject will be found in Johnson, First Things in Canada.

Congrégation de Notre Dame. F Montreal, established, 29.

Congress, United States. Dr Address of, to French-Canadians, 71, 77; action of, at Philadelphia, 77; sends commission to inquire into military situation of Canada, 135; its action in the Asgill case, 199. Hd Meets at Concord, 102; rumour of French and Spanish treaty with, 124; its designs against Canada, 129, 130, 132, 319; its attitude towards Vermont, 198, 199, 201-209, 211, 214-216; defeat of its troops celebrated in Quebec, 223; its interests, and that of[88] army opposed, 225; passes laws against Loyalists, 252; sends ambassador to Canada, 259; slow to fulfil treaty, 260; addresses Canadians, 276.

Conkling, Senator Roscoe (1829-1888). American statesman. Index: B Favourable to proposed Reciprocity Treaty of 1864, 230-231.

Connecticut. F Takes part in expedition against Montreal, 279.

Connell, Charles. T Resigns as postmaster-general, New Brunswick, 49-51; runs for Carleton County in Confederation interest, 89; member of Mitchell government, 105; elected for Carleton County, 107.

Connolly, William. MS Chief factor, Hudson's Bay Company, 1825, 224; his family, 224. D Succeeds Stuart in New Caledonia, 1824, 99; his native wife, and family, 99.

Conolly, William. Dr Of Stratton Hall, Staffordshire; member of Parliament and privy councillor, 30; his powerful influence exerted on behalf of Guy Carleton and his brother, 30; Wolfe alludes to his death, 1754, as "a deadly blow to the Carletons," 30.

Connor, George Skeffington. Born in Ireland. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin. Came to Canada, 1832, with William Hume Blake. Settled on a farm near Lake Simcoe. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1842. Sat in the Assembly as a Reformer, 1859-1862; judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1863. Died in Toronto, 1863. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges.

Conseil Souverain. See Sovereign Council.

Conservative Party. B Organized by Sir John A. Macdonald, out of old Tory party, 69; its debt to Canada First Association, 241. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Constitution. Mc Newspaper, Mackenzie starts, 320; destroyed by mob, 321; draft constitution of provisional government published in, 356.

Constitutional Act, 1791. The Act was designed to harmonize the conflicting interests of French and English by dividing Quebec into two provinces,—Upper and Lower Canada,—thereby giving to each a larger control of its own local affairs. It established in each province a Legislative Council, appointed by the crown for life, and a Legislative Assembly, elected by the people. See other constitutional acts: Quebec Act, 1774; Union Act, 1840; British North America Act, 1867. Index: E Racial and political difficulties arising out of, 17, 18; Clergy Reserves granted by, 102, 119, 145, 150, 151, 158. C Its weak points, 6; constitution suspended after Rebellion of 1837, 11; its faults exposed by Durham, 12-13. B Clergy Reserves originate in, 51, 52. Sy A fatal compromise, 68; meant to confer privileges of British constitution, 73; its actual operation, 74-84; greatly increases power of French majority in Lower Canada, 72, 80. S Introduction of, 1; discussion of, 5-9; passed, 10; provisions of, 10-12; its far-reaching effects, 13; put in force by proclamation, 48. R Its terms and how they were applied, 29-35; Clergy Reserves, 46-47; Ryerson's interpretation of, on question of established church, 78; its effect on religious questions, 103. BL Its terms, 6-7; Pitt and Burke on, 6; Grenville on, 7; Simcoe on, 7; its results, 8; intended to obviate racial conflict, 8; makes landed provision for Church of England, 42, 343-344. P Divides Canada into two provinces, 21; its shortcomings, 21-23; abuse of personal power under, 24; constitution suspended, 25; suspension recommended by Sir James Craig, 29; Papineau's eulogy of, in 1820, 34-38. Mc Its objects, 48, 49; debate on the bill, 49, 50; handiwork of Pitt, 51; germ of the federal system, 51; divided Canada into two provinces, 52; created Legislative Assembly, 52; created Legislative Council, 52; created Executive Council, 53; General Simcoe on, 54; Gold[89]win Smith on, 54; Durham's commentary on, 53, 56; recommends revision of, 57; provisions creating Clergy Reserves, 70; effect on parliamentary rule summarized, 71, 72; Mackenzie declares war against, 72; silent on question of executive responsibility, 80; evils of system of government summarized, 73-75; Durham on evils of, 76, 77. Bib.: Bourinot, Parliamentary Procedure and Government and Manual of the Constitutional History of Canada; Houston, Canadian Constitutional Documents; Dominion Archives Report, 1890; Watson, Constitutional History of Canada; Durham, Report; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Egerton and Grant, Selected Speeches and Despatches relating to Canadian Constitutional History; Kingsford, History of Canada; Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada.

Constitutional Associations. Sy Of Quebec and Montreal, their aims, 112; send delegations to Upper Canada and to England to urge union of the provinces, 112.

Constitutional Reform Society. BL Organized in Upper Canada, July 16, 1836. Dr William Baldwin, president, Francis Hincks, secretary, 42; its programme, 42.

Cook, Dr. Henry. T Tilley in his service, 7.

Cook, Captain James (1728-1779). Served in Canada during siege of Quebec, 1759. Discovered New Zealand, 1769, and New South Wales, 1770. In his famous voyage of 1776-1778, explored the north-west coast of America. Returning the following year, murdered by the natives of Owhyhee or Hawaii, in the Sandwich Islands. Index: D At Nootka, 14; motive of his voyage to North-West Coast, 17; his skill, courage, and endurance, 19; search for North-West passage, 19; his voyage of 1778, 20; refits his ship at Nootka, 20; names the Sound, 20; denies existence of Fonte's and De Fuca's channels, 21; discovers and names Prince William's Sound and Cook's Inlet, 21; visits Unalaska, 21; sails through and names Bering Strait, 21; reaches the Arctic, 21; killed by natives, at Sandwich Islands, Feb. 14, 1779, 21; his narrative published, 1784, 21. Bib.: Voyage to the Pacific Ocean. For biog., see Besant, Captain Cook; Laut, Vikings of the Pacific; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Cook River. D Named by Captain Cook, 21; Captain Douglas there in 1788, 27, 28.

Coote's Paradise. Bk Early name of Hamilton, 52. See also Hamilton.

Copenhagen, Battle of (1801). Bk Description of, 25-31; bombardment of, and capture of Danish fleet, 106.

Coppermine River. Rises in a small lake, a little west of long. 110°, and south of lat. 66°, and after a course of 525 miles flows into Coronation Gulf, on the Arctic coast of Canada. It was discovered by Samuel Hearne, 1771; and subsequently visited by Sir John Franklin, 1821; Sir John Richardson, 1848; and later travellers. Index: D Discovered by Hearne, 51. MS Discovered by Samuel Hearne, 3, 31. See Hearne. Bib.: Hearne, Journey from Prince of Wales Fort to the Frozen Ocean; Franklin, Journey to the Polar Sea; Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition.

Coquart, Claude-Godefroy. Jesuit missionary. Accompanied La Vérendrye on his Western explorations, 1741, but got no farther than Michilimackinac. His letter, quoted by Margry, throws an interesting light on La Vérendrye's explorations.

Coram, Joseph. T Runs for St. John County as Anti-Confederate, 85; a leading Orangeman, 86; defeated in St. John County, 109.

Corbière, Captain. WM Killed in battle of Ste. Foy, 264.[90]

Corlaer. See Schenectady. Index: F Indian name for governors of New York, 253.

Corn Laws. Sy Their repeal advocated by Poulett Thomson, 37, 40, 52. B Their effect on Canadian industries, 15, 31, 32.

Cornwall Canal. BL Construction of, provided for by government in 1841, 98. Bib.: Keefer, Canals of Canada (R. S. C., 1893); Mme. L. N. Rhéaume, Origin of Cornwall and Williamsburg Canal (Women's Can. Hist. Soc. of Ottawa, Trans.).

Cornwallis, Charles, first Marquis (1738-1805). Served in American Revolutionary War; won victory at Camden over Gates, 1780, and in 1781 defeated Greene at Guildford. In 1781 hemmed in at Yorktown between the American army and the French fleet, and forced to surrender. Governor-general and commander-in-chief of Bengal, 1786-1793. Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1798; British plenipotentiary to negotiate peace of Amiens, 1801. Five years later again returned to India as governor-general, and died at Ghazeepore. Index: Bk British plenipotentiary in negotiating peace of Amiens, 30. Dr Surrender at Yorktown, 191. Hd His capitulation, 211-212, 297. Bib.: Cornwallis, Despatches; Kaye, Lives of Indian Officers; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Johnston, Yorktown Campaign; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Cornwallis, Edward. Born, 1812. Member of the British House of Commons for Eyre, 1749. Appointed governor of Nova Scotia, 1749. Sailed from England with 2576 emigrants and on July 2, 1749, reached the harbour of Chebucto, the site of the present city of Halifax. His administration marked by energetic measures against the discontented Acadians. Returned to England, 1752. Elected to the House of Commons for Westminster, 1753; major-general, 1759; subsequently governor of Gibraltar. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Corpo, Father. L Dies a martyr, 62.

Correspondent and Advocate. Newspaper. Index: Mc Newspaper, published by Dr. O'Grady, 259.

Corrupt Practices. BL Bill in reference to, introduced, 99; excites great public attention, 99; passed by Assembly, but rejected by Legislative Council, 100.

Corvée. Hd Ancient French custom, 122; used in transporting provisions to upper posts, 140; complaint against Haldimand's use of, 182, 291; MacLean asks for decrease of, 306.

Cosmos, Amor de. D Editor of British Colonist, 271; bitter opponent of Sir James Douglas, 306-307; his character, 306; his tribute to Douglas, 307-308; advocates union of colonies, 308. Bib.: Begg, History of British Columbia.

Costa, Francis. S Naval officer, Upper Canada, 178.

Costigan, John, (1835- ). Represented Victoria in New Brunswick Legislature, 1861-1866; elected to Dominion House of Commons, 1867; interested himself in questions of Roman Catholic schools of New Brunswick, and Irish home-rule. Minister of inland revenue, 1882; secretary of state, 1892; minister of marine and fisheries, 1894. Index: C Demands disallowance of New Brunswick Act abolishing separate schools, 73, 77; demands amendment of constitution to secure separate schools for New Brunswick Roman Catholics, 77. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Côte Ste. Geneviève. WM Slope to the north of Plains of Abraham, 186, 252.

Côteau du Lac. Hd Canal at, 185.

Coton, Father. Ch Jesuit provincial, accepts proposals of Récollets, 151.

Couillard, Guillaume. Ch Early settler, 145.[91]

Couillard, Henry. Ch Captain of the Don de Dieu, 39.

Couillard, Jacques. Ch An interpreter, 144.

Council. See Legislative Council; Executive Council; Sovereign Council.

Council of Assiniboia. Appointed by the Hudson's Bay Company, for the government of the colonists in their territory. The first meeting was held Feb. 12, 1835, with Sir George Simpson as president. Bishop Taché, Alexander Christie, Alexander Ross, Cuthbert Ross, and ten others formed the Council. The Council, among other useful work, organized a volunteer corps for defensive and police purposes; divided the settlements into four districts with a magistrate for each; and made provision for a public building. Index: MS Established by Hudson's Bay Company, 223; its character, 223; Simpson head of, 244. Bib.: Begg, History of the North-West; Bryce, Manitoba; Hargrave, Red River; Ross, Red River Settlement.

County Courts. Sy Act passed establishing, 339.

Courcelles, Daniel de Rémy, Sieur de. Governor of Canada, 1665-1672. His tenure of office marked by an unsuccessful expedition against the Iroquois, and a long and acrimonious dispute with Laval and the Jesuits. The Marquis de Tracy was viceroy over all the French possessions in America during a portion of the governorship of De Courcelles; and Talon was twice intendant of New France during the same period. Index: F Governor of Canada, 50; arrives at Quebec, 51; moves against Iroquois, 52; character, 54; expedition to Cataraqui, 59; recalled, 60. L Appointed governor, 51; stands godfather to converted Iroquois chief, 65; arrival of, 79; his high character, 81; executes justice on certain murderers, 82, 83; leads expedition as far as Cataraqui, 83; plans erection of a fort at that point, 84; returns to France, 143. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World; Parkman, Old Régime; Sulte, Régiment de Carignan (R.S.C., 1902).

Coureurs de bois. WM Described, 17, 18; furnished recruits to militia, 31; summoned to defend the hornwork, 206. Hd Stir up Indians against British, 55. F Created by policy of trading companies, 37; two classes of, 88; Frontenac instructed to repress, 89; twelve captured, 99; one hanged, 100; king's decision respecting, 125; difficulty in enforcing the law, 127; amnesty granted on certain conditions, 127; punishments prescribed for offenders, 128. L Mentioned, 158; decree against, 159. D Their character, 52. Bib.: See General Index, R. S. C.; Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast; Parkman, Old Régime.

Courier. Newspaper published at Brantford. Established, 1834. Index: Mc Newspaper, Mackenzie's obituary in, 515.

Courier, Upper Canada. Mc Publishes doggerel abuse of Assembly, 165.

Courtemanche, De. F Sent to Michilimackinac, 310. WM Goes to island of Orleans to prepare ambuscade, 90; slight success of, 92.

Courts of Justice. Dr Established, 13; not satisfactory to Canadians, 41; reform of, 54.

Courval, De. WM Directs movements of fire rafts, 130.

Couture, Guillaume. Born in Normandy, 1608. Came to Canada, 1640. Two years later, on his way to the Huron country with Father Jogues (q.v.), they were captured by the Iroquois, and carried off to their villages, where they were tortured. Couture escaped a worse fate by being adopted into an Iroquois family. In 1661 accompanied Fathers Dablon and Drouillette (q.v.) on an expedition towards Hudson Bay. Threatened by an Iroquois war-party, however, they got no farther than Lake Necouba, and retreated down the Saguenay to Tadoussac. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime.[92]

Cowlitz. D Hudson's Bay Company vessel, 183.

Cox, Ross. Went to Astoria on the Beaver in 1811-1812 as an employee of the Pacific Fur Company. When Astoria was transferred to the North West Company, joined that Company. Spent five years on the Columbia, and returned to the East overland. His narrative formed one of the principal sources of Irving's Astoria, and is a valuable account of the fur trade on the Pacific coast. Bib.: Adventures on the Columbia River. For biog., see Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Craig, Sir James (1748-1812). Distinguished himself at Lexington and Bunker Hill, in American Revolutionary War. Appointed governor of Jersey, 1793; and governor of the Cape, 1795. Sent to India two years later; and in 1807 governor-general of Canada, retiring in 1811. Index: PGovernor-general of Canada, 27; his prejudice against French-Canadians, 28; suppresses Le Canadien, and sends its contributors to jail, 28-29; advises that bishop of Quebec be deprived of appointment of parish priests, suspension of constitution of 1791, union of Upper and Lower Canada, and confiscation of Sulpicians' estates, 29, 159; his administration, 30-31. Bk Governor-general and commander-in-chief, 90, 91; distrusts French-Canadians, 91; changes name "Brock's battery" to "King's battery," 94; his hesitation as to issuing arms to French-Canadian militia, 102, 103; gives his reasons, 103; his speech at opening of Legislature conciliatory, 104; cancels commissions of Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. Panet and others, 105; dissolves Assembly, 116; popular with the Anti-Canadian party, 116; calls for reinforcements, 118; uses military labour in road making, 125; dissolves the Assembly, 127; seizes Canadien newspaper and arrests its proprietors, 127; makes other arrests in Montreal district, 128; his proclamation defending British government, 128; sends Ryland to London, 129; expresses very unfavourable opinion of French-Canadians, 129; praises Legislative Council, 130; releases Bédard, 145; breakdown of his health, 147, 155; gives his favourite horse "Alfred" to Brock, 156; leaves Canada, 156; appearance and character, 156. E His shortcomings as a colonial governor, 1, 19. BL His "blundering patriotism" as governor, 17. Bib.: Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Dict. Eng. Hist.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Cramahé, Hector Theophilus. Dr Member of Council, sent by Murray on mission to England, 16; replaces Carleton during his absence from Canada, 59; declines to decide question of an Assembly, 61; lieutenant-governor under Carleton, and member of Council, 90; refuses to receive Arnold's summons for surrender of Quebec, 111; his fear of traitors within the walls, 114; improves fortifications, 117; his careful administration during Carleton's absence, 159. Hd Haldimand solicits good offices of, 111; entertainment given by, 224; personal relations with Haldimand, 313. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada.

Cramoisy, Sebastien. Ch One of the Hundred Associates (Company of New France), 171.

Crane, William. W Delegate to England to represent New Brunswick grievances, 41, 45; again sent to England by Assembly, 46; appointed to Council, 69; resigns, 72.

Crawford, Isabella Valancy (1851-1887). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada at age of five. Lived at Peterborough, Ontario. Collected volume of her Poems published, 1905, with biographical and critical introduction by Ethelwyn Wetherald.

Crawford, John Willoughby (1817-1875). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada,[93] 1824; studied law and called to the bar, 1824. Sat in the Legislative Assembly for East Toronto, 1861-1863; represented South Leeds in the House of Commons, 1867-1873; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1873-1875. Died at Government House, Toronto. Index: B Defeats George Brown in East Toronto, 1861, 141. Bib.: Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada.

Crawford, Colonel. Hd Leader in attack on Moravian Indians, 171.

Crawley, Edmund Albern (1799-1880). Graduated from King's College, Windsor; studied law under James W. Johnstone, and called to the bar, 1882. One of the leaders of the Baptist Church in Nova Scotia; entered the ministry; and became the principal founder of Acadia College. Index: H Halifax lawyer—becomes a Baptist and enters ministry, 77; Dalhousie College refuses to appoint him to professorship, 81. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Hill, Forty Years with the Baptist Ministers and Churches of the Maritime Provinces of Canada.

Credit River. Rises in Caledon Mountains, and enters Lake Ontario, fourteen miles west of Toronto. Index: Bk Tract of land on, purchased by Lieutenant-Governor Hunter from Indians, 65. See also Ryerson.

Cree Indians. An important Algonquian tribe, formerly ranging throughout what are now the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and north-eastwards to Hudson Bay. First mentioned in Jesuit Relations, 1640, 1661, and 1667, and in the early journals of the Hudson's Bay Company. They formed an alliance with the Assiniboines, formerly of Siouan stock, and carried their raids against hostile tribes westwards to the Rocky Mountains, and north to the Mackenzie River. In 1776 they numbered about 15,000, but were reduced by smallpox in 1786, and again in 1838. By the end of the nineteenth century they had again regained their former numbers. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians; Harmon, Journal; Mackenzie, Voyages.

Creek Indians. A confederacy of the Muskhogean family. Known to the English as occupying what are now the states of Alabama and Florida. First visited by the Spaniards, under De Soto, in 1540. As a result of the Creek War, in 1813-1814, they were removed by the American government to Indian Territory, between 1835 and 1840. Index: Hd War with, 69; character of, 70; their raids in Georgia, 91; Gage's opinion of, 98. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Creighton, John (1794-1878). Born in Nova Scotia. Called to the bar, 1816, and created Q. C. by royal warrant, 1845. Sat in the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia, 1830-1850. Called to the Legislative Council, 1859, and elected Speaker, 1875.

Crémazie, Octave (1827-1879). His life a peculiarly sad one. Having made a failure of his business as a bookseller in Quebec, went to France, and died there in poverty. One of the founders of the Institut Canadien of Quebec; and contributed for some years to the Soirées Canadiennes and other periodicals. His poetical works published, 1882, under the patronage of the Institut Canadien, with an introduction by Abbé Casgrain. Bib.: [OE]uvres Complètes, Montreal, 1882. For biog., see Casgrain, Biog.; Gagnon, Quelques Notes sur O. Crémazie in Revue Canadienne, vol. 49; also articles in same review by Abbé Casgrain (vol. 31); and by Abbé Degagné (vol. 30).

Crillon, Count Edward de. Bk His connection with the John Henry letters, 186, 187; discovered to be an impostor, 188.

Criminal Law of England. Dr Established by Quebec Act, 64. BL Amendments of 1841 to reduce its severity, 99.[94]

Crisacy, Marquis Antoine de. F Conducts expedition for restoration of Fort Frontenac, 341.

Crooks, Adam (1827-1885). Son of James Crooks; born at West Flamboro, Ontario. Educated at Upper Canada College and the University of Toronto. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1851. Contested West Toronto for the Assembly, 1867, but defeated; elected, 1871; defeated in East Toronto, 1875, but shortly afterwards elected for South Oxford. Attorney-general, 1871-1872; provincial treasurer, 1872-1877, to which was added in 1876 the portfolio of education; minister of education, 1877-1883. Retired on account of ill-health. Died in Hartford, Conn. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Crooks, James (1778-1860). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, 1794, and settled at Niagara. Engaged in mercantile life. Commanded a company of militia during the War of 1812-1814. Shortly after the close of the war removed to West Flamboro. Helped in the suppression of the Rebellion of 1837. For twenty-five years a member of the Legislative Councils of Upper Canada and Canada. Died in West Flamboro. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years.

Crosby, Thomas. D Methodist missionary—arrives, 1862, 270; opens school at Nanaimo, 1863, 270; removes to Port Simpson, 1876, 270.

Crown Point. West side of Lake Champlain. Fort Frédéric was built here in 1731; rebuilt, 1734; and strengthened, 1742. It was blown up by Bourlamaque, 1759, to prevent its falling into the hands of the British; and the same year Amherst built a fort about two hundred yards west of the site of Fort Frédéric. This fort was captured, 1775, by Ethan Allen's men; recaptured by Carleton the following year. Under the terms of the treaty of Paris, 1783, Crown Point became American territory. See Arnold; Allen; Abercrombie; Montgomery. Index: Dr Seized by Americans, 82; Arnold in his retreat burns houses at, 156. Hd Haldimand commands battalion of Abercrombie's expedition by way of, 17; fort built by Amherst at, 28; Haldimand asks that pay be allowed for, 90; vessels cruise up the lake to, 125; settlements near, to be destroyed, 137; St. Leger sent to occupy, 211. Bib.: Crockett, History of Lake Champlain; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Crow's Nest Pass. Discovered in the latter sixties by a trapper, Michael Phillips, formerly in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company. The pass took its name from Crow's Nest Mountain, which is named Loge des Corbeaux on one of the maps accompanying Palliser's Report, 1859. The original Cree name, of which these are translations, is Kah-ka-ioo-wut-tshis-tun. Bib.: Dawson, Crow's Nest Pass (Geol. Survey, 1885); McTavish, The Climb of Crow's Nest Mountain in Canadian Alpine Journal, 1907.

Cudlip, John W. T Anti-Confederate candidate in St. John County, 85; defeated in St. John County, 109.

Cumberland, Richard (1732-1811). English dramatist. Index: Hd Asked to select books for the Quebec library, 191. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Cumberland, William Augustus, Duke of (1721-1765). Second son of George II. Commanded British armies in Flanders and Hanover. Index: Hd Interested in raising Swiss and German regiment in America, 9.

Cumberland House. Hudson's Bay Company post. Index: MS Built by Samuel Hearne, on Pine Island Lake, or Sturgeon Lake, in 1774, 4; rival establishment of Montreal traders, 4.

Cunard, Sir Samuel (1787-1865). Born in Halifax. His practical training[95] fitted him for the important rôle he was to fill in the evolution of ocean shipping. Watched closely the early attempts to cross the Atlantic by steam, and when in 1838 the British government invited tenders for carrying the mails between Liverpool, Halifax, and Boston, immediately sailed for England and laid before the Admiralty his carefully-matured plans for a line of steamships. Succeeded in enlisting the support of several big shipping firms in England, and had no difficulty in securing the contract. So originated the Cunard company, which from an initial fleet of four vessels of 1200 tons each and 440 horse-power has grown to its present gigantic proportions. Was one of the owners of the Royal William (q.v.). Made a baronet, 1859. Index: H Establishes steamship line between Halifax and Great Britain, 234; makes New York western terminal of his line, 234. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Johnson, First Things in Canada, under Steam Communication.

Cuoq, Jean-André (1821-1901). Entered the Sulpician order in 1843, and came to Canada two years later. Devoted his life to a minute study of the languages of the Algonquian and Iroquois tribes, and became one of the leading authorities on the subject. Bib.: Works; Jugement Erroné de M. Ernest Renan sur Quelques Langues Sauvages de l'Amérique; Livre des Sept Nations; Etudes Philolgiques sur Quelques Langues Sauvages de l'Amérique; Lexique de la Langue Iroquoise; Lexique de la Langue Algonquine, Anotc-Kekon. For biog., see Trans. R. S. C., 1902, I, 127-128; Morgan, Can. Men.

Curacies, permanent (curés fixes). F Question of, 165, 190.

Currency. The British authorities passed an ordinance in 1764 by which the French Louis d'or and crown were kept in circulation. First step for a revision of the currency was taken, 1795, when an Act was passed fixing standard of values. So-called "army bills" were issued and used between 1812 and 1820. In 1871 an Act was passed by the Dominion Parliament establishing a uniform currency. Index: E Decimal system introduced by La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 86, L In New France, 123. S Act respecting, in Upper Canada, 94-95; insufficient supply of, a great drawback, 111. Bib.: Johnson, First Things in Canada; Weir, Sixty Years in Canada.

Curry, Thomas. One of the first fur traders from Montreal to reach the Saskatchewan, about 1771. Preceded by James Finlay (q.v.). Index: MS Leaves Montreal for western fur country, 3. Bib.: Mackenzie, General History of the Fur Trade in his Voyages to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans; Burpee, Hendry's Journal (R. S. C., 1907); Cocking's Journal (R. S. C., 1908).

Customs. S Arrangement with Lower Canada respecting revenue of, 93. W Maintained in New Brunswick by British government, 16; changes in system, 16-18.

Cuthbert, James Ross. Bk Of Berthier, forms a volunteer company, from inhabitants of his seigniory, 95; an intimate friend of Brock, 95; his zeal appreciated by Sir James Craig, 96. Sy Member of Special Council, opposes union of the Canadas, 193. BL Supports Papineau and popular party, 20. P Seignior of Berthier—supports Papineau in his opposition to proposed union of the Canadas in 1822, 46. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Cuvillier, Augustin. Entered public life in 1815 as member for Huntingdon, which he represented almost continuously up to 1844. Speaker of Assembly, 1841-1844. Died, 1849. Index: BL Nominated by Reformers as Speaker of Legislature, 1841, 86; member for Huntingdon, 86; his political views, 86; carries petition to Imperial government, 86; votes against "Ninety-Two Resolutions," 86; government inclined to accept his nomination, but tactics of Reform[96]ers make this impossible, 87; elected Speaker, 88. P Delegate to England to present grievances of French-Canadians, 63; withdraws his support of Papineau, 86; loses his seat in Assembly, 102. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Dablon, Claude (1619-1697). Born at Dieppe. Educated at Paris and La Flèche; joined Canadian mission, 1655; accompanied Chaumonot to Onondaga territory, where he remained for three years; then returned to Quebec and remained till 1661, when sent on a mission to Cree tribes in district of Hudson Bay. In 1668 went with Marquette to Algonquian tribes of Lake Superior. In 1770 named superior of Canadian missions and rector of College at Quebec, but did not reach the St. Lawrence till following year; held these positions until August, 1680, and from October, 1686, to 1693. Edited the Relations of 1671 and 1672 and compiled others relating to 1673-1679. Died at Quebec. Index: L One of the founders of the mission at Sault Ste. Marie, 11; dies of plague, 62; accompanies mission to Gannentaha, 65; describes Laval's visit to Prairie de la Madeleine, 74; quoted as to extent of Jesuit missions, 103; laments absence of Laval, 140. Bib.: Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites; Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America.

Dablon, Simon. Ch Assisted in forming Company of New France, 168.

Dacre, Lieutenant. Dr Sailing-master on Carleton's ship, 154.

Daine. WM Lieutenant-general of police and mayor of Quebec. Signs petition to De Ramezay for capitulation, 224.

Dalhousie, George Ramsay, ninth Earl of (1770-1838). A Scottish peer. Entered the army at an early age and saw service in various parts of the world. From 1812 to 1814 commanded the 7th division of the British army in France and Spain. Received the thanks of Parliament for his services at Waterloo. Raised to the peerage of the United Kingdom as Baron Ramsay. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia in 1816. In 1819 appointed governor-general and commander-in-chief of British North America. Served in this capacity for nine years. From 1829 to 1832 commander-in-chief in the East Indies. Index: P Influence did not extend beyond Quebec, 1; his arrival as governor, 1820, 33; conflict with Papineau, 34, 61; his harsh policy towards French-Canadians, 39; his character, 41; founds Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, 41; erects monument to Wolfe and Montcalm, 41; sides with Council against Assembly, 42; promises remedy for abuses, 43; interview with Papineau, 58; refuses to confirm election of Papineau as Speaker and dissolves Parliament, 61; his speech to Assembly, 61-62; recalled, 64, 70. BL Governor-general, 1820, 19; a "disciplinarian devoid of diplomacy," 19; leaves Canada, 20. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Dict. Eng. Hist.; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Dalhousie College. Located at Halifax. Founded by George Ramsay, ninth Earl of Dalhousie, 1818. Original endowment derived from funds collected at the port of Castine, Maine, during its occupation, 1814, by Sir John Sherbrooke, then lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. Act of Incorporation passed, 1821. First president elected and classes opened, 1838. University powers conferred, 1841. College closed for some years, owing to lack of funds for its support. Reorganized, 1863. Index: H Founded by the "Castine Fund," 81; taken possession of by Presbyterians, 81. Bib.: Hopkins, Canada: An Ency., vol. 3.

Dallas, A. J. Born in Scotland. Engaged for some years in the China trade. Entered service of Hudson's Bay Company; chief factor at Fort Victoria, Vancouver Island; succeeded Sir George Simpson as governor of Rupert's Land,[97] 1862. Index: D Marries daughter of Sir James Douglas, 103; governor Hudson's Bay Company, at Winnipeg, 103; president of Victoria board of management, 265; moved to Rupert's Land, 265. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Dallet. L Sulpician, arrival of, 105.

Dalling and Bulwer, William Henry Lytton Earle, Baron (1801-1872). British diplomatist. Index: Mc On the power of agitation, 16. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Dalling's Light Infantry. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 257, 259.

Dalquier, Colonel. WM Of Béarn regiment, 209; in battle of Ste. Foy, 259, 261, 262.

Daly, Sir Dominick (1798-1868). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada, 1825; provincial secretary for Lower Canada, 1827-1840; provincial secretary of Canada, 1841-1848. Left Canada, and appointed by the Imperial government lieutenant-governor of Tobago, 1851-1854. Afterwards lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island, 1854-1859; and governor of South Australia, 1861-1868. Index: Sy Provincial secretary for Lower Canada, 283. BL Provincial secretary for Lower Canada, 1841, 76; his character, 78; Baldwin's confidence in, 79; retains office under La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 134; remains in office when rest of Cabinet resign, 213; defends Metcalfe, 214; sole adviser, 216; provincial secretary, 247; proposal to throw him overboard, 263. E Remains sole adviser of Lord Metcalfe, 35. Md Constitutes an administration of one, 19. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Davin, The Irishman in Canada.

Daly, John Corry Wilson (1796-1878). Born in Liverpool, England. For some time an assistant surgeon in the navy. Emigrated to the United States, and removed to Hamilton, 1826. Appointed surgeon to the Canada Company, 1827, and settled at Stratford, 1829. Succeeded John Galt as agent of the Canada Company, 1831, and took up his residence at Guelph. In the next year returned to Stratford, where he resided until his death. For many years agent of the Bank of Upper Canada at Stratford.

Daly, Malachy Bowes (1836- ). Son of Sir Dominick Daly; born in Quebec. Educated at St. Mary's College, Oscott, England; studied law and called to the bar of Nova Scotia, 1864. Private secretary to various governors of Nova Scotia. Sat in House of Commons for Halifax, 1878-1887; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1890-1900. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.

Damours, Mathieu. F Member of Sovereign Council, 106; arrested by Frontenac, 139. L Member of Sovereign Council, 158, 166; imprisoned, 167.

Daniel, André. Eldest son of Antoine Daniel, of Dieppe, and brother of Charles. Died in 1637. Index: Ch Sent to London (1629) to demand restoration of New France, 212-213.

Daniel, Antoine (1600-1648). Son of Antoine Daniel, of Dieppe. Entered the Society of Jesus; came to Canada in 1633; and in 1634 accompanied Brébeuf to the Huron country, where they laid the beginnings of that ill-fated mission. In 1636 came to Quebec to open the Seminary, which, from very modest beginnings, has since developed into Laval University. Returned to the Huron mission, and in 1648 murdered by the Iroquois. Index: L Wounded while ministering to the dying, 5. Ch Murdered by the Iroquois, 92; missionary in Cape Breton, 1633, 237. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America.

Daniel, Charles. Son of Antoine Daniel, of Dieppe. Made a notable voyage to New France in 1629, of which he left a graphic narrative. Arriving at Cape Breton that year, with two armed vessels, found Lord Ochiltree, who had[98] joined Sir William Alexander in his colonization schemes, building a fort near Louisbourg. Seized the colonists and carried them off to France. Index: Ch Captured by the Kirkes, 200. Bib.: Voyage à la Nouvelle-France du Capitaine Charles Daniel. For biog., see Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Daoust, J. B. C One of the Liberal leaders in Lower Canada, 25.

Darache, Captain. Ch A Basque, disregards monopoly granted to De Monts, 40.

Darontal. Ch Huron chief, 103.

Dartmouth, William Legge, second Earl of (1731-1801). Dr Succeeded as secretary of state by Germain, 148.

Daubressy, Captain. WM Carries articles of capitulation of Quebec to Vaudreuil, 234.

Daulac. See Dollard des Ormeaux.

David, Laurent Olivier (1840- ). Educated at St. Therese College; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1864. One of founders, and editor, of L'Opinion Publique, 1870. Represented Montreal East in Quebec Legislature, 1886-1890. Called to the Senate, 1903. Index: C One of the founders of Le Parti National, and its organ, Le National, 30. Bib.: Works: Biographies et Portraits; Les Héros de Chateauguay; Les Patriotes de 1837-1838; Mes Contemporains; Les Deux Papineau; L'Union des Deux Canadas; Le Drapeau de Carillon; Laurier et Son Temps; Le Clerge Canadien: Sa Mission et Son [OE]uvre. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Davidson, John. Sy Made commissioner of crown lands, 333. BL Commissioner of crown lands, proposed to retire him with pension, 125; opposition to, 126; collector of customs, 133.

Davin, Nicholas Flood (1843-1901). Born in Ireland. Studied law and called to the English bar, 1868. Served as war correspondent during Franco-Prussian War. Came to Canada, 1872; joined staff of the Globe, and later, the Mail. Called to the Ontario bar, 1874. Established the Regina Leader, 1883. Represented West Assiniboia in Dominion Parliament, 1887-1900. Index: BL Quoted on Hincks, 121, 131; on Baldwin, 172. Bib.: Works: The Irishman in Canada; Eos, an Epic of the Dawn; Culture and Practical Power; Ireland and the Empire. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.

Davies, Sir Louis Henry (1845- ). Born in Prince Edward Island. Educated at Prince of Wales College; studied law and called to the bar of Prince Edward Island, 1866. Sat in the Assembly, 1872-1879; premier and attorney-general, 1876. Elected to the House of Commons for Queen's, 1882; minister of marine and fisheries in the Laurier administration, 1896; counsel for Great Britain before the International Fisheries Commission at Halifax, 1877; one of the joint high commissioners on behalf of Great Britain to settle differences between the United States and Canada, 1898; knighted, 1897; appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1902. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Davis, Captain Sylvanus. F Captured at Fort Loyal, 252; a prisoner in Quebec, during siege by Phipps, 294.

Davost, Father. Ch Jesuit missionary in Cape Breton, 237.

Dawson, George Mercer (1849-1901). Son of Sir J. W. Dawson (q.v.). Studied geology and palæontology under Huxley, Ramsay and Etheridge at the Royal School of Mines, London. Geologist and botanist to North American Boundary Commission, 1873-1875. Appointed to staff of Geological Survey,[99] 1875; assistant director, 1883; director, 1895. One of British commissioners in Bering Sea Arbitration, 1892. Bib.: For his numerous reports and papers on geological and allied subjects, see General Indexes to Geological Survey Reports, 1863-1884, and 1885-1906; and Bibliography of the Royal Society (R. S. C., 1894). For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.

Dawson, Sir John William (1820-1899). Born at Pictou, Nova Scotia. Educated at Edinburgh University. Accompanied Sir Charles Lyell on his geological explorations in Nova Scotia. Appointed superintendent of education for Nova Scotia, 1850. Principal of McGill University, 1855-1893, and mainly instrumental in building up the institution from a small college to one of the first rank. Elected F. G. S., 1854, and F. R. S., 1862; knighted, 1884. First president of Royal Society of Canada. Author of many works on geology and palæontology. Index: T Commissioner to investigate King's College, 48. Bib.: Works: Acadian Geology; Story of the Earth and Man; Science and the Bible; Dawn of Life; Origin of the World; Fossil Men; Change of Life in Geological Times; Chain of Life; Egypt and Syria. For biog., see Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Morgan, Can. Men; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Dawson, Fifty Years' Work in Canada.

Day, Charles Dewey (1806-1884). Born in Bennington, Vermont. Came with his parents to Canada, 1812. Called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1827; created Q.C., 1837. Assisted in the prosecution of the insurgents who had been arrested during the Rebellion of 1837-1838. Appointed solicitor-general and called to the Special Council, 1839. Summoned by Sydenham to the Executive Council, 1840, and subsequently elected to the Assembly for the county of Ottawa. Appointed judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1842; transferred to the Superior Court, 1849; resigned, 1862. Acted as commissioner for the codification of the civil laws of Quebec; as representative of Quebec on the Arbitration Commission appointed under the British North America Act to settle the claims of the provinces; and as chairman of the Royal Commission to investigate the charges against the Macdonald government in connection with the granting of the charter to build the Canadian Pacific Railway. Held the office of chancellor of McGill University from 1857 until his death. Died in England. Index: BL Solicitor-general for Lower Canada, 1841, 76; represents British interests, 78; Baldwin's attitude to, 80; introduces School Bill, 107; elevated to bench, 122. Sy Solicitor-general for Lower Canada, 283. E Judge of Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Dean. Bk Private of the 41st, gallant conduct of at Canard bridge, 236; praised by Brock on parade, 258.

Deane, Silas (1737-1789). Delegate from Connecticut to Continental Congress, 1774. Sent to France as secret political agent, 1776. Instrumental in negotiating treaties with France, and bringing Lafayette to America. Index: Dr Advocates canal to complete navigation between Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence, 230, 231. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Dearborn, Henry (1751-1829). Served through War of the Revolution; accompanied Arnold's expedition to Canada. Secretary of war, 1801-1809; appointed major-general, 1812, and assigned to command of northern department in War of 1812; captured York, 1813, and Fort George, same year. Minister to Portugal, 1822-1824. Index: Bk Commanded United States troops in War of 1812, 192; at Plattsburg, 285. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Dease, Peter Warren. D In charge of New Caledonia for Hudson's Bay Company, 285. MS Succeeds William Connolly, 224; chief factor, 1828, 224; his[100] explorations of Arctic coast, 224-225. Bib.: Narrative of Discoveries on the North Coast of America; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Debartzch, P. D. Engaged in journalism. First elected to the Assembly of Lower Canada, 1810; member of the Legislative Council, 1815. Index: P Accepts Papineau's leadership, 34; urges him to accept mission to England to oppose union of the Canadas, 46; his daughters, 46; withdraws his support of Papineau, 86; interview with O'Callaghan, 146; attacked by Papineau, 169. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

De Bonne, Judge. Bk Resolution of Assembly excluding, 126.

Debt, Public. Sy Arrangements for, under Union, 115, 193, 204, 205, 206, 207; estimated amount of, 319.

Declaration of Independence. In Upper Canada. Mc July 1837, its history, 330; work of Rolph and O'Grady, 330.

De Grey. See Walsingham.

De Grey and Ripon. See Ripon.

Delagrave, C. E Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 187.

De Lancy's Brigade of Loyalists. Dr Mentioned, 202.

Delaune, Captain. WM Commanded the volunteers who first climbed hill at Le Foulon, 181.

Delaware Indians. A confederacy, of Algonquian stock, occupying the basin of the Delaware River. They were known to the British as Delawares; to the French as Loups; and they called themselves, Lenape. Early in the eighteenth century, the Iroquois brought them into subjection. They crossed the mountains, and formed settlements in eastern Ohio, about the middle of the century. The remnant of the Delawares are now on reservations in Oklahoma, with a few hundred in Canada. Index: Hd Bring prisoners from Wyoming, 149. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Delessert, B. Sy Philanthropist and naturalist, 20.

De Lisle, Elizabeth. Bk Mother of Sir Isaac Brock, 6.

Demers, Jérome. P Criticizes Papineau for accepting mission to England, 65-66.

Demers, Joseph. P Urges Papineau to accept mission to England to oppose union of the Canadas, 45.

Demers, Modeste. First Roman Catholic bishop of Vancouver Island, 1847-1871. Index: D Missionary on Vancouver Island prior to 1846, 269; visits upper Fraser, 269; made bishop, 269.

De Mille, James (1833-1880). Born in New Brunswick. Educated at Horton Academy and at Brown University, Rhode Island. Subsequently professor of classics at Acadia College and at Dalhousie College. Bib.: Works: Elements of Rhetoric; Helena's Household; A Tale of Rome in the First Century; Young Dodge Club Series.

Déné Indians. A group of tribes, of Athapaskan stock. The name means men. Morice includes four tribes in the Western Dénés: Sekanais, on the west slope of the Rocky Mountains; Babines, who occupy the shores of the lakes of the same name, and the neighbouring country; Carriers, whose villages extend from Stuart Lake to Alexandria on the Fraser; and Chilcotins, who occupy the valley of the river of the same name. Index: D In New Caledonia, 97. Bib.: Morice, The Western Dénés; Déné Sociology; Notes on the Western Dénés.

Denison, George Taylor (1839- ). Police magistrate at Toronto since 1877. Commanded Governor-General's Bodyguard in Fenian Raid, 1866; and in Riel Rebellion, 1885; in 1877 won the first prize offered by the Czar of[101] Russia for the best History of Cavalry; president of the British Empire League in Canada since 1896. One of the founders of Canada First Party. Index: Md Opposes commercial union, 295. Bib.: Works: Fenian Raid on Fort Erie; Modern Cavalry; History of Cavalry; Soldiering in Canada; Struggle for Imperial Unity. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.

Dennis, John Stoughton (1820-1885). Born near Toronto. Educated at Victoria College; commissioned as surveyor of public lands, 1842. Assisted in the organization of the Canadian militia, 1855; raised and appointed to the command of the Toronto Field Battery, 1856; brigade-major of the 5th Military District, 1861-1869; saw active service during the Fenian Raid, 1866. Sent to Red River Settlement to organize system of surveys, 1869, but was forced to withdraw. Surveyor-general of Dominion Lands, 1871; deputy-minister of the interior, 1878; retired, 1881; created C. M. G., 1882. Index: C His surveys held responsible for first Riel Rebellion, 69-70. R Surveyor-general, graduate of Victoria College, 144. Bib.: Denison, The Fenian Raid on Fort Erie and Soldiering in Canada. See also Riel Rebellion, 1869-1870.

Denonville, Jacques-René de Brisay, Marquis de. Eleventh governor of New France. Colonel of Dragoons in French army; spent thirty years in military service before coming to Canada, in 1685, as successor to La Barre. Although a capable officer, found himself in a difficult situation owing to the condition to which the country had been brought by the failure of La Barre and the intrigues of the English governor of New York. Adopted a severe policy with the Indians, and was condemned for his treacherous seizure of Iroquois at Fort Frontenac in 1687. The horrible massacre of Lachine was one of the consequences of his maladministration. Succeeded in the government of the colony by Frontenac in 1689. Died in 1710. Index: F Succeeds La Barre as governor, 189; comes out in same ship with Saint Vallier, 191; gives unfavourable account of Canadian people, 192; his piety, 197; asks for more troops, 198; corresponds with Dongan, governor of New York, 198; desirous of constructing a fort at Niagara, 199; proposes to French king to buy colony of New York, 202; instructed to cultivate peaceful relations with English neighbours, 203; sends expedition to Hudson Bay, 205; receives reinforcements, 206; determines to march against Iroquois, 207; crafty policy, 208; complains of French troops, 212; erects fort at Niagara, 213; asks for more troops, 217; receives visit from Big Mouth, 221; in attack by Iroquois on Lachine, orders troops to remain on defensive, 225; recalled, 228; orders Fort Frontenac to be blown up, 228; stimulates Abenaquis to attack New England settlements, 249. L On liquor question, 175; succeeds La Barre as governor, 193; his measures for defence of Canada, 213; seizes certain Indian chiefs, 214; builds fort at Niagara, 216; recalled, 218; conduct in Lachine massacre, 226, 227. Bib.: Girouard, L'Expédition de Marquis de Denonville (R. S. C., 1899); Parkman, Old Régime and Frontenac.

Dent, John Charles (1841-1888). Born in England. Came to Canada at an early age; studied law and called to the bar of Upper Canada. Went back to England and for a time engaged in newspaper work in London. Returned to America, 1847, and spent three years in Boston; came to Canada again, 1870, and became one of the editors of the Globe. Index: B On the "Double Shuffle," 108. Bib.: Works: Last Forty Years; Upper Canadian Rebellion; Canadian Portrait Gallery. For biog., see MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

Denys, Charles, Sieur de Fronsac. Ch Settles in Miramichi, 237.

Denys, Nicolas (1598-1688). Born at Tours. Early took to sea and in 1633[102] became interested in the fisheries of Nova Scotia. A short time after made one of the lieutenants of Acadia under the Company of New France, and settled at Miscou. In 1647 his fort seized by D'Aulnay, who had just been made lieutenant-general of the colony. In 1650 his establishment in Cape Breton captured and he himself taken prisoner. A second attempt to settle in Cape Breton frustrated by Le Borgne. Returned to France in 1653, and received a grant of the islands of the St. Lawrence, including a monopoly of the fur trade, and shortly after became governor of that territory, together with Newfoundland. In 1667 obtained a confirmation of his rights, but in the winter of 1668-1669 his establishment at St. Peters completely destroyed by fire. In 1671 returned to France and engaged in the preparation of his work on Acadia. About 1685 returned to Acadia, but his closing years darkened by the scattering of his vast estates. Died three years later, at the age of 90 years. Index: Ch Abandons Chedabucto and goes to Cape Breton, thence to Miscou and Gaspé, 236. Bib.: Description and Natural History of Acadia, ed. by Ganong. For biog., see Parkman, Old Régime.

De Peyster, Arent Schuyler (1736-1832). Joined the 8th Regiment, 1755, and served with distinction upon the British side in the Revolutionary War. In command at Detroit, and also at Michilimackinac. Retired to Dumfries, Scotland, where he enjoyed the friendship of Robert Burns, and died there. Index: Hd Commander at Detroit, 146; Haldimand's letter to, 158; on the freemasonry of Indians, 161; Haldimand's letter to, on defence of frontier posts, 260; thought Du Calvet should have been hanged, 314. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Dequen, Jean. L Jesuit, devotion of, 32; his death, 33.

Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, fourteenth Earl (1799-1869). Entered Parliament, 1820; Irish secretary, 1830-1833; colonial secretary, 1833-1834 and 1841-1844. Prime minister, 1852, 1858-1859, and 1866-1868. Index: E Induces Elgin to accept governorship of Jamaica, 9; endorses Metcalfe's policy, 37; on an elective Upper House, 121-122. W Receives New Brunswick delegates, 24; on casual and territorial revenue, 25, 27, 29; on King's College Bill, 53, 54; increases New Brunswick Council, 69; cancels Reade's appointment, 80-81; on initiation of money grants, 92; crown lands case, 101. T His government defeated, 63. B Offers governorship to Metcalfe, 18; justifies his policy, 23. BL Restores Hagerman to office, 16; threatens to curtail existing privileges of people of Lower Canada, 21; petition and correspondence as to public affairs in Upper Canada, 30; condemns Bagot's policy, 151; correspondence with Metcalfe, 160-166, 167, 168-169, 176, 186-187, 209-211; defends Metcalfe in House of Commons, and expresses his views on colonial government, 230-234; his confidential letters to Metcalfe, 230; Sullivan's criticism of his views on responsible government, 244; on Metcalfe's resignation, 265. Mc Restores Hagerman to office, 234; colonial secretary, 236; discusses post office, 236. Bib.: Kebbel, Earl of Derby; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Derby. D Formerly Fort Langley—proposed as capital of British Columbia, 246.

De Salaberry. WM Seigniorial manor of, headquarters of Montcalm, 94; council of war meets at, 147.

Desandrouins, Captain. WM His account of massacre at Fort William Henry, 47-50.

Des Barres, William Frederick (1800-1885). Born in Nova Scotia. Educated at Halifax Grammar School; called to the bar of Nova Scotia, 1821.[103] Represented Guysborough in the Assembly, 1836-1848; solicitor-general in Uniacke government, 1848; appointed judge of the Supreme Court, 1848; resigned, 1881. Index: H Member of Uniacke government, Nova Scotia, 1848, 110; solicitor-general, 111; commissioner for Halifax-Windsor Railway, 118. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Des Brisay, Alexander C. T Confederate candidate in New Brunswick, elected, 89; attacks government in Assembly, 102.

Deschamps. Ch Surgeon, with the expedition at Port Royal, autopsy performed by, 33.

Deschamps, Isaac (1722-1801). A native of Switzerland; came to Nova Scotia in early life. Elected to the Assembly, 1761; judge of the Court of Common Pleas for King's County, 1761; judge of the Island of St. John, 1768; assistant judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1770; chief-justice, 1785. Appointed a member of the Council, 1783. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Desdames. Ch Clerk sent to Gaspé, returns with news of English depredations, 181; returns to France, 209.

Deseille, Father. L Companion of Father Marquette, 62.

Desertions. S Very prevalent, 72; punishments for, 72; causes of, 73. WM From ranks of Canadian militia frequent, 152. Bk Followed by capture, 60; three shot, 63; two shot, 134; from United States regiments of the line to the Canadian side, 281.

Des Groseilliers. See Chouart.

Des Marets, Claude Godet, Sieur de. Ch Son-in-law of Pont-Gravé, arrives at Quebec, 47; accompanies Champlain in expedition against Iroquois, 52; at Cap de la Victoire, 139.

De Soyres, Rev. John. T Conducts funeral service of Sir Leonard Tilley, 146.

Desportes, Pierre. Ch An early settler in Quebec, 145, 146; goes to Gaspé, 181; remains in Quebec during English occupation, 196, 208.

Désquérat, Captain. F Killed at Laprairie, 313.

Des Rivières, Captain. WM Accompanies captured British officers to Quebec, 90.

Dessaules, Louis A. Born 1819. Member of Legislative Council, 1856-1863. Edited Le Pays at Montreal. Index: E Member of Parti Rouge, 108. C One of Liberal leaders in Quebec, 25; protests against Dorion entering Cartier's ministry, 106-107. Bib.: Works: Rouge et Noir; Lectures sur l'Annexion du Canada aux États-Unis; Galilée, Ses Travaux Scientifiques et sa Condamnation; La Guerre Américaine. For biog., see Morgan, Bib. Can.

Destouches. Ch Clerk, appointed by Champlain as his second lieutenant, 155; returns to France, 209.

Detroit. Founded by Antoine de la Motte Cadillac (q.v.) in 1701. The fort remained under Cadillac's command until 1710. A census taken that year shows six settlers cultivating the land, and twenty-nine soldiers, traders, etc., occupying houses within the fort. De la Forest succeeded Cadillac at the fort, 1710. Fort surrendered to the British, 1760. Pontiac laid siege to the fort, 1763, but failed to capture it. Transferred to United States, 1796. Captured by Brock, in War of 1812; restored by treaty of Ghent. Index: S The most important of western fortified posts, 51; Great Britain retains possession of, pending settlement of certain questions, 55, 119; threatened by army under Wayne, 133; handed over to United States, 142; River aux Raisins the[104] boundary of territory dependent on, during British occupation, 145. Dr Defence of by Major Gladwin, 5; retained with other western posts as security for proper treatment of loyalists, 231; handed over to United States, 291. Bk Founded by La Motte Cadillac, its exciting history, 54; Brock determines to attack, 248; its strength and garrison, 249, 250; attacked, 251, 254; Hull surrenders with his whole army, 255; important results of capture, 256. MS Under French régime, 11; in days of North West Company, 12. Hd Company of 8th Regiment sent to, 137; a source of anxiety, 145; De Peyster in command at, 146, 158; reinforcements sent to, 153; Jehu Hay, lieutenant-governor of, in 1784, 158; doubtful subjects settle round, 161; difficulty of navigation to, 163; Haldimand's letter to Henry Hamilton, lieutenant-governor at, on means for recovery of Illinois country, 167; unfortunate expedition from, 168; Haldimand's letter to De Peyster on importance of, 260; boat built at by North West Company, 262; Major Mathews, lieutenant-governor at, in 1787, 332. Bib.: Cadillac Papers (Mich. Pion. & Hist. Coll., vol. 33 et seq.); Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812.

Detroit. Brig. See Adams.

Devil's Hole. Bk Near Fort Niagara, massacre of British troops at, 55.

Devos, Frederick. Hd Great-nephew of Haldimand, 312.

Dewart, Edward Hartley (1828-1903). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada with his parents at age of six. Educated at local schools and at the Toronto Normal School. Taught school for a time; entered the ministry of the Methodist Church, 1851; editor of The Christian Guardian, 1869-1894. Bib.: Works: Selections from Canadian Poets; Songs of Life: A Collection of Poems; Essays for the Times. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.

Dewdney, Edgar (1835- ). Born in Devonshire, England. Came to British Columbia, 1859. Had charge of survey of site of New Westminster, and other engineering works. First elected to provincial Legislature, 1869; returned to Dominion House, 1872. Appointed Indian commissioner for North-West Territories, 1879; and lieutenant-governor of North-West Territories, 1881. Member of Dominion Cabinet as minister of interior, 1888-1892. Appointed lieutenant-governor of British Columbia, 1892. Index: D Builds Dewdney trail, from Hope to Similkameen, 252-253. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.

Dickey, Robert Barry (1811-1903). Born in Amherst, Nova Scotia. Studied law, and called to the bar of Nova Scotia, and of New Brunswick, 1834. Sat in Legislative Council, Nova Scotia, 1858-1867. Appointed to the Senate, 1867. Took an active part in the negotiations leading up to the building of the Intercolonial Railway, and the Confederation of the provinces. Index: H Delegate from Nova Scotia to Charlottetown Conference, 177. T Delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 73; and to Quebec Conference, 77. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Dickson, Walter Hamilton (1806-1884). Born in Niagara. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1830. Served during the Rebellion of 1837 as a cavalry officer. Represented Niagara in the Assembly, 1841-1851; sat in the Legislative Council of Canada, 1855-1867; appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867.

Dieskau, Jean Armand, Baron de (1701-1777). Of German descent; served with distinction under Marshal Saxe. When it was made known to the court at Versailles that the British had sent two regiments to America under Braddock, the French decided to fit out an expedition on a larger scale, and six regiments embarked for Canada under Dieskau, who was given the rank of general. Immediately after assuming command, prepared to attack the British and marched[105] at the head of a body of men against Johnson. Although his plans appear to have been well laid, his position was betrayed through the action of the Indians. Severely wounded, made prisoner and well cared for by the British. Taken to England, ruined in health and fortune. Liberated at the conclusion of the war in 1763; and returned to France. Index: WM Defeated and taken prisoner at Lake George, 22. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, Fight with France.

Digby, Robert (1732-1815). Commanded the Dunkirk at Quiberon Bay, 1759; second in command in Rodney's expedition for relief of Gibraltar, 1779; commander-in-chief in North America, 1781. Index: Dr Appointed to chief naval command in America, 194. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Disney, Captain. Dr Accused in connection with Walker affair, 36; tried and acquitted, 38.

Dissenters. S Preponderance of, in Upper Canada, 159, 160. See also Presbyterian; Methodist.

District Courts. Sy Establishment of in Lower Canada, 255.

Doak. W Proprietor of Loyalist newspaper, arrested and released, 75.

Dobson. Bk Brock's faithful servant, 11.

Dodd, E. M. H Solicitor-general and member of Executive and Legislative Councils, Nova Scotia—makes statement as to ministerial responsibility, 76; attempts to reconcile Joseph Howe and his colleagues to the appointment of W. B. Almon to the Executive Council, 87. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Dollard des Ormeaux, Adam. A young officer of the garrison at Montreal, who saved Montreal and the colony from probable destruction by the Iroquois, in 1660. With sixteen companions and a few Indian allies, he intercepted the Iroquois at the Long Sault Rapids, on the Ottawa, and with a heroism seldom equalled in the world's history, this little band gave their lives for their country's sake. The Iroquois, discouraged by such unexpected resistance, abandoned the projected raid on the colony. Index: L His heroic resistance to Iroquois at the Long Sault, 39, 69-72. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime; Jesuit Relations, 1660; Faillon, Histoire de la Colonie Française; Dollier de Casson, Histoire de Montreal. The exploit has inspired several Canadian poems. See Martin, Marguerite; Fréchette, Legende d'un Peuple.

Dollebeau, Father. Ch In charge of mission at Miscou, 235; death of, 235.

Dollier de Casson, Francis (1636-1701). Born in Basse Bretagne. Served with distinction as a cavalry officer under Turenne. Came to Montreal and joined the Sulpicians in 1666. In 1669-1670 carried out with Galinée an important exploration of the Great Lakes. Became superior of the Seminary of Montreal, and later vicar-general of the diocese. Index: L Labours with Galinée on the shores of Lake Erie, 11; gives account of Dollard's exploit, 75; lays foundation stone of Montreal church, 89; on evil effects of sale of liquor to the Indians, 175; at Quebec, 190. F His history of Montreal, 34; depicts evils of liquor traffic, 335. Bib.: Histoire de Montréal. For biog., see Parkman, Old Régime; Exploration of the Great Lakes by Dollier de Casson and de Bréhant de Galinée, ed. by Coyne.

Dolu. Ch Grand almoner of France, intendant, 129; his instructions to Champlain, 132. Bib.: Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Domergue, Lieutenant. F Killed at Laprairie, 313.

Don de Dieu. Ch Name of vessel in which Champlain sailed for Quebec in 1608, 39; also one of vessels of Company of New France, 245.[106]

Dongan, Thomas, Earl of Limerick (1634-1715). Colonial governor of New York. Sent to America as governor, 1682. Resigned, 1688. Became Earl of Limerick, 1698. Index: F Governor of New York, correspondence with La Barre, 182; policy with Iroquois, 183; correspondence with Denonville, 199-200; claims right to trade with Lake tribes, 203; demands destruction of Fort Niagara, 218; advice to Indians, 219. L Governor of New York, stirs up Iroquois, 185, 191. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Dorchester, Guy Carleton, first Baron (1724-1808). Dr Birth and parentage, 29; enters army, 29; lieutenant-colonel, 30; Wolfe's friendship for, 30; military preceptor to Duke of Richmond, 30; Wolfe secures him for quartermaster of Quebec expedition, 31; entrusted with important tasks, 32; wounded at Battle of the Plains, 32; served under Albemarle at siege of Havana, 32; appointed to succeed Murray at Quebec, 32; finds divisions in the country, 33; has difficulty with his Council, 34; forwards petition of Jesuits, 35; issues proclamation relinquishing all fees, 35; his despatch on the subject, 36; has the Walker case on his hands, 37; dismisses Irving and Mabane from the Council, 39; his views in regard to English and French laws, 41, 43; on state of the colony, 44-47; anticipates revolt of American colonies, 50; endeavours to check legal abuses, 51; orders release of small debtors, 52; issues new ordinance respecting administration of justice, 54, 55; opposed to creation of House of Assembly, 55; his return to England, 57; becomes governor-general on Murray's resignation, 1768, 57; absent in England four years, 59; replaced by Cramahé, 59; his report on manufactures of Canada, 59; took important part in framing Quebec Act, 63; his evidence before House of Commons, 67; sails for Canada, 75; his marriage, 75; sends troops to Boston on requisition of General Gage, 78; receives news of Benedict Arnold's attack on St. John's, 83; forwards troops and proceeds to Montreal, 85; calls out militia, 86; returns to Quebec, 89; gives guinea to Canadian soldier, 89; hurries back to Montreal, 91; applies to Gage for two regiments, 92; his despatch explaining fall of St. John's and impossibility of defending Montreal, 103; reaches Quebec, 112; orders all to leave the city who would not help in its defence, 114; his courage and watchfulness, 124; his estimate of the killed in the attack on Quebec, 131; great source of strength to his followers, 133; moves out to attack enemy, who took to flight, 138; makes search in surrounding country for fugitives in distress, 139; makes arrangements to pursue the retreating American army, 144; meets Burgoyne at Quebec, 144-145; his operations successful, 147; Lord George Germain's enmity to, 149; plans to improve the defences of the country, 150-151; re-establishes the Courts of Quebec, 151; defeats the Americans in naval engagement on Lake Champlain, 153-157; refuses to attack Ticonderoga—his reasons, 157-158; retires with army in winter quarters, 159; superseded in charge of next year's campaign by General Burgoyne, 163; his authority limited to Canada, 163; his bitter replies to Germain's despatches, 164-166; indignant at transfer of command to Burgoyne, he resigns, 169; no friction between him and Burgoyne, 174; Burgoyne's testimony, 174; makes forced levy of militia to recruit Burgoyne's army, 178; his correspondence with Hamilton in the West, 179; his appointments to judgeships, 183; objects to appointment of Livius and Owen as judges, 184; his protests against improper appointments, 185; calls out one-third of militia, 187; constitutes committee of Council, 187; his last despatch to Germain, 188; returns to England, 189; sent to America as commander-in-chief and commissioner, 193; arrives at New York, 195; instructed to make pacific representations to Congress, 200; applies for recall on[107] hearing that complete independence is to be granted to the colonies, 203; his anxiety to protect the Loyalists, 206; appoints commissioners for exchange of prisoners, 207; the force under his command, 208; anxious to return home but urged to remain at New York, 212; writes to governor of Nova Scotia on behalf of the Loyalists, 214; his correspondence largely occupied with Loyalist affairs, 218; his last despatch from New York, 219; supports petition of Loyalist widows for pensions, 219; created Baron Dorchester, and accepts governorship of Canada, 221; difficulties of his position, 221; his acquaintance with Haldimand, 222; Shelburne's opinion of value of his influence, 222; his reception at Quebec very cordial, 223; extent of his commission, 224; brings out William Smith as chief-justice, 224; his correspondence with Lord Sydney, 225; appoints committee to consider state of the law, 225, 227; also committees on commerce, police, and education, 226-230; negotiations with Silas Deane on subject of Chambly Canal, 230; anxiety in regard to Indian question in the west, 231; announces intention of visiting Nova Scotia, 235; recognizes necessity for a more popular form of government, 237; visits Loyalists in western Canada, 238; transfers Jesuit church at Montreal to Anglicans, 241; his efforts to increase efficiency of militia, 243, 246; receives propositions from Vermont and Kentucky looking to separation from other American states, 244-247; declines to allow French minister to United States to visit Canada, 248; receives draft of bill for better government of province, 248; thought introduction of parliamentary institutions premature, 258, 259; sends home lists of proposed legislative councillors, 258; not pleased with Simcoe's appointment, 259; urges claims of Sir John Johnson, 259; sails for England, 269; returns to Canada, 271; opens second session of Lower Canada Legislature, 276; calls out militia, 277; fully expects war with United States, 282; his speech to the Miami Indians, 282; speech not approved by home government, 283; expresses desire to resign, 284; gets Alien Act passed, 288; reports improved condition of affairs, 291; wages war on fees and perquisites, 291; surrenders his own fees, 292; opposes holding of appointments by absentees, 292; his relations with Simcoe, 293-296; a believer in centralized power, 294; not being sustained by home government, resigns, 297; points of difference with Simcoe, 302; meets his last Parliament, 303; returns to England, 303; receives addresses of regret, 303; his character, 304; his sympathy with French-Canadians, 305; saves Canada to the Empire, 306; wreck of the frigate in which he sailed, 306; lands at Percé, proceeds to Halifax, and sails from there to England, 306; his death, 307; his descendants, 307. S His connection with the Constitutional Act, 2; not favourable to creation of separate province of Upper Canada, 3; goes to England, 5; orders names of Loyalists who declared themselves before treaty of 1783 to be registered, 70; does not support Simcoe's views in regard to Indian department, 127; controls military operations in Upper Canada, 131; his bold speech to deputation of Indians, 133, 146; recommends Simcoe to fortify post on the Miami, 134; proceedings not approved by home government, 142; his resignation, 142; disapproves of Simcoe's plans for defence of Upper Canada, 206; supersedes purchasing agent appointed by Simcoe, 212; his relations with Simcoe, 228. WM Chief of staff to Wolfe, 75; as governor of Canada, wins affection of Canadians, 75; establishes fortified camp on island of Orleans, 108; lands near Pointe-aux-Trembles and takes a number of prisoners, 125; wounded in battle of the Plains, 199. Sy His Canadian policy, 67, 82. Bk His defence of Quebec and liberal policy towards French-Canadians, 36. E His character as governor, 1. Hd Leases St. Maurice[108] forges, 62; his failure to enlist Canadian militia, 111; governor of Canada, his defence of Quebec, 112, 121; succeeded in military command by Burgoyne, 112; resignation of, 113; Haldimand's opinion of, 119; Captain Schank writes to, 159; pulls down houses during siege, 187; proposal to have him supersede Haldimand at Quebec, 188; Haldimand writes to, 189; raises Loyalist corps, 253; returns to Quebec as governor, with title of Lord Dorchester, 314; his opinion of Dr. Mabane, 315; his relations with Haldimand, 330-332. W Thomas Carleton, a brother of, 5. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Lucas, History of Canada; Bradley, The Making of Canada; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development; Shortt and Doughty, Documents Relating to Constitutional History of Canada.

Doreil. WM Commissioner of war, goes to France, 62.

Dorion, Sir Antoine Aimé (1818-1891). Educated at Nicolet College. Studied law, and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1842. Represented Montreal in Legislature, 1854-1861. Formed administration with George Brown, 1858. Defeated by Cartier in Montreal, 1861. Provincial secretary in Sandfield Macdonald-Sicotte government, 1862. Succeeded Sicotte as attorney-general, 1863. Minister of justice in Mackenzie government, 1873-1874. Chief-justice of Quebec, 1874-1891. Index: Md Opposes political domination of the priesthood, 45-46; leader of the Rouge party in Quebec, 64, 102; opposes Confederation, 115, 118, 142; moves amendment on Intercolonial route, 152; refuses to act upon Pacific Scandal Commission, 205. C Liberal leader, and disciple of Papineau, 25; his followers, and their revolutionary programme, 26; accepts policy of representation by population, 28; his radicalism keeps him in opposition, 29; offered seat in administration of 1858 by Cartier, and declines, 106-107. E Signs Annexation Manifesto, 81; member of the Parti Rouge, 108; becomes less radical in his views, 134. B Leader of the Rouges—his character—friendly relations with George Brown, 80-81; consulted by Brown as to forming ministry, 101; enters his government, 102, 105, 106; his part in converting George Brown to Confederation, 132; moves resolution favouring union of the Canadas in 1856, 132; pledged to settlement of question, 132; opposed to coalition, 160; his speech against Confederation, 175-178, 207; his motion for adjournment defeated, 185; opposed to Brown entering coalition ministry, 199. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party.

Dorion, Jean Baptiste Eric (1826-1866). Brother of preceding. One of founders of L'Avenir, 1848. Sat in the Legislature, 1854-1857, and again in 1861. Index: E Member of Parti Rouge, 108. C A Liberal leader in Lower Canada, 25; nicknamed L'enfant terrible, 25. Bib.: Morgan, Bib. Can.

Dorland, Philip. S Quaker, elected to Assembly, but, unable to take oath, resigns, 81.

Dosquet, Pierre-Herman (1691-1777). Native of Lille, France; came to Canada, 1721; on his return to France, 1725, consecrated bishop of Samos and appointed coadjutor to Bishop Mornay. Later made bishop of Quebec. While in Canada lived in the style of a seignior, much in contrast to the simple life of Laval and of St. Vallier. Died in Paris. Index: L Succeeds Mornay as bishop of Quebec, 12. Bib.: Tetu, Evêques de Québec; Casgrain, L'Habitation de Samos (R. S. C., 1906).

Double Majority. Md Meaning of the term—attitude of public men towards, 78-79; leading plank in platform of the Macdonald-Sicotte government, 89. B Origin and meaning of the principle, 82; advocated by John Sandfield[109] Macdonald, 142; opposed by George Brown, 143; Duke of Newcastle on, 143; and separate school question, 145. BL Beginnings of the system, 258; Hincks's views on, 259; Baldwin opposed to, 352; Turcotte and Hincks on, 352. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Mackenzie, George Brown.

Double Ministries. Brown-Dorion; Hincks-Morin; La Fontaine-Baldwin; Macdonald-Cartier; Macdonald-Dorion; Macdonald-Sicotte; MacNab-Morin; MacNab-Taché; Sherwood-Daly; Taché-Macdonald. See under names of individual ministers.

"Double Shuffle," 1858. B History of, 107-108. Md An ingenious device resorted to by Macdonald, Cartier, and their colleagues, to avoid the necessity of re-election, 85-87. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Dent, Last Forty Years; Mackenzie, George Brown; Biggar, Sir Oliver Mowat.

Doucett, Joseph. Lieutenant-governor of the Fort of Annapolis, 1717-1726. Member of the governor's Council.

Dougall, John (1808-1886). Born in Paisley, Scotland. Came to Canada, 1826, and took up mercantile pursuits. For a time editor of the Canada Temperance Advocate; founded the Montreal Witness, 1826. Died in Flushing, New York.

Douglas, David (1798-1834). Made extensive botanical collections on the Pacific coast of North America, for the Horticultural Society of London, 1824-1826. Crossed the continent from Fort Vancouver, on the Columbia, to Hudson Bay; met Sir John Franklin there and returned with him to England. Came out again to the Columbia River on a similar mission, 1829, and went from there to the Hawaiian Islands, where he was killed. The gigantic Douglas fir named after him.

Douglas, Sir Howard (1776-1861). Entered the army, 1794; commanded a regiment at Quebec, 1797; served at Corunna and Flushing, 1809. After discharging various military missions, appointed governor of New Brunswick, 1823, holding the position until 1828. Lord high commissioner of the Ionian Islands, 1835-1840. Index: W His efforts on behalf of King's College, New Brunswick, 50-51. T His appearance described, 6. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Douglas, Sir James (1803-1877). MS A man of Imperial mind, 225; highest qualities as administrator, 225; with Dr. McLoughlin, 225; marries daughter of William Connolly, 225; chief factor, 1840, 226; governor of Vancouver Island, 1851, 225; knighted, 225; receives Simpson at Fort St. James, 238. D Visits Etoline, Russian governor, 1842, 45-46; in New Caledonia, 59-60; character, 84-91; dearth of documentary material for his life, 90; born Demerara, Aug. 15, 1803, 91; parentage, 92; educated in Scotland, 92-93; sails for Canada, 1820, and enters service of North West Company, 93; meets John McLoughlin at Fort William, 93; McLoughlin persuades him to join Hudson's Bay Company, 94; accompanies McLoughlin to Columbia department, 94; McLoughlin's friendship for Douglas, 94; his training under McLoughlin, 96; sent to New Caledonia, 96; accompanies William Connolly over mountains, 99; with Connolly at Fort St. James, 100; with John Tod at McLeod Lake, 100; his activities there, 100-102; marries Amelia Connolly, 103; transferred to Fort Vancouver, 1830, 103-110; family life there, 103; eldest daughter marries Dallas, afterwards governor of Hudson's Bay Company at Winnipeg, 103; his work in New Caledonia, 104; his connection with Fort George massacre, 105-109; receives Sir George Simpson at Fort St. James, 109; at Fort Vancouver, 110; revises system of accounting at Fort Vancouver, 121; in charge of York Factory express,[110] 1835, 121; in charge of party that raised British flag above Fort Stikine, 1840, 121-122; builds Fort Durham, 122; sent to dismantle Fort Durham, 122; moves Fort McLoughlin to head of Vancouver Island, 122; sent to treat with Mexican governor, 1840, 126-127; succeeds McLoughlin as manager of Puget Sound Agricultural Company, 132; severs his connection, 1859, on accepting governorship of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 132; becomes chief trader, 1852, 135; chief factor, 1840, 133; founds Victoria, 1843, 146; examines site for fort on Vancouver Island, 176; commands expedition charged with the building of the fort, 177; selects site, 178; proceeds next to dismantle Forts Taku and McLoughlin, 178; brings Bolduc, first missionary, to Vancouver Island, 178; completes Fort Camosun (Victoria), 179; returns to Fort Vancouver, 180; associated with McLoughlin and Ogden on board of management of western department, 187; succeeds McLoughlin in charge of western department, 1846, 187; succeeds Blanshard as governor of Vancouver Island, 205; dual position of Hudson's Bay Company officer and representative of crown, 207; establishes representative government, 1856, 208-210; his inaugural speech, 211-215; reports gold on Queen Charlotte Island, 220; issues gold-mining licenses, 221; reports gold discoveries on Upper Columbia, etc., 223; difficulties with the miners, 227; visits the camps, 227-228; appointed governor of British Columbia, 229; retires from Hudson's Bay Company, 229-230; full powers of government given him under instructions of colonial secretary, 1858, 231; Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton's opinion of him, 234-235; his administration of the government, 236; appoints provincial officers, 240-241; second visit to the mining camps, 243-245; proposes Queensborough as name of capital of British Columbia, 247; settles Hill's Bar affair, 248; builds roads, 249-253; 257; his resourcefulness, 249-250; plans for a transcontinental road, 253-254; financial problems, 258-262; charged with extravagance, 261; his prejudice in favour of Hudson's Bay Company, 263; defends their policy, 264-265; justice to the natives, 267; recommends church endowments, 270-271; conflict with Assembly over site of public buildings, 272-273; governorship of Vancouver Island ends, 1863,—knighthood,—succeeded by Arthur Kennedy,—retires from governorship of mainland of British Columbia, 1864, 289; advocates union of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, 295; public appreciation of his rule as governor, 304; leaves British Columbia and sails for Europe, 308-309; his personal side, 309; death, Aug. 1, 1877, 310; wife dies, 1891, 310; his character and achievements as man, fur trader, and statesman, 342-354; compared with McLoughlin, 351-353; personal appearance, 350-351. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. Por.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bancroft, History of British Columbia; Begg, History of British Columbia.

Douglas, Captain W. M. D With Meares on North-West Coast, 1788, 27; at Cook River, 27; arrives at Nootka from Cook River with cargo of sea-otter, 28; sails for Sandwich Islands, 28; returns to Nootka, 28; sails from Nootka to Queen Charlotte Islands, 29.

Doutre, Joseph (1825-1886). Born in Beauharnois, Quebec. Called to the bar, 1847. Early became a leader of the Liberal party. One of the founders of Le Pays, besides contributing to other newspapers. As a result of one of his articles, fought a duel with Georges E. Cartier, but without serious consequences. Joined the Institut Canadien at Montreal, and became the president, 1852. Took a leading part in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church in the "Joseph Guibord Case." Counsel for the Dominion government before the Halifax Fisheries Commission. Index: C Liberal leader in Quebec, 25; pro[111]tests against Dorion entering Cartier's administration, 106-107. Bib.: Works: Les Fiancès de 1812; Le Frère et la Sœur; Les Sauvages du Canada; The Constitution of Canada. For biog., see Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party.

Doutre, R. E Member of the Parti Rouge, 108.

Douville, d'Agneau. Hd Abandons French post at Toronto, 26.

Dow, Dr. T Candidate in York, New Brunswick, 108.

Downshire, Wills Hill, first Marquis of (1718-1793). Secretary of state for colonies, 1768-1772. Index: Dr Approves Carleton's recommendations, 51. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Doyle, Sir Charles Hastings (1805-1883). Served in the army. Commander of the forces in Nova Scotia, 1861-1868; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 1866-1867; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1867-1870; commander of the forces in British North America, 1870-1874. Index: H Lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia; Sir John Macdonald his guest in 1868, 213, Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Doyle, Lawrence O'Connor. H Contributed to The Club in Howe's Nova Scotian, 9; his wit, 35; offered seat in government, 103-104; elected for Halifax, 106; member of Uniacke government, 110. Bib.: Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia.

Drake, Sir Francis (1540?-1596). Sailed from Plymouth for the River Plate, 1577; passed through the Straits of Magellan, 1578; plundered Valparaiso, 1579, and explored the western coast of North America the same year; returned to England, 1580, by way of the Cape of Good Hope. Vice-admiral of the fleet in the defeat of the Spanish Armada off Gravelines, 1588. Died on board his own ship off Porto Bello and buried at sea. Index: D On Pacific coast, 7, 8; lays foundation of British naval supremacy, 16; takes possession of Pacific coast for Queen Elizabeth, 62; and the Spaniards, 147. Bib.: Southey, Lives of the Admirals; Corbett, Drake and the Tudor Navy; Payne, Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen to America; Froude, English Seamen in the Seventeenth Century; Laut, Vikings of the Pacific; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Draper, William Henry (1801-1877). Born in London, England. In his youth ran away to sea and served on an East Indiaman. Came to Canada in 1821 and taught school at Port Hope; subsequently studied law and began practice at York. Elected to Assembly of Upper Canada for city of Toronto in 1836, and made a member of the Executive Council. During the Rebellion of 1837 acted as aide-de-camp to the lieutenant-governor. In March, 1837, became solicitor-general, and in 1840 promoted to office of attorney-general. After the union of the provinces retained in the Executive Council as attorney-general of Upper Canada. It fell to his lot to pilot the ministry through the stormy debates of the first session, and to resist the attacks of Baldwin, Hincks, and their fellow-Reformers. In September, 1842, saw the necessity of resigning and gave way in order that the La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry might be formed. In 1843 appointed to the Legislative Council, where he led the opposition. On the resignation of the La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry in December, 1843, accepted office with Viger, and in the exciting election held in the autumn of 1844 obtained a bare majority for the new ministry. In January, 1845, resigned his seat in the Legislative Council and elected to the Assembly for London. An unsuccessful attempt to secure the support of the French-Canadian Reform section discredited him with the Tories of Upper Canada, and in May, 1847, withdrew from the Cabinet, and shortly afterwards resigned his seat in[112] the Assembly. Appointed puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench for Upper Canada, and in 1856 made chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas. In July, 1863, succeeded Archibald McLean as chief justice of Upper Canada, and in 1869 appointed president of the Court of Error and Appeal. Continued to act in this position until his death. Index: Md Joins Metcalfe's administration, 19; seeks seat in Assembly, 23-24; his administration, 24; recommends Macdonald for office of commissioner of crown lands, 26; accepts judgeship and withdraws from public life, 27-28; commissioner to represent Canada before Hudson's Bay Committee, 1857, 83. BL Appointed attorney-general, Upper Canada, 1841, 76; his previous career, 77; his character, 77; Baldwin's attitude to, 80; pledged to support the administration, 81; succeeds in carrying on government, 85; in discussion as to speakership, 88; his public policy, 90; defines his position on question of responsible government, 91-92, 94; his nickname of "Sweet William," 92; his successful policy, 95; difficulties with French-Canadians, 96-97; realizes need for reconstruction of ministry, 115, 122; resigns office, 123; reads Bagot's letter to La Fontaine in the Assembly, 124; his speech in the Assembly, Sept. 13, 1842, 127; resigns, 132; appointed to Legislative Council, 177; opposes transfer of capital to Montreal, 183; opposes Baldwin's University Bill, 197; supports Metcalfe, 212; executive councillor, 216; referred to in George Brown's speech, 224; visits Lower Canada, and reports to Metcalfe on political situation, 236-263; forms ministry, 246; attorney-general for Upper Canada, 247; secures narrow majority in elections, 1844, 250-251; his political dexterity, 253-255; his University Bill, 256; his scheme for obtaining French-Canadian support, 258-235; his policy, 266-267; his government dying, 276; resigns and becomes puisne judge of Court of Queen's Bench, 276; his University Bill, 293; his municipal legislation, 299; his Indemnification Bill of 1845, 307-308. Sy Solicitor-general, introduces Union resolution in Upper Canada Legislative Assembly, 206, 213; brings in bill for settlement of Clergy Reserves question, 245; made attorney-general, 252; appointed to same office under Union, 283. B Becomes Metcalfe's chief adviser, 20; Globe criticizes his attempt to form a coalition, 27. C Forms ministry, 17. E Acknowledges necessity of bringing French-Canadians into Cabinet, 31; forms ministry under Lord Metcalfe, 35; his retirement, 43. R Ryerson's public letters to, 100, 120; in the Metcalfe controversy, 126; presents case for King's College before Legislature, 149; his Provincial University Bill, 153; bill defeated, 155. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Read, Lives of the Judges. For his own writings, see Morgan, Bib. Can.

Dreuilletes, Gabriel (1610-1681). Studied at Jesuit College, Toulouse. In 1643 came to Canada and spent a year in study of Algonquian language. Soon became proficient in that tongue and accompanied wandering bands on their hunting trips. In 1646 went on an expedition to the Abnaki tribes of Maine, who had become interested in Christianity through converts of the Sillery mission. Remained with the Abnaki one year and then removed to district of Tadoussac, where he spent three years among the Montagnais. In 1651 again sent to the Abnaki to form an alliance with the New England colonies against the Iroquois, but in this was unsuccessful. Laboured for twenty years in missions of Sillery, Three Rivers, and other posts. In 1661 had charge of the mission to the Cree tribes, and in 1672 spent some time in the mission of Sault Ste. Marie. Died at Quebec. Index: L One of the founders of the Sault Ste. Marie mission, 11. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America and La Salle.[113]

Drew, Andrew (1792-1878). Entered the navy, 1806. Took part in many of the most important engagements during the war with France, including the Walcheren expedition. Promoted to lieutenant for gallantry during the fight between the Eurotas and the French frigate Clorinde, 1814. Promoted to commander for his brilliant defence of Cape Coast Castle against the Ashantees, 1824. Retired and settled in Canada. During Rebellion of 1837 offered his services to the government. Conducted the capture of the Caroline, for which he received the thanks of the Upper Canada Parliament and was appointed commander of the provincial marine. A grant by the Assembly to provide seventy-five guineas for the purchase of a sword of honour was not approved by the Legislative Council. Remained in active service in Canada until 1839. Appointed to the command of the Wasp on the West India Station, where he discovered and surveyed a dangerous rock which still bears his name, 1842. Appointed naval storekeeper at the Cape of Good Hope, 1850. Raised to the rank of admiral, 1862. Retired from active service and resided in England until his death. Index: Mc In charge of the expedition which cut out the Caroline, 420-421; thanked by the Upper Canadian Assembly, 423. Bib.: Drew and Woods, The Burning of the Caroline; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion; Lizars, Humours of '37; Read, Rebellion of 1837. See also Caroline.

Drewe, Rev. Edward. S Accompanies Simcoe as chaplain, 47.

Driscoll, Captain. Bk Letter of, relating to death of Brock, 307.

Drummond, Sir Gordon (1771-1854). Son of Colin Drummond, at one time deputy paymaster-general of the forces in Canada. Born at Quebec. Entered the army, 1789, and rapidly promoted until in 1794 became lieutenant-colonel of the 8th Liverpool Regiment. Saw distinguished service in the Netherlands and in the West Indies; became colonel, 1798, and commanded his regiment during the campaign in Egypt, assisting in capture of Cairo and Alexandria. In 1805 given rank of major-general and took command of a division in Jamaica. In December, 1808, transferred to the staff in Canada, until 1811. Served for a time in Ireland; returned to Canada as second in command to Sir George Prévost, 1813. Took a most prominent part in the War of 1812. From December, 1813, to April, 1815, president and administrator of Upper Canada, and during this period succeeded in turning the tide of victory to the British forces. Defeated the Americans at Niagara, July 28, 1814, and followed this up by occupying Fort Erie in November. In recognition of his splendid services during the war, gazetted a K. C. B. On the departure of Sir George Prévost appointed administrator of Lower Canada, and assumed office Apr. 4, 1815. Had expressed a strong desire to return to England, as it was understood that the appointment was to be only temporary. Accordingly relieved by Major-General Wilson, and departed from Quebec, May 20, 1816. Obtained the rank of lieutenant-general in 1825. In 1827 made a G. C. B. Died in London. Index: Bk Takes command of troops at Montreal, 115; commander of forces in Canada, 157. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Rattray, The Scot in British North America.

Drummond, Lewis Thomas (1813-1882). Born in Londonderry, Ireland. Came to Canada with his mother, 1825. Educated at Nicolet College; studied law, and called to the bar, 1836. Elected to the Assembly for Montreal, 1843, but prevented from taking his seat by the dissolution of the Assembly. Defeated in the general election that followed, but in the same year elected for Portneuf. Held office in the La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry as solicitor-general[114] for Lower Canada, 1848-1851, and became attorney-general for Lower Canada in the Hincks-Morin government, 1851. Held office under various administrations until 1856, when he resigned, owing to a dispute over the leadership of the Assembly. Again took office as attorney-general in the short-lived Brown-Dorion administration, 1861, and as commissioner of public works in the Macdonald-Dorion government, 1863. In the same year defeated for re-election and retired from political life. Appointed a judge of the Superior Court for Lower Canada, 1864. Retired, 1873. Died in Montreal. Index: E One of the leaders of the Liberals in Lower Canada in 1851, 109; becomes attorney-general for Lower Canada in Hincks-Morin government, 113; retains same portfolio in reconstructed ministry, 126; and in MacNab-Morin ministry, 141; takes a leading part in settlement of the Seigniorial Tenure, 186. B Enters George Brown's ministry, 102. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Du Bois d'Égriseilles, Abbé J. B. L Devotes his fortune to religious work at Montreal, 135.

Du Calvet, Pierre. Under the French régime engaged in the fur trade, and, having acquired considerable wealth, remained in the colony after the conquest. In 1764 made a magistrate and justice of the peace. Vigorously opposed an ordinance of 1770 regulating the administration of justice, and on several subsequent occasions clashed with the executive authority. Suspected by Haldimand of having been in secret correspondence with the United States, and arrested in September, 1780; from November, 1780, to May, 1783, kept in confinement without the opportunity of a legal trial. In 1784 went to England, where he denounced Haldimand and sought redress before the British ministry. In this connection published an "Appel à la Justice de l'État," setting forth his personal grievances, but concluding with a carefully prepared plan of government, which was considered as the basis for that adopted in the Constitutional Act of 1791. Complaints were not favourably received, and returned to Canada. In March, 1786, left New York for London on board the Shelburne, which is supposed to have been lost with all on board. Index: Hd Arrested on suspicion of treason, 279-280; evidence against, 281; his resentment against Haldimand, 282; being released, enters action against him, 283; his memorial to Lord Sydney, 284-288; his misstatements, 288; supported in his action against Haldimand by Masères, 290; demands a Legislative Assembly and the Habeas Corpus Act, 291; drowned at sea, 292; praised by Fréchette, 292; blames Mabane for ill will of Haldimand, 305; serves writ against Haldimand, 310. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada. For full titles of his Appel à la Justice de l'État, and The Case of Pierre Du Calvet, see Morgan, Bib. Can. See also Haldimand, Sir Frederick.

Duchesne, Adrien. Ch Surgeon, early settler, 145.

Duchesne, David. Ch Assisted in forming Company of New France, 168.

Duchesneau, Jacques. Intendant of New France, 1675-1682. His commission invested him with the title of president of the Sovereign Council, an office which had hitherto been filled by the governor. As Frontenac, a man of dominant spirit, was then governor, interminable disputes arose between him and the intendant touching questions of precedence. Frontenac lost no opportunity of showing his resentment; and the intendant sided with the bishop in the vexed question of selling brandy to the Indians. Finally the quarrel came to the ears of the king, and both governor and intendant were recalled. Index: L Appointed intendant, 166; disagrees with Frontenac, 167; recalled, 168.[115] F Intendant, 108; his instructions, 109; claims to rank above bishop, 115; causes king's prohibition of trading licenses to be registered in Frontenac's absence, 117; asked to furnish particulars as to ill effects of liquor traffic, 118; censured for interfering in matters beyond his sphere, 120; his recommendations on the coureurs de bois question, 127; dispute with Frontenac as to presidency of the Sovereign Council, 133-140; severely censured in despatch from minister, 134; accuses Frontenac of manufacturing the news he sends to the minister, 142; his son imprisoned for disrespect to Frontenac, 143; recall of, 143; makes report on Acadia, 271. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in New World; Parkman, Frontenac; Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903).

Duclos, Captain. WM Constructs and commands floating battery Le Diable, 82, 87, 104.

Dudley, Joseph (1647-1720). F Provisional governor of Massachusetts, 264. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Dudouyt, Jean. F Grand-vicar to bishop of Quebec, 111; sent to France by bishop in connection with liquor question, 118; advice to bishop, 171. L Director of seminary, 55; transfers his personal income to seminary, 56; to administer diocese in case of necessity, 134; his mission to France, 171; grand cantor of chapter of Quebec, 197; death of, 219. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Dufferin and Ava, Frederick Temple Hamilton Blackwood, Marquess of (1826-1902). British commissioner to Syria, 1860; under-secretary for India, 1864-1866, and for war, 1865-1867; governor-general of Canada, 1872-1878; ambassador to Russia, 1879; transferred to Constantinople, 1881; viceroy of India, 1884; ambassador to Italy, 1888; ambassador to France, 1891; Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, 1891. Index: D Visits British Columbia in connection with Confederation negotiations, 323. Bib.: Works: Journey from Oxford to Skibbereen; Letters from High Latitudes; Inquiry into State of Ireland; Irish Emigration; Speeches and Addresses, ed. by Milton. For biog., see Leggo, History of the Administration of Lord Dufferin in Canada; Stewart, Canada under Lord Dufferin; Black, The Marquess of Dufferin and Ava; Lyall, The Life of the Marquis of Dufferin and Ava; Dent, Can. Por.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Dufort, Thomas. Mc Agent of Papineau to Upper Canada, 345; sets out for Michigan, 345; secures assistance in Michigan, 427.

Dugas, Du Gua, or Du Guast, Sieur de Monts. See Monts.

Duggan, Jeremiah. Dr Citizen of Quebec, assists Americans, 120.

Du Lhut, Daniel Greysolon (1640?-1710). Took part in the campaign in Flanders, and present at the battle of Seneffe, 1664. Came to Canada latter year. Left Montreal for the West, 1678, and the following year took possession of the country of the Sioux for France; explored the country about Lake Superior, and gained unusual influence over some of the western tribes; commanded at Fort Frontenac, 1696, and later at Detroit; the city of Duluth named after him. Index: F Explorer, discoveries of, 162; imprisoned on return to Quebec, 163; appointed post commander among north-western tribes, 164; diverts trade from English posts on Hudson Bay to Montreal, 164; under orders from La Barre confiscates goods in La Salle's fort of St. Louis, 179; instructed to rendezvous at Niagara, 181, 186, 187;, fortifies post at outlet of Lake Huron, 202. Bib.: Margry, Découvertes et Établissements des Français; Sieur Du Lhut (Minn. Hist. Coll., vol. 1); McLennan, Death of Duluth (R. S. C., 1903); Jesuit Relations, ed. by Thwaites, vol. 62; Roy, DuLhut (Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 4); Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Régime.

Du Marche. Ch Priest at Miscou, 234.[116]

Dumas, N. E Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 186.

Dumas, Major. WM Commands night expedition to destroy British batteries at Pointe Lévis, 113-115; commands Canadians in battle of the Plains, 192, 195.

Dumay, Captain. Ch Champlain consults with, 133.

Dumont's House. WM Occupied in turn by British and French, 256, 258.

Dumoulin. Ch Murdered by Montagnais Indians, 164.

Duncan, Adam (1731-1804). Entered the navy 1755; commanded the Royal Exchange, 1759-1760; commander-in-chief in the North Sea, 1759-1801; defeated the Dutch off Camperdown, 1797. Raised to the peerage as Viscount Camperdown. Index: Bk Gains victory off Camperdown, 12. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Duncan, Alexander. D Sails for North-West Coast with Colnett, 22; confirms discovery of Portlock and Dixon that Queen Charlotte Islands are not part of mainland, 22.

Duncan, Richard. S Member of Legislative Council, 79.

Duncan, William. D Sent out from England, 1856, by Church of England Missionary Society, 270; establishes native industrial community at Metla Kahtla, 270; dispute with ecclesiastical authorities, and removal to Alaska, 270. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names; Arctander, Apostle of Alaska: the Story of William Duncan.

Duncombe, Charles. Medical doctor. Resided at Burford Plains, near Brantford. Elected to the Legislature, 1824, and re-elected, 1836. After the failure of the Rebellion, escaped to the United States. In 1843 returned to Canada, but remained only for a short time. Mc Complains to Glenelg of Head, 315; deals with York election, 316; his letter referred to a committee, 321; report of the committee, 322; assembles his forces at Brantford, 425; retreats to Scotland village, 425; increased by one thousand, 425; men disperse, 426; amnestied, 474. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Dundas, George (1819-1880). Lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island, 1859-1869. Afterwards lieutenant-governor of St. Vincent, West India Islands, where he died.

Dundas, Henry. See Melville.

Dundas Street. Also known as the Governor's Road. Built by Governor Simcoe; connected London with the village of Dundas. Place and road were named after the then secretary for the colonies. Index: S Name given by Simcoe to his military road from Burlington Bay to site of present city of London, 201. BL Its extent, 8.

Dunfermline, James Abercromby, first Baron (1776-1858). Sat in British Parliament, 1807, 1812-1830 and 1832; Speaker of House of Commons, 1835-1839. Index: Sy Governor-generalship of Canada tendered to, 58. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Dunkin, Christopher (1811-1881). Born in London, England. Educated at the Universities of London and Glasgow. Emigrated to America; studied at Harvard University, and for a time tutor of Greek in that institution. Came to Canada about 1836, and engaged in newspaper work. Appointed secretary to the Education Commission, 1838, and subsequently secretary to the Post-office Commission. Assistant-secretary for Lower Canada, 1841-1847; called to the bar, 1846. Unsuccessfully contested the county of Drummond for a seat in the Legislative Assembly, 1844, but elected to represent Drummond and Arthabaska, 1857. Defeated, 1861, but elected for the county of Brome,[117] 1862. Retained his seat until Confederation, when elected by the same county to the House of Commons. At first an opponent of Confederation, but afterwards a strong supporter. Provincial treasurer of Quebec, 1867; entered the Dominion Cabinet as minister of agriculture, 1869. Appointed a judge of the Superior Court of Quebec, 1871; held office until his death. Name associated with the Canada Temperance Act, better known as the "Dunkin Act." Bib.: Dent's Can. Por. and Last Forty Years.

Dunlop, William (1795?-1848). Born in Scotland. Served as a regimental surgeon in War of 1812 and in India. Came to Canada in 1826, with John Galt (q.v.); and took part in the establishment of the Canada Company (q.v.). In Scotland, had been the intimate of John Wilson ("Christopher North," of Blackwood's), Maginn, and Hogg, and had done some literary work, which he continued in Canada. Founded the Toronto Literary Club, 1836. Represented Huron in the Legislature, 1841-1846. Index: BL Attacks proposed reconstruction of ministry, 1842, 132; significance of his nickname of "Tiger," 132. See also Canada Company; Galt; Talbot. Bib.: Statistical Sketches of Upper Canada. For biog., see Lizars, Days of the Canada Company and Humours of '37; Dent, Last Forty Years; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Morgan, Bib. Can.

Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of (1732-1809). Royal governor of Virginia, appointed 1771. Returned to England after the Revolutionary War, and in 1786 appointed governor of the Bermudas. Index: Hd His letter to Haldimand, 92. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Dunn, John Henry. Came to Canada in 1820, from England. Receiver-general and member of Executive and Legislative Councils of Upper Canada. Died in London, 1854. Index: BL Receiver-general, appointed to Council by Head, 38-39; receiver-general, 1841, 76; a moderate Reformer, 78; Baldwin's confidence in, 78; retains office under La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 134; beaten in Toronto, 1844, 253. Sy Made receiver-general of united province, 283, 332. Mc Appointed executive councillor, 294; resigns, 294. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Dunn, Oscar (1844-1885). Journalist. Index: C His statements as to Cartier's quarrel with Macdonald over terms of British North America Act, 103. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Dunn, Robert. S Presbyterian clergyman, performed marriage services in contravention of the law, 164; second clergyman to settle in Niagara district, 165; drowned in wreck of the Speedy, 165.

Dunn, Thomas (1731-1818). Engaged in mercantile life; came to Canada shortly after the conquest. In 1764 appointed a member of the first Legislative Council of Quebec. A member of the new Council formed under Quebec Act, and one of the five selected by Carleton for the Special Privy Council. On the passing of the Constitutional Act, appointed one of the first executive and legislative councillors of the Lower Province, and during five different periods acted as president of the Legislative Council. On departure of Sir Robert Milnes, in 1805, assumed the administration of the province and continued to act until the arrival of Sir James Craig in October, 1807. Again in 1811, during the interval between the departure of Sir James Craig and the arrival of Sir George Prévost, entrusted with the administration. Index: Dr Appointed judge, 183. Bk Becomes civil administrator with title of president on departure of Sir R.S. Milnes, 69, 73; differences with Brock, 77; confident of loyalty of French-Canadians, 86; calls out one-fifth of militia, 94, 96; becomes adminis[118]trator again on departure of Craig, 157. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Dunning, John. See Ashburton.

Dunvegan. A trading-post on the left bank of the Peace River, about lat. 56°, and long. 118° 40'. Built by A. R. McLeod for the North West Company about the beginning of the nineteenth century. It was named after the "cold, bleak, rock-built castle of the McLeods of Skye." Daniel Williams Harmon stationed there, 1808-1810, and Simon Fraser visited him there on his way east from exploring the river that bears his name. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Du Parc, Jean Godet, Sieur. Ch Comes to Canada, 47; left in charge of colony (1610), 60.

Dupleix, General. WM Abandonment of, by French government, 53.

Duplessis-Bochart, Guillaume Guillemot. Sent to Canada, 1632, by the Company of New France. Led a trading expedition up the Ottawa River, 1636. Killed by the Iroquois at Three Rivers, 1651. Index: Ch Presents pictures to church of Notre-Dame de la Recouvrance, 240; brings out settlers, 252.

Du Plessis Bonneau, Thomas, Sieur. Ch Director of Company of New France, 170.

Duplessis de Ste. Hélène, Mère André. L Her piety, 92.

Duplessis-Mornay. See Mornay.

Duplessis, Pacifique. Came to Canada with Champlain, 1615. Returned to France, 1618. Came again, 1619, and died the same year. Index: Ch Récollet missionary, 85; death of, 117. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World; Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Dupont, Nicolas. F Member of Sovereign Council, 106. L Member of Sovereign Council, 158, 166.

Dupont. Ch Name given by Champlain to the Nicolet River, 52.

Dupont-Gravé. See Pont-Gravé.

Duprat, Captain. WM Brings word of impending attack on left of French position, 138.

Dupuis, Captain. L Heads mission established at Gannentaha, 65, 67.

Dupuy, Claude Thomas. Intendant of New France, 1726-1728. Although a man of some ability, was extremely pretentious and self-opinionated, and became involved in constant quarrels with the governor and the bishop. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903).

Duquesne de Menneville, Michel Ange, Marquis de. Appointed governor of New France 1752, in succession to La Jonquière. His policy was to intercept communication between New England and the western Indians and thus to restore the Indians to dependence on France. In the spring of 1753 sent a force of a thousand men under Morin to the Ohio district; a fort was built at Presque Isle and another, Fort Le Bœuf, inland on River Le Bœuf. Disease made ravages among the troops, and while 300 were left to garrison the forts, the remainder were compelled to return to Montreal, and Duquesne's plans for a further advance were frustrated. Nevertheless the Indians were brought into submission to the French. Improved the organization of the government of the colony, and through thorough discipline raised the efficiency of the colonial troops. Succeeded in 1755 by the Marquis de Vaudreuil. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, The Fight for Canada; Fiske, New France and New England.

Durell, Philip. Second-in-command, under Admiral Saunders, before Quebec,[119] 1759. Index: WM Instructed to cruise off St. Lawrence, 75; makes some captures, 78; arrives at Ile-aux-Coudres, and establishes camp, 88; his grandson captured, 90. Bib.: Wood, Logs of the Conquest of Canada and The Fight for Canada; Doughty, Siege of Quebec.

Durham, John George Lambton, Earl of (1792-1840). Entered British Parliament, 1814, for county of Durham, and won recognition as an advanced Reformer. Brought forward plan of parliamentary reform in 1821. Raised to peerage, 1828. Member of Grey's ministry, 1830. Sent to St. Petersburg on special mission, 1833. Ambassador to Russia, 1836. Sent to Canada in 1838 to bring order out of the chaos of the Rebellion. His famous Report followed. His policy in Canada excited much opposition both in Great Britain and Canada. The House of Lords voted disapproval of some of his acts, and he took the extraordinary step of returning to England without either being recalled or obtaining the royal consent. Nevertheless the wisdom of his recommendations has since been abundantly justified. Died at Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, soon after his return. Index: Mc "A man ahead of his time," 6, 7; speech on the Reform Bill, 14, 15; his report on the Constitutional Act, 55; on the position of lieutenant-governor, 56; on the Legislative Council, 57; on the Executive Council, 58, 63, 64; says Reformers are justified in demanding responsible executive, 59, 67, 68, 69; points out powerlessness of Assembly, 60; on the Family Compact, 62, 65; Clergy Reserves one of the chief causes of Rebellion, 71, 72; on evils arising from Constitutional Act, 75, 76; says representative government was guaranteed by Constitutional Act, 76; his report justifies Reformers, 77; Stuart J. Reid on the Report, 78, 79; analogy between Report and "Seventh Report on Grievances," 79, 80; Union Act of 1840 based on Report, 80; recommends responsible government, 81; authorship of Report, 82, 83; on Head's interference in election, 309; on the causes of disaffection, 402; the remedy, 403. Md On representation by population, 71; on federal union, 93-95. T His views on union, 61. C His inquiry and report, 11-12; Poulett Thomson sent out to Canada to give effect to his recommendations, 12; would merge French-Canadians in the Anglo-Saxon race, 12; exposes frauds of Constitution of 1791, 13; in favour of ministerial responsibility, 96. H His report before Nova Scotia Legislature, 53; advocates Intercolonial Railway, 99. P On Papineau's refusal to accept Lord Goderich's offer of control of the revenue, 77; exiles leaders of Rebellion to Bermuda, 138; his action vetoed by Imperial government, 139; vindicates his action in a parting proclamation, 139; on the system of government in Lower Canada, 157; denied access to Canadian documents in Paris archives, 165; his scheme for union of the Canadas arouses opposition of French-Canadians, 170. R Ryerson on, 115; Ryerson supports his recommendations, 117; his Report, 120-122. MS Comes to Canada, 243; his Report, 243; appoints Adam Thom to his staff, 245. Sy His lack of discretion, 57, 89; his Report, 85, 89-97, 345; his Report welcomed by British party in Lower Canada, 95; and Reformers of Upper Canada, 96; criticized in report of the Upper Canada Assembly, 97-100; also in report of committee of Legislative Council, 100-103; quoted against his own Report, 162. B On causes of Rebellion in Lower Canada, 11, 53; his remedy for political discontent, 12, 13; estimates numerical strength of Church of England in Upper Canada, 52-53; his Report quoted, on land grants, 53-54; on representation, 82-83; and Confederation, 129; his plan of legislative union, 263. BL On political situation in Upper Canada, 17; and Lower Canada, 17; in period of reconstruction, 50; sent to Canada, 53; previous career, 53; his arbitrary methods in Canada, 54; attacked in House of[120] Lords, and his ordinance granting amnesty disallowed, 55; his proclamation, 55; his recall, 55; his Report, 55-58; Imperial government acts upon his advice, 59; his recommendations, 66; recommends responsible government, 137, 273; John Stuart Mill on, 149; on the duties of the governor, 161, 163; his Report quoted by Baldwin, 222; and Elgin, 274; eulogized by Draper, 277. E His characteristics as a statesman, 2; his daughter marries Lord Elgin, 14; sound principles laid down in his Report indicated by Lord Elgin, 15; compared with Elgin, 15; sums up nature of conflict in Lower Canada, 18; advocates ultimate domination of English element, 23, 55; his views on representative government, 25-26; on land grants to United Empire Loyalists, 144-145; on Clergy Reserves, 148, 154-155; on American misconstruction of conditions in Canada, 190-191; on economic conditions in Canada in 1838-1839, 191; suggests remedies, 192-193, 194, 195. Bib.: Report on the Affairs of British North America; Haliburton, Reply to the Report of the Earl of Durham; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development; Garnett, The Authorship of Lord Durham's Report; Christie, History of Lower Canada; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dict. Eng. Hist.; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. Por.; Reid, Life and Letters of Lord Durham.

Dutch Colonists. Ch Their relations with the Iroquois, 52. Dr Admixture of, among United Empire Loyalists, 240. Bk Emigration of, from Pennsylvania to Upper Canada, 49.

Duval, Jean. F Executed for conspiracy against Champlain, 8. Ch Locksmith, accompanies Champlain to Quebec, 41; leads conspiracy to assassinate him, 42; executed, 43. Bib.: Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Duval, Jean François Joseph (1801-1881). Born in Quebec. Studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1823. Represented Quebec in the Assembly, 1830-1834. Appointed to the bench, 1839; judge of the Superior Court, 1852; judge of the Queen's Bench, 1855; chief justice of the Queen's Bench, 1864; retired, 1874. Died in Quebec. Index: E Member of Seigniorial Court, 187. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Du Verger, Father. Ch Promotes Récollet mission to Canada, 83.

Du Vernet. Ch Interpreter, 144.

Du Vignau, Nicolas. Ch His alleged discoveries, 74-77, interpreter, 144. Bib.: Champlain, Voyages; Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Earthquake of 1663. Known in Canadian history as the "Great Earthquake." The most extravagant accounts have come down as to the circumstances attending this earthquake, but it was undoubtedly the most serious disturbance of the earth's crust, in Canadian territory, of which we have any record. It affected chiefly the valley of the St. Lawrence from Montreal to the gulf, a region more susceptible to seismic disturbance than any other in Eastern Canada. Kingsford cites contemporary reports of similar phenomena in 1638 and 1766. Index: F Described by Avaugour, 46-47. L Lalemant's account of, 42-45; Marie de l'Incarnation on, 45; conversions resulting from, 45-46. Bib.: Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France; Lalemant, Relation, 1663; Ragueneau, Vie de Catherine de St. Augustin; Marie de l'Incarnation, Lettres; Parkman, Old Régime; Kingsford, History of Canada.

Eastern Townships. Hd Proposition to settle with disbanded Loyalists, 264. Dr Settled by British Americans, 289; mixed population of, 288. Bib.: Day, Pioneers of the Eastern Townships; Day, History of the Eastern Townships; Thomas, History of the Eastern Townships.[121]

Easton, James. Dr American officer, demands surrender of Carleton at Sorel, 113. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Eau, Chevalier d'. F Goes on embassy to Iroquois, 262.

Echemin Indians. A tribe closely resembling the Micmacs of Nova Scotia, and inhabiting in the seventeenth century what is now eastern Maine and New Brunswick. They lived by hunting and fishing. Index: WM Enemies of the English, 16.

Edgar, Sir James David (1841-1899). Studied law, and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1864. Elected to House of Commons, 1872. Sent on political mission to British Columbia, in connection with Canadian Pacific Railway. Returned to Parliament, 1884; elected Speaker of the House of Commons, 1896. Index: Md Sent to British Columbia by Mackenzie government, 234. D Sent to Victoria, 1874, as special agent of Dominion government, in connection with Canadian Pacific Railway, 320. Bib.: Works: This Canada of Ours and Other Poems; The White Stone Canoe; Canada and its Capital. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.

Edmonton. Capital of province of Alberta. Situated on the North Saskatchewan. Occupies site of Edmonton House, of the Hudson's Bay Company, and, at a still earlier date, Fort Augustus, of the North West Company. Later was built by Hughes, and known at one time as Fort des Prairies. Bib.: Cameron, The City on the Saskatchewan.

Edmonton House. MS Built by Hudson's Bay Company, 6.

Education. Md University endowment in Upper Canada, 28-30; Macdonald's connection with separate school question, 82, 84; compulsory education established, 116. W State of, in New Brunswick, 83; Wilmot's interest in, 83; grammar schools, 85-86; college of New Brunswick, 86; Madras System, 86-87; lack of public interest in schools, 88-90; Wilmot's views on education, 90-91. T Improvement in school system, 20; King's College, 20-22. WM Limited to a few, but excellent, 23. R In Upper Canada, 51-59; petitions, 54-55; Common School Bill, 1816,—its provisions, 56-57; Board of Education, 58; provisions of amending Act, 1824, 58; the university question, 133-162; the common school system, 163-213; separate school question, 215-245; grammar or high schools, 247-268. E Gradual improvements in common school system after 1841, 87-89; Mrs. Jamieson on the Upper Canadian schoolmaster, 87; Lord Elgin's interest in educational problems, 88. BL System of common schools provided for in government programme, 1841, 89; Act passed, 105; previous legislation for higher education, 105-106; for elementary schools, 106-107; terms of new Act of 1841, 107-108; school laws of 1843,189-190; Baldwin's University Act, 190; history of the university movement in Upper Canada, 191-197; under second La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 281, 286, 292, 338-339. Sy Demand that Clergy Reserves should be applied to purposes of, 240-242. S Simcoe's efforts in cause of, 166. C In the clerical colleges of Quebec, 3-5; Lord Elgin on, 5; Cartier's work for, in Lower Canada, 114; in Quebec, 37-38. Dr Committee on, appointed, 226; conflicting views on, 227-229. H In Nova Scotia,—Joseph Howe advocates compulsory education, 79; and an undenominational provincial university, 82; again introduces his measure for public schools, 115. B George Brown's views on, 47, 59, 61, 62-64, 75, 121-123, 145; separate school question, 121-123, 144-145. Hd In the early days of British rule, 233-236. See Ryerson, Egerton; Strachan, John; Simcoe, John Graves; Grammar Schools; Universities; Public Schools; Libraries; Manitoba School Question; Separate Schools. Bib.: Canada: An Ency., vols.[122] 2, 3, and 4; Chauveau, L'Instruction Publique; Dawson, Fifty Years' Work in Canada; Hodgins, Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada; Ryerson, Story of my Life; Meilleur, L'Education du Bas-Canada; Millar, Educational System of Ontario; Ross, Universities of Canada; Education in the Canadas (Archives Report, 1899).

Edward VII (1841-1910). Succeeded to throne, 1901. Index: E His visit to Canada in 1860, 7. Md Visits Canada in 1860, and opens Victoria bridge, 87. Bib.: Dict. Eng. Hist.; Morgan, Tour of Prince of Wales through Canada; Gough, The King's Visit to Canada.

Edward and Annie. MS The vessel which brought the Red River settlers from Stornoway to Hudson Bay, 150-151.

Effiat, Duc d'. Ch Second in list of Hundred Associates (Company of New France), 170.

Eldon, John Scott, first Earl (1751-1838). British statesman. Index: Sy Resigns from Cabinet, 16. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Election Frauds. B In Russell County and Quebec City in 1857, 99-100, 106.

Election Laws. BL Bill introduced, 99; rejected by Council, 100; La Fontaine-Baldwin government brings in a broader measure, 144; its terms, 144-145; opposition of Conservative press, 145-146; electoral reform measures, 286.

Elgin, James Bruce, eighth Earl of (1811-1863). E His qualities as a statesman, 3-4; his success in Canada, 4; his lineage, 5-6; his personal character, 6-8; education, 6; his contemporaries at college, 7; enters Parliament, 8; accepts governorship of Jamaica, 9; death of his first wife, 9; his successful administration in Jamaica, 10-12; returns to England, 1846, 13; accepts governor-generalship of Canada, 13; his second marriage, 14; influence of Durham, 15; contrasted with Durham, 15; his arrival in Montreal, 1847, 16, 26, 40, 41; views on the political situation, 41-43; obtains from Imperial government reimbursement of plague expenses, 48; his tour through Upper Canada, 49; on agricultural associations, 50; dissolves Parliament, 50; calls upon La Fontaine and Baldwin to form administration, 52; comments on character of new government, 52-53; his letters to Lord Grey, 54-56; views on the French question, 55-56; his antipathy to Papineau, 56; on economic conditions, 57-58; on annexation sentiment, 58; on inter-imperial trade, 58-59; his course in connection with Rebellion Losses Bill, 71-78; attacked by mob, 74; Imperial government approves his action in signing bill, 78; second visit to Upper Canada, 79; raised to peerage, 80; condemns Annexation Manifesto, 81; on causes of commercial depression, 82; urges reciprocity with United States, 82, 101, 107; vindication of his policy on Rebellion Losses Bill, 83-84; views on education, 88-89; his admiration for Baldwin, 104; on parliamentary representation, 118-119; on an elective Upper House, 120-121; visits England in 1853, 123; tribute from United States minister in London, 123-124; visits Washington and negotiates Reciprocity Treaty, 124; resents John Sandfield Macdonald's rebuke, 129; on the appeal to the country in 1854, 132, 133; opens fifth Parliament, 135; advises repeal of Imperial Act of 1840, 164-165, 167; on the attitude of the Church of England in Canada, 169; his efforts to kill annexation sentiment, 189-190, 194, 195; his efforts to secure reciprocity, 196; visits United States and negotiates treaty, 197; signs treaty June 8, 1854, 198, 201; succeeded as governor-general by Sir Edmund Head, Dec. 19, 1854, 203; parting address from Legislature, 203; his reply, 204-205; his last speech in Quebec, 205-208; returns to England, 209; views on colonial self-defence, 209-212; accepts mission to China, 212; his part in suppressing Indian Mutiny, 213;[123] negotiates treaty of Tientsin, 214; official visit to Japan, 214; negotiates treaty of Yeddo, 214; returns to England, 215; British apathy as to colonies, 215; becomes postmaster-general in Palmerston government, 215; Lord Rector of Glasgow University, 215; his second mission to China, 215; governor-general of India, 216; his tour in Northern India, 218; holds Durbar at Agra, 218; suppresses Nahabu outbreak, 218; illness and death, Nov. 20, 1863, 218-219; his views on Imperial honours, 222; his principles of self-government, 227; on British connection, 229, 231; on the status of a constitutional governor, 231-232; beneficial results of his policy, 233, 235; on colonial self-government, 239-240; on the American political system, 257-258. B On causes of depression in Canada, 32; his far-sighted statesmanship,—views on imperial unity, 33; introduces self-government in Canada, 33; and the Rebellion Losses Bill, 34-38. Md Succeeds Cathcart as governor-general, 26; upholds responsible government, 32-33; gives assent to Rebellion Losses Bill, 36-38; mobbed in Montreal, 38; sober second judgment of the people justifies his action in approving the bill, 41; his action approved by British government, 42; effects Reciprocity Treaty with United States, 45, 98, 216. T Brings about Reciprocity Treaty, 29. BL Mentioned, 75; attitude to responsible government, 138; chosen by Liberal government as governor-general, 272; his character, 272; his grasp of the colonial situation, and attitude towards responsible government, 273; first to apply successfully the principle, 273; liberally interprets his instructions, 274; marries Durham's daughter, 274; a thorough believer in Durham's doctrines, 274; his statesmanlike grasp of the true attitude of the governor, 274-275; enters Montreal, January, 1847, 275; Hincks on, 275-276; Draper on, 277; dissolves Parliament, Dec. 6, 1847, 278; his solution of the Canadian question, 282-283; calls Parliament at Montreal, Feb. 25, 1848, 283; sends for La Fontaine to form ministry, 284; his high opinion of second La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 285; interview with Baldwin and La Fontaine, 285-286; brings session to a close, 286; on commercial depression in Canada, 301; consents to Rebellion Losses Bill, 321; mobbed in Montreal, 305, 322, 324; his attitude towards the bill, 332-334; loyal reception to in Toronto, 338. R Concedes full measure of responsible government, 126. C On education in Quebec, 5; urges Cartier to enter Cabinet, 22; and the Rebellion Losses Bill, 32; his letter to Lord Grey on the state of the country in 1849, 44; most enlightened and most popular governor before Confederation, 98; aids cause of responsible government, 98. H Attends public dinner to Joseph Howe at Toronto 1851, 138; represents British North America at Boston railway celebration, 1851, 250. Mc Assents to Amnesty Act, 480. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Walrond, Letters of Lord Elgin; Wrong, The Earl of Elgin; Le Moine, Le Comte d'Elgin (R. S. C., 1894).

Eliott, G. A. See Heathfield.

Elisa, Francisco. Commanded Spanish expedition to Nootka, 1790. Carried on extensive explorations in 1791, returning to Monterey the following year. Index: D His attempt to explore Juan de Fuca Strait in 1790, 26; sends Fidalgo to examine northern coast same year, 26. Bib.: Bancroft, North-West Coast.

Ellice, Edward (1781-1863). P Seignior of Beauharnois, suggests to colonial secretary union of Upper and Lower Canada, 47; his design revealed, 49; meets Papineau, 53. MS Opposes sale of Red River land to Selkirk by Hudson's Bay Company, 210-212; quoted on Dr. John McLoughlin, 220; before Hudson's Bay Company Committee, 272. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.[124]

Elliott, Colonel. Bk Indian superintendent at Amherstburg, 151; in charge of Indians in western district, 230.

Elliott. Dr Commissioner for exchange of prisoners, 207.

Elmsley, John (1762-1805). Born in England. Succeeded William Osgoode as chief-justice of Upper Canada, 1796, and again as chief-justice of Lower Canada, 1802. At the same time became a member of the Executive Council. In February, 1803, appointed president of the Legislative Council—a position he held until his death. Index: S Becomes chief-justice, 178. Bk His death, 69. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Read, Lives of the Judges.

Embargo. Bk On United States ships, 83, 108; benefits Canadian trade, 109, 115; disastrous effects of, both in United States and in England, 110, 111; withdrawn, 114.

Emigration. Sy Sydenham's views on, 321; grant by British government in aid of, 322.

Emulous. Bk British ship, prizes taken by, 224.

End, William. W Votes against address of New Brunswick Assembly, 46; referred to by Wilmot, 95; moves amendment in regard to money grants, 97; interrupts Wilmot's speech, 108, 109.

Endemare, Father. Ch Jesuit, goes to Fort Ste. Anne in Cape Breton, 237.

England. Bk At war with republican France, 8; its invasion threatened, 10; mutiny in the fleet and insubordination in the army, 11; isolation of, 23; makes peace of Amiens, 30; declares war with France, 44; threatened by Napoleon, 71; the Berlin Decrees directed against, 81; without an ally in Europe, 82; orders-in-council in reply to Berlin Decrees, 93, 106, 111, 120; intense anxiety in, as to war in Peninsula (1811), 140; prostration of trade, 167; neglect of military protection of Canada (1812), 184; its main force necessarily concentrated on struggle in Europe, 269.

English Colonies. F Goods cheap in, 154; pay better price for furs, 154, 175, 201; political confusion prevailing in, after downfall of James II, 263. WM Colonists sell goods to Indians on more advantageous terms than the French, 21.

English Colonization. WM Egoism the principle of, 17; Parkman on, 20; demoralizing effect of, 20. Bib.: Fiske, New France and New England.

English Law. Hd Introduction of, by the royal proclamation, 59. Dr Sometimes inconsistently invoked by those who in general objected thereto, 40.

English Settlers in Canada. Dr Position taken by, 9; find French laws irksome, 12; Murray's description of, 14, 24, 26; send delegate to England, 16; petition for Murray's recall, 17; described by Carleton, 47; object to Carleton's ordinance of 1770, with respect to administration of justice, 55.

Enos, General Roger (1729-1808). Hd In command of Vermont troops, 211; proposes to settle two Canadian townships, 266. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Epidemics. L Ravages of, 239. See Smallpox.

Equal Rights Association. Formed in Toronto, in 1889, to secure the disallowance of the Jesuits' Estates Act, and generally to oppose what was described as the "political encroachments of ultramontanism." Among the principal founders were D'Alton McCarthy, William E. O'Brien, and Clarke Wallace. Index: Md Grew out of agitation over Jesuits' Estates question, 289.

Erie Indians. A large tribe, of Iroquois stock, inhabiting in the seventeenth century the country between Lake Erie and the Ohio. After a long war, the Eries were practically wiped out by the Iroquois, in 1656, the few survivors being adopted into the Iroquois confederacy. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Erie, Lake. Area 10,000 square miles. Discovered by Brébeuf and Chau[125]monot, 1640. It is possible that the lake may have been first seen by white men at a still earlier date, when the Franciscan friar, La Roche Dallion, visited the Neutral nation, 1626, but there is no direct evidence. The lake is mentioned under its present name in Lalemant's Relation of 1641, as well as in that of Ragueneau, 1648. La Salle's Griffon was the first ship to sail its waters, 1679. First clearly shown on Sanson map of 1650. Bib.: Chaumonot, Vie; Harris, Early Missions; Parkman, Jesuits in North America.

Ermatinger, Francis. D His expedition to Sacramento in 1841, 132. Bib.: Simpson, Journey round the World; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Erskine, David Montagu, second Baron (1776-1855). Bk British minister at Washington, premature announcement of, with respect to orders-in-council, 120. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Eskimos. American aborigines, formerly occupying practically the entire coast of North America from Newfoundland around to the Aleutian Islands; now confined to the northern coast of the continent, and the Arctic Islands. They call themselves Inuit, meaning "people," the name "Eskimo" having been given them by some of their Indian neighbours. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians; Reclus, Primitive Folk. See also United States Bureau of Ethnology Reports.

Esquimalt. Naval station, four miles from Victoria, Vancouver Island. Index: D Suggested as site for city, 175; Douglas's spelling of name, 175; H. M. S. Constance arrives there, 184.

Essex. Bk United States frigate, captures British transport, 225.

Estaing, Charles Hector Theodat, Count d' (1729-1794). Hd His proclamation to French-Canadians, 123. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Esten, James C. Palmer (1806-1864). Born in Bermuda. Educated at the Charter House, London; called to the English bar. Came to Canada, 1836, and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1838. Served as a volunteer during Rebellion of 1837. Practised his profession at Toronto. Appointed vice-chancellor, 1849. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges.

Etoline, Adolphus Karlovich. Director of the Russian-American colonies, 1841-1845. Index: D Succeeds Kuprianoff as governor of Russian America, 1840, 45; splendour of his establishment, 45; visited by James Douglas, 45.

European and North American Railway. W Wilmot's attitude towards, 127. T Peto, Brassy, and Betts propose to construct, 26; subsidies offered by province, 26; progress of, 44.

Eustache, Sir J. R. Born 1795. Educated at St. Peter's College, Cambridge. Entered the army; served in Upper Canada in command of the 19th Light Dragoons; present at the battle of Lundy's Lane and at the storming of Fort Erie; knighted for distinguished services. Took part in the suppression of the Rebellion of 1837-1838 in Lower Canada; high-sheriff of Kildare, 1848; lieutenant-general, 1859. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Eustis, William (1753-1825). Bk United States secretary of war, his confident prediction of conquest of Canada, 215. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Evans, Lieutenant. Dr Case against, in connection with Walker affair, dismissed by grand jury, 38.

Evans, James (1801-1846). Born in Kingston-upon-Hull, England. Emigrated to Canada; opened a school near L'Original, and about 1828 moved to Rice Lake, where he entered the Methodist ministry, and began his life-long Work among the Indians. In 1840 given charge of missionary work in the North-West, with headquarters at Norway House. Had already devoted[126] much time to the study of the native languages, and while at Norway House invented the Cree syllabic characters, a simple, phonetic system, by means of which the Indian was taught to read with surprising facility. At first cast his own type, built his own press, and printed on birchbark. Later obtained more effective materials, and set up catechisms, hymn-books, and portions of the Bible in syllabic. Bib.: Young, The Apostle of the North; McLean, James Evans, Inventor of the Syllabic System; Carroll, James Evans in the Methodist Magazine, October, 1882; Pilling, Bibliography of the Algonquian Languages.

Ewan, John Alexander (1854-1910). Born in Aberdeen, Scotland. Educated in Scotland and in Canada. Assistant editor of the Toronto Globe for many years; war correspondent for that paper during Boer War, 1899-1902. Index: B Witnesses shooting of George Brown by Bennett, 255-256; seizes Bennett, 256.

Examiner. Newspaper published at New York. Index: Mc Published by William Lyon Mackenzie, 470.

Examiner. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index: Sy Advocates responsible government, 107; supports union of provinces as leading thereto, 212; on Clergy Reserves question, 247. E Chief organ of the Clear Grits,—owned by James Lesslie, 110. BL Established by Hincks, July 3, 1838, 58; in the interests of responsible government, 58; excites interest in Oxford County, 69; Hincks explains his political position in, 104; on Hincks, 179-180; Macdougall contributes to, 341. Mc Of Toronto, newspaper, published by Sir Francis Hincks, 483; on the riots, 483; its estimate of Mackenzie, 484, 485.

Executive Council. Mc In Upper Canada; created under Constitutional Act, 53; irritating relations with Assembly, 55, 58; Durham on, 61; real advisers of the governor, 63; responsibility of, demanded by Upper Canada Reformers, 64, 69; Durham's view of effect of irresponsibility of, 65, 66; Sir John Colborne's view of, 279; Lord Glenelg's view of, 286. Dr In Lower Canada, how composed, 269. Sy Its powers and influence, 74-76, 78; practically controlled the governor, 175; necessity for change in, 177; its defects described by Sydenham, 220, 221; changes made in, 334, 335; salaries of, 334. W In New Brunswick, its irresponsibility, 5, 6.

Executive Office. Sy Tenure of, in Canada, 175; Lord John Russell's despatch on, 180-182; press comments on new regulations respecting, 183, 184.

Exhibitions. The first industrial exhibition held in Canada, and probably the first in the world, was that of 1737, promoted by the Intendant Hocquart. It included fruits and grains, woods and furs, and the products of the mines and the fisheries. The exhibition was afterwards sent to France. A provincial exhibition was held in Toronto in 1846; Ottawa had an exhibition in 1878; Montreal in 1880; Halifax in 1881; and St. John in 1883. Since then many other cities and towns have used this means of illustrating the industrial resources of the locality and the country. Bib.: Johnson, First Things in Canada.

Expulsion of Acadians. See Acadians, Expulsion of the.

Extradition with United States. Sy Sydenham takes part in negotiations for, 336.

Eyre, Eustache R. S Fort major, 47.

Faillon, Abbé Michel Étienne (1799-1870). Historian. Index: F Quoted, 4, 9; his description of conduct of Perrot, governor of Montreal, 96, 97. Ch Error in history of, 207. Bib.: Works: Vie de Mme. d'Youville; Vie de Mlle. Mance; Vie de Mlle. Le Ber; Histoire de la Colonie Française en Canada. For biog., see Desmazures, L'Abbé Faillon: Sa Vie et ses [OE]uvres.[127]

Fairchild, Mrs. Hd Haldimand's housekeeper, 314, 328, 329.

Fairfield, John (1797-1847). Sat in Congress, 1835-1839; governor of Maine, 1839-1840, and 1842. Member of the United States Senate, 1843-1847. Index: W His connection with the Aroostook War, 135. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Falconbridge, Sir Glenholme (1846- ). Born at Drummondville, Ontario. Educated at the University of Toronto, graduating 1866. Called to the bar, 1871. Appointed judge of the Queen's Bench, Ontario, 1887; chief-justice, 1900. Knighted, 1909. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Falkland, Lucius Bentinck, Viscount. Governor of Nova Scotia, 1840-1846. Index: H Lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 69; his character and policy, 69; invites Howe to join the Council, 69; his administration, 71; calls upon Howe, Uniacke and MacNab to give reasons for their resignation from Executive Council, 87; Howe upsets his theories of government, 89-92; lampooned by Howe, 92-93; conflict for supremacy, 94, 97; Howe makes insulting reference to, in Legislature, 100-101; returns to England, 1846, 102. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Family Compact. A group of Tory leaders in Upper Canada, so nicknamed by their political opponents because they held power as a distinct group, allied by bonds of political, social, and religious sympathy. Term also used in other provinces, in connection with somewhat similar conditions. Index: Mc Their loyalty tested, 10; Durham's view of, 62, 65, 66; great influence of, 66; lasting and extensive monopoly of power, 66; decides on Gourlay's destruction, 89; destroys Colonial Advocate, 115; incensed at Lord Goderich's concessions, 230; secures Head's sympathy, 302. Md Its character and aims fiercely debated, 13; opposition to, of Macdonald, Draper, and Morris, 27. Sy Its beginning, 77; its foundations laid by Governor Simcoe, 78; attempt to identify Reform party with Mackenzie's rebellious proceedings, 85; condemned by Durham in his Report, 96; criticisms of Report, 97-104; Sir George Arthur allies himself with, 110; opposed to union of provinces, 130; Sydenham's opinion of, as given by Colonial Gazette, 138; its controlling influence, 177; not a political party, 179; not specially connected by family relationship, 180. B Rebellion in Upper Canada attributed by Durham to ascendancy of, 11. E Fight against, 21; attacked by Hume Blake, 69; Mackenzie ill-used by, 91; selfishness of its members, 92; Bishop Strachan and, 150. BL Its character, 11-12; denounced by W. L. Mackenzie, 13; opposed to union of the Canadas, 61; its restoration hoped for, 113. MS Responsible for Rebellion of 1837, 242. See also Strachan, John; Mackenzie, W. L.; MacNab, Sir Allan Napier; Robinson, Sir John Beverley. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Durham, Report; Mackenzie, Sketches of Canada; Bradshaw, Self-Government in Canada; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion; Robinson, Life of Sir John Beverley Robinson.

Famine Creek. L La Barre's expedition halts at, 193.

Fancamp, Baron de. L Presents shrine to Bonsecours chapel, 177.

Fanning, Edmund (1737-1818). Held various offices in the American colonies before the Revolution. Removed to Nova Scotia, and in 1786 governor of Prince Edward Island. Rose to the rank of general in the army, 1808. Index: Dr Commands King's American Regiment, 202; succeeds Patterson as governor of Prince Edward Island, 235. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Farnborough, Sir Thomas Erskine May, first Baron (1815-1886). Born in London. Assistant librarian of the House of Commons, 1831; examiner of petitions for Parliament, 1847-1856; clerk of the House of Commons, 1871-1886; and president of the Statute Law Revision Committee, 1866-1884. Ap[128]pointed privy councillor, 1885, and created Baron Farnborough, 1886. Index: Mc On difficulties of granting responsible government, 21; responsible government granted in Upper Canada in 1847, 25; principle of, adopted in other colonies about the same time, 25; on effect of responsible government, 490. Bib.: Constitutional History of England since the Accession of George III.

Farrer, Edward (1850- ). Canadian journalist. Index: Md Chief editorial writer of the Globe, 312; his pamphlet on annexation—its terms, 312-313; assumes sole responsibility for, 314. Bib.: Canadian Who's Who.

Fay, Jonas (1737-1818). Hd Vermont emissary, 209. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Fénelon, François de Salignac. L Sulpician, sent on mission to Lake Ontario, 105; his reserve as to his own labours and sacrifices, 109; school for young Indians established by, 125; attacks Frontenac from the pulpit, 160; refuses to furnish copy of his sermon and is cited before the Council, 162; his conduct not approved by his ecclesiastical superiors, 162; nor by the king, 164. F Intermediary between Frontenac and Perrot, 92; indignant at Perrot's arrest, 93; preaches sermon against Frontenac, 93; circulates memorial in Perrot's favour, 96; summoned to Quebec, 98; his conduct before the Council, 101; sent to France, censured, and not allowed to return to Canada, 102, 103. See also Frontenac; Perrot. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac; Garneau, History of Canada.

Fenety, George E. W On Wilmot, 131.

Fenian Raids. The Fenian Brotherhood is said to have been formed about 1858 in Ireland and the United States, the object being to liberate Ireland from its connection with England, and establish a republic. A history of the movement in Ireland will be found in McCarthy's History of our Own Times, and in O'Leary's Recollections of Fenianism. Early in 1866 the American branch of the Brotherhood planned an invasion of Canada. The Canadian militia was called out, but the invasion was postponed. In April, the New Brunswick border was threatened, and troops marched to the defence of St. Andrews and St. Stephen. The Fenians thought better of it. Late in May another party, under one O'Neil, crossed from Buffalo to Fort Erie and advanced to Ridgeway, where they were driven back. In 1870 the same O'Neil led his followers into Quebec, but was again repulsed. In 1871 he made a similar attempt in the West, but a detachment of United States troops from Fort Pembina followed, arrested him, and dispersed his followers. An aftermath of the earlier Fenian Raids was the murder of Thomas D'Arcy McGee (q.v.) in Ottawa, 1868. Index: Md Claims for damages, 166-167; claims withdrawn, 175-177; irritation in Canada, 176; Imperial government assumes responsibility for their settlement, 177; gives Imperial guarantee of loan for public works and defence in Canada, 178, 196. T Influence on Confederation, 98; history of, 99, 105-107; referred to in address in Assembly, 102. BL Feared by Metcalfe in 1843, 186. B Threatened in 1866—influences New Brunswick electorate towards Confederation, 188. C As an argument for retaining British troops in Canada, 92; Cartier's speech on, in House, 1872, 110. Bib.: Somerville, Narrative of the Fenian Invasion of Canada; Campbell, The Fenian Invasions of Canada of 1866 and 1870; Dent, Last Forty Years; Correspondence relating to the Fenian Invasion, Ottawa, 1869; Trials of the Fenian Prisoners at Toronto Who Were Captured at Fort Erie, C. W., in June, 1866, ed. by George R. Gregg, and E. P. Roden; McMicken, Fenian Raid on Manitoba (Manitoba Hist. and Sc. Society, 1888); Hannay, History of New Brunswick; Macdonald, Troublous Times in Canada; Denison, Soldiering in Canada and The Fenian Raid on Fort Erie.[129]

Fer, Jules de. Dr His report on loyalty of French-Canadians, 301.

Feret. Ch Of Dieppe, discovers manuscript of Champlain's Brief Discours, 7.

Ferguson, Adam. R Opposes Sir Charles Metcalfe, 126.

Ferland, John Antony Baptist (1805-1865). Member of faculty of Laval University, 1855-1865. Index: L Quoted as to difficulty of educating young Indians, 63; passage quoted from on Mère de l'Incarnation, 93-95; on enterprise of Talon, 114; on creation of bishopric of Quebec, 133; on advantage of connection of seminary with Foreign Missions, 140; on La Salle, 149; on educational labours of the nuns, 155; praises stand taken by Laval in regard to liquor traffic, 173; on return of Laval in 1688, 220. Bib.: Works: Cours d' Histoire du Canada; Opuscules; La Gaspésie; Joseph-Octave Plessis; Voyage au Labrador. For biog., see Cyc. Am. Biog.; Bibaud, Pan. Can.; Morgan, Cel. Can.

Ferrier, James. B His account of the negotiations between Brown and the government prior to Confederation, 152.

Fidalgo, Salvador. Accompanied Elisa to North-West Coast, 1790; founded a Spanish settlement in Fuca Strait, 1792, and removed the post the same year to Nootka. Still there in 1793 when Vancouver visited the place. Index: D Sent by Elisa to examine northern coast, 1790, 26. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast.

Fidler, Peter (1769-1822). Entered service of Hudson's Bay Company, about 1791. Carried on extensive explorations and surveys in the North-West. Left a series of manuscript journals, covering the records of his explorations for over a quarter of a century. These are said to be in the archives of the Hudson's Bay Company in London. Also left an eccentric will, of which Bryce gives a synopsis. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Fiedmont, Jacquot de. WM Engineer, fortifies bridges over River St. Charles, 85-86; opposes capitulation, 225; directs artillery fire against British camp, 230.

Finances of Canada. Sy Sydenham's efforts to rehabilitate, 315-320.

Finlay, Hugh. Dr Deputy postmaster-general, 243; expresses views of the English-speaking people of Quebec in letter to home government, 248. Hd On political situation, 174.

Finlay, James. MS Leaves Montreal for western fur country, 3. Bib.: Mackenzie, History of the Fur-Trade in his Voyages; Hendry's Journal (R. S. C., 1907); Cocking's Journal (R. S. C., 1908).

Finlay, James, Jr. MS Joins XY Company, 14; on Peace River, 1792, 62.

Finlayson, Duncan. MS Chief factor Hudson's Bay Company, 1832, and governor of Assiniboia, 225; Alexander Ross on, 225.

Finlayson, Roderick (1818-1892). D Second in command at Victoria, 1843, 180; chief officer on death of Charles Ross, 1844, 181; his birth, 181; joins Hudson's Bay Company, 1837, 181; his service and character, 181; his narrative, 181; responsible for story of Captain Gordon and the salmon that would not rise to a fly, 183-184; becomes chief accountant of Western department, 188; holds position up to 1862, 188. Bib.: Bancroft, History of British Columbia; Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.

Fire Rafts. WM Unsuccessful employment of by French at Quebec, 131.

Fireships. WM Ineffectual employment of by French, 98; described by Captain Knox, 99; Montcalm on the cause of their failure, 99.

Fisher, Charles (1808-1880). Born in Fredericton. Educated at King's College and called to the bar, 1833. Contested York for the New Brunswick[130] Assembly, 1834, but defeated. Elected for York, 1837, and continued to hold the seat with slight intervals until after Confederation. Entered the New Brunswick government, 1848, but resigned, 1850, owing to a difference with the lieutenant-governor. Appointed a delegate to the Portland Railway Convention, 1850. Became premier and attorney-general in the first purely Liberal government formed in New Brunswick, 1851. Resigned, 1856; in the following year resumed office and remained at the head of affairs until 1861. Appointed a delegate to the Trade Convention at Detroit, 1865. Again entered the government as attorney-general, 1866. Represented New Brunswick as one of the delegates to the Quebec and Westminster Conferences. Represented York in the first Dominion House of Commons. Appointed a judge of the Supreme Court of his native province, 1868. Died in Fredericton. Index: W Elected for York, 47; defeated in York, 66; opposes address to Metcalfe, 74; his efforts on behalf of responsible government, 91; elected for York, in 1846, 102; moves want of confidence resolution, 103, 105; defeated, 111; supports responsible government, 116; his influence, 117; defeated in 1850, 128; opposes reduction of number of judges, 130. T His character, 12; resigns, 18-19; attacks the government, 30-31; attorney-general in Fisher government, 43; retires from government, 51; re-elected for York, 52; delegate to Quebec Conference, 77; elected as Confederation candidate in York, 95-96; moves amendment to address, 102; attorney-general, 105; defeats Pickard, 108; moves Confederation resolution, 115-116; sent as delegate to England, 120; elected for York to first Dominion Parliament, and moves the address, 131. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Fisheries Question. Md Rights of American fishermen expire with denunciation of Reciprocity Treaty, 166; the fishermen reluctant to abandon former rights, 167; Canada's exclusive right to the inshore fisheries recognized by Britain, 173; reciprocal trade proposed by Canada as equivalent for the fishing rights, but rejected by Americans, 174; latter propose $1,000,000 for rights in perpetuity, 174; Macdonald objects to any such arrangements, 174-175; Americans offer limited reciprocity, 181; acceptable to British commissioners except Macdonald, 181-182; arbitration proposed by United States commissioners, 182; Macdonald's dilemma, 183-185; opposition to treaty in Canada, 185; Halifax Award, 190. E Under the Treaty of 1854, 198-200. Bib.: Isham, Fishery Question, its Origin, History and Present Situation; Bourinot, Fishery Question, its Imperial Importance; Elliott, United States and the North-Eastern Fisheries; Ricci, Fisheries Dispute and Annexation to Canada.

Fitzgerald, Edward. B On agricultural possibilities of North-West Territories. 214.

FitzGibbon, James (1780-1863). Born in Ireland. Joined the Tarbert Fencibles, 1798; served in Holland the following year, and in 1801 present at the battle of Copenhagen. The same year came to Canada with the 49th Regiment, and served under Brock with distinction in the War of 1812. In command of the British at Beaver Dam. In 1822 appointed assistant adjutant-general; and in 1827 clerk of the House of Assembly. Commissioned as colonel of the second West York Regiment 1831, and took an active part in the suppression of the Rebellion of 1837. Returned to England, where in 1850 made a military knight of Windsor. Index: Bk Describes gallant conduct of Savery Brock at Egmont-op-Zee, 18-20; his reminiscences of Brock, 66-67. Sy Made clerk of Legislative Council, 334. Mc Defeats rebels at Montgomery's farm, 379. Bib.: FitzGibbon, A Veteran of 1812; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812;[131] Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion; Read, Rebellion of 1837; Lizars, Humours of '37; Morgan, Cel. Can.

Fitzherbert, Mrs. Hd Haldimand's opinion of, 335.

Fitzmaurice, Lord Edward. Dr On Germain, 170.

Fitzpatrick, Sir Charles (1853- ). Born in Quebec. Educated at Laval University; studied law, and called to bar, 1876; chief counsel for Louis Riel, 1885, and took part in several other famous trials; represented Quebec County in provincial Assembly, 1890-1896; and in House of Commons, 1896-1906; solicitor-general, 1901; minister of justice, 1901-1906; chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, 1906. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Five Nations. Hd Post at Oswego to be established for, 142; allies of the British, 148; their rights respected, 166. See Iroquois.

Flag Incident. L In siege of Quebec, 230. F In siege of Quebec, 295-298.

Fleet, British, before Quebec. WM Placed under general command of Admiral Charles Saunders, 75; ascends the river, 78; anchors at Île-aux-Coudres, 83; anchors in Baie St. Paul, 90; at the entrance to the harbour, 111; a few of its vessels pass the town, 123; several vessels attempt the passage by Quebec, 152; sails for England, 238; reappears in the harbour, 267. Bib.: Wood, Logs of Naval Conquest of Canada and The Fight for Canada; Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Bradley, The Fight with France.

Fleet, French, at Quebec. WM Protection afforded by to Bourlamaque's army, 167.

Fleming, Sir Sandford (1827- ). Born at Kirkaldy, Scotland. Came to Canada, 1845. Chief engineer of the Intercolonial Railway; and of the Canadian Pacific Railway; chancellor of Queen's University since 1880; president of the Royal Society of Canada, 1888-1889. To his initiation and persistent enthusiasm are due the establishment of a system of universal or cosmic time; the laying of the Pacific cable, as part of an inter-imperial telegraph service; and the building of the memorial tower at Halifax to commemorate the opening of the first colonial Legislature. Bib.: Works: The Intercolonial; England and Canada; and numerous historical and scientific papers. See Bibliog. of Royal Society (R. S. C., 1894). For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.; Who's Who; Grant, Ocean to Ocean.

Flibot. Ch Kirke's vessel before Quebec, 188, 196.

Florida. Hd Under British rule, 64-81; Haldimand comes north from, 83, 87; Haldimand's interest in, 90; suggests closing of ports of, 104; his career there, 121; proposed disposition of, 124; Haldimand's property in, 316.

Florida, West. Bk Occupation of, by United States, 139.

Flour-milling. B Stimulated by British preference of, 1843, 32; advantage swept away by free trade measure of 1846, 32; in 1834, 54.

Foley, M. H. B In Taché ministry, 1864, 149; retires with Buchanan and Simpson to make room for Brown, Mowat, and Macdougall, in Coalition ministry, 159. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Foligné, Captain de. WM On rapid construction of Beauport defences, 86; his report of fighting at Lévis, 103; on pitiable condition of Quebec, 160; quoted as to rout of French army, 206; on distress following capture of Quebec, 236.

Fontbonne, Colonel. WM His disposition of the Guienne Regiment, 192; mortally wounded, 199.

Fonte, Bartholomew de. His fictitious voyage of 1640 to the North-West Coast was described in a letter published in the Monthly Miscellany, London,[132] 1708. Index: D His reputed strait, 19; his voyage again credited, 23. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast.

Fontenay, Mareuil. Ch French ambassador in London, instructions to, 214.

Forget, Amédée Emmanuel (1847- ). Born in Ste. Marie de Monnoir, Quebec. Studied law and called to the bar of Quebec, 1871. Secretary to the Manitoba Half-Breed Commission, 1875; clerk of the North-West Council, 1876-1888; Indian commissioner, 1895-1898; lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, 1898-1905; first lieutenant-governor of Saskatchewan, 1905. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Fornel, Abbé. L His funeral sermon on Bishop Saint-Vallier quoted, 238.

Forsythe, J. Sy Member of Constitutional Association, 112.

Forsyth, Richardson and Co. Fur trading firm, of Montreal. Index: Bk Send Prévost news of declaration of war, 203.

Fort Albany. Hudson's Bay Company post at mouth of Albany River, west coast of James Bay. Established about 1683; captured by Iberville, 1686, and held by the French for seven years. Finally restored to the Company. Index: F Captured by Troyes, 206; captured alternately by French and English, 343, 345. Bib.: Dawson, The Saint Lawrence Basin; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West and Pathfinders of the West.

Fort Albert. See Victoria.

Fort Alexandria. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Fraser River in 1821, 98.

Fort Anne. Hd Captured by Major Carleton, 149.

Fort Babine. In Northern British Columbia. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, on Babine Lake, built in 1822, 98-99.

Fort Bourbon. On Hudson Bay. Index: L Captured by Iberville, 233. See Fort Nelson.

Fort Camosun. D Hudson's Bay Company post, afterwards city of Victoria, 178.

Fort Chilcotin. D Built by Hudson's Bay Company, outpost of Fort Alexandria, 99.

Fort Chipewyan. Built by North West Company, 1788, on southern shore of Lake Athabaska, near mouth of Athabaska River. Removed, 1820, by Hudson's Bay Company to north shore, where it still stands. Index: MS Built by Roderick Mackenzie, on Lake Athabaska, 24; its situation, 25; its famous library, 26; route to, from Grand Portage, 27; life at the fort, 28; Mackenzie sets forth from, on his journey to Arctic, 32; returns to, 50; McLeod builds new house, 50; Mackenzie winters there, 53; Turner winters there, and determines astronomical position, 57; Governor Simpson at, 1828, 236; William McGillivray in charge of, 236. D Mackenzie at, 53; his point of departure for Arctic journey, 53; and Pacific expedition, 53. Bib.: Mackenzie, History of Fur Trade in his Voyages; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Willson, The Great Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West.

Fort Chippawa. Bk On Niagara River, a mile and a half above the falls, 58; end of carrying-place, and a transport post, 58-59; had a blockhouse enclosed with palisades, 59. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812.

Fort Churchill. See Prince of Wales Fort.

Fort Colville. D Distributing point for Upper Columbia and Kootenay, Hudson's Bay Company post, 77; centre of Columbia trade, 77; founded, 1825-1826, 116.[133]

Fort Conolly. In northern British Columbia. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Bear Lake, 104.

Fort Crèvecœur. L Established by La Salle in Illinois country, 148; attacked by Iroquois, 149. F Built by La Salle, 160. Bib.: Parkman, La Salle; Sulte, Les Tonty (R. S. C., 1893).

Fort Dearborn (Chicago). Bk Captured by Indians, 266.

Fort Dease. On Dease Lake. Index: D Built by Robert Campbell in 1838, 123-124; burned by natives, 124.

Fort de Chartres. WM On the Mississippi, 22.

Fort Douglas. On Red River, about two miles below mouth of Assiniboine. Index: MS Built by John McLeod, 176, 177; seized by Cuthbert Grant, 182; retaken by the De Meurons, 191. Bib.: Bryce, Five Forts of Winnipeg.

Fort Duquesne. WM At junction of Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers, 22; battle at, 22. Hd Name changed to Fort Pitt by Bouquet, 16; plans for recapture of, 25-26. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Fort Edward. WM General Webb in command at, 45.

Fort Erie. On Niagara River, opposite Buffalo. Index: S Military post in 1782, 51. Bk New fort planned by General Hunter, 59. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812.

Fort Essington. On the British Columbia coast. Used by the Hudson's Bay Company as an intermediate post between Fort McLoughlin and Fort Simpson. Index: D Built by Hudson's Bay Company in 1835, 118. Bib.: Bancroft, History of British Columbia.

Fort Fraser. In northern British Columbia. Index: D North West Company post, built on Fraser Lake, 98.

Fort Frontenac. F Erected at Cataraqui, 83; conceded to La Salle, 156; seized by La Barre, 178; restored to La Salle, 179; Dongan demands its destruction, 218; Denonville gives orders for blowing it up, 288; order partially carried out, 234; repaired, 234; rebuilt, 341. WM Protected outlet of Great Lakes, 17. L Récollet mission at, 111. BL Name altered to Kingston by the British, 73. See also Cataraqui; Kingston. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac and La Salle; Sulte, Le Fort de Frontenac (R. S. C., 1901).

Fort Garry. At junction of Red and Assiniboine Rivers, where the city of Winnipeg now stands. Md Wolseley and the expeditionary force arrive there Aug. 24, 1870, 162; murder of Scott, 242. See Winnipeg.

Fort George. Bk Flag of Fort Niagara transferred to, 56; its situation, 56; planned by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, 58; mutiny at, 61; silences Fort Niagara, 309. Hd Captured by Major Carleton, 149. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812.

Fort George. On Fraser River. Index: D Simon Fraser sets out from, to descend Fraser River, 61; returns to, 61; built on Fraser River, by the North West Company, 98; massacre of Hudson's Bay Company men at, by Indians, 1823, 105-107. Bib.: Bancroft, History of British Columbia.

Fort George. At mouth of Columbia. Index: D Astoria renamed, 149.

Fort Gibraltar. MS Built by North West Company, on site of Winnipeg, 99; begun in 1804, 158; captured by Colin Robertson, 178, and dismantled, 179. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company and Five Forts of Winnipeg.

Fort Glenora. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Upper Stikine River, 121.

Fort Grey. Bk American fort opposite Queenston, 300, 305.[134]

Fort Halkett. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on branch of Liard River, 123.

Fort Hope. On Fraser River. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, founded shortly after Fort Yale, 186.

Fort Kamloops (Fort Thompson). D Hudson's Bay Company post, built in 1813, 98.

Fort Kootenay. On Kootenay River, built 1807. Otherwise known as Kootenay House. Index: D Built by David Thompson, 58. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Fort Langley. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Lower Fraser River, 1827, 116. Bib.: Bancroft, History of British Columbia.

Fort Lawrence. Built in 1750, on Chignecto Bay, three miles south of Beauséjour, where the French shortly after built a rival fort. Fort Lawrence became headquarters of the expedition sent in 1755, under Monckton, to capture Fort Beauséjour. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Hannay, History of Acadia.

Fort Le Bœuf. WM Established communication with Lake Erie, 22.

Fort Liard. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Liard River, 123; pillaged by Indians, and traders murdered, 123.

Fort Loyal (Casco Bay). F Captured by Canadians, 252. L Taken by Canadians, 229.

Fort Machault. WM Established communication with Lake Erie, 22, 122.

Fort McLeod. On McLeod Lake, British Columbia. Index: D North West Company post, first permanent trading-post built in British Columbia, west of the mountains, 97-98. Bib.: Morice, Northern Interior of British Columbia.

Fort McLoughlin. On Milbank Sound, British Columbia. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, built by Finlayson, Manson, and Anderson, 1833, 117; moved to head of Vancouver Island and renamed Fort Rupert, 122; abandoned, 1843, 178-179. Bib.: Bancroft, History of British Columbia.

Fort Miami. WM On Miami River, 22. Bk Reconstruction of, by order of Lord Dorchester, 53. S Erected by Simcoe at rapids of Miami River, 136; measure strongly objected to by Americans, 137; General Wayne demands evacuation of, which Major Campbell, officer in command, refuses, 139; occupation of not approved by home government, 142.

Fort Mumford. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on Upper Stikine River, 121.

Fort Nanaimo. East coast Vancouver Island. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, built in 1852, 191. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.

Fort Necessity. WM Battle at, 22.

Fort Nelson. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built on eastern branch of Liard River, 123.

Fort Nelson. See York Factory.

Fort Niagara. WM At mouth of Niagara River, 22; taken by British, 62; capitulates, 146. Hd In command of Captain Pouchot, 25, 36; taken by British, 26; garrison at, 31, 32; shipment of goods to, 124, 136, 150, 163; position of, 145; Indians at, 148, 171, 256; expeditions in its defence, 151, 153; number of refugees at, 152, 250; MacLean in command at, 162, 307, 308; fraud discovered at, 166; Haldimand's refusal to relinquish, 260. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac and Montcalm and Wolfe; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812.

Fort Nisqually. At head of Puget Sound. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, built in 1833, between Langley and Fort Vancouver, 118.

Fort Ontario (Oswego). Hd Haldimand in command of, 29.[135]

Fort Pemaquid. F Destroyed, 1669, rebuilt, 1692, 328; taken by Iberville, 331.

Fort Pitt. Hd Formerly known as Fort Duquesne, Bouquet's victorious march to, 16; Pouchot's designs on, 26; Bouquet stationed at, 40; Haldimand's interest in, 90. See Fort Duquesne.

Fort Presqu'île. WM Establishes communication with Lake Erie, 22.

Fort Prud'homme. L At junction of Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, 150.

Fort Rupert (Fort Charles). Built by Gillam, at mouth of Rupert River, foot of James Bay, 1667. Index: F Captured by Troyes, 206. L Captured from English, 204. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Laut, Canada and Conquest of the Great North-West.

Fort Rupert. North end of Vancouver Island. See Fort McLoughlin. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, coal mining at, 190. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.

Fort St. Frederic. See Crown Point. Index: WM At head of Lake Champlain, 17; evacuated by Bourlamaque, 146. Bib.: Garneau, History of Canada.

Fort St. James. On Stuart Lake, northern British Columbia. Index: MS Governor Simpson there in 1828, 237-238. D North West Company post, built on Stuart Lake, 98. Bib.: Morice, Northern Interior of British Columbia.

Fort St. Joseph. Bk Stores despatched to, 202.

Fort St. Louis. On Illinois River, near site of present town of La Salle. Index: F Built by La Salle, 160; seized by La Barre, 179.

Fort St. Louis. Quebec. See Château St. Louis. Index: Ch A school of religion and virtue, 258; erected on Cape Diamond, 157. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World; Gagnon, Fort et Château St. Louis.

Fort St. Pierre. Ch Founded by Nicolas Denys, in Cape Breton, 236. Bib.: Denys, History of Acadia.

Fort Selkirk. D Hudson's Bay Company post, built by Robert Campbell on the Yukon River, 124. Bib.: Campbell, Discovery of the Youcon.

Fort Simpson. At mouth of Liard River. Index: D Built by Hudson's Bay Company, at mouth of Liard River, 125. Bib.: Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition.

Fort Simpson. On coast of British Columbia, near Alaskan boundary. Index: D Built by Hudson's Bay Company, at mouth of Naas River, 1831, 116; moved forty miles south, 1834, 120. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names (under Port Simpson).

Fort Stanwix. On Mohawk River, near Lake Oneida. Index: Dr Unsuccessful attack on, 173. Hd Abandonment of by rebels, 151.

Fort Stikine. On Stikine River. Index: D Hudson's Bay Company post, handed over by Russians, 121-122; Rae left in charge of, 122.

Fort Taku. D Built by Hudson's Bay Company, on Taku River, 121; known as Fort Durham—erected 1840, 122; abandoned, 1843, 178-179.

Fort Ticonderoga. See Ticonderoga. Index: Dr Fort seized by American rebels, 82. Hd Carleton's raiders penetrate beyond, 149.

Fort Umpqua. D Founded in 1832 by Hudson's Bay Company, on route from Fort Vancouver to San Francisco Bay, 132.

Fort Vancouver. On Columbia River. Index: D Established by Hudson's Bay Company, in 1824, 47; depot of western department, 72; described, 72, 110; built by John McLoughlin, 111, 113; its importance, 111; range of its operations, 111-112; agriculture at, 128; abandoned, 1849, 145. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West.[136]

Fort Vincennes. WM On Wabash River, 22.

Fort Walla Walla. Hudson's Bay Company post, on Columbia River. Index: D Distributing point for Snake River country, 7.

Fort Wayne. Bk Expedition to, under Captain Muir, 274, 275.

Fort William. At mouth of Kaministiquia River, Lake Superior. Index: D Headquarters of North West Company, 59. MS Replaces Grand Portage, 13; named after William MacGillivray, 100; Selkirk at, with the De Meuron soldiers, 189. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Fort William Henry. On Lake George. Index: WM Siege and destruction of, 37, 42-46; ensuing massacre, 47-52. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Fort Yale. D Founded in 1848, by the Hudson's Bay Company, on Fraser River, 186.

Fort Yukon. Built by Alexander Hunter Murray of the Hudson's Bay Company, at the mouth of Porcupine River in 1847. John Bell had descended the Porcupine to its mouth in 1844. Although Fort Yukon was on Russian territory, the Company maintained it until the sale of Alaska to the United States, when they were summarily ejected, 1869. The Company thereupon moved up the Porcupine to the Ramparts, where they built Rampart House, then supposed to be on British territory, but proved to be west of the boundary. The fort was moved twelve miles up the river, and in 1890 was again moved to the eastward. Index: D Built by Murray (not Bell) near mouth of Porcupine River, 125. Bib.: Murray, Journal (Canadian Archives, 1910).

Forts. See also Carillon, Chambly, Crown Point, Frontenac, Kaministiquia, Miami, Michilimackinac, Niagara, St. Johns, Sorel, Three Rivers, Ticonderoga, Western Forts.

Foster, Captain. Dr Captures American post at Cedars, 142; gives up his prisoners under agreement with Arnold, 143.

Foster, George Eulas (1847- ). Born in Carleton County, New Brunswick. Entered political life as member for King's County, New Brunswick, in the Dominion House of Commons, 1882; minister of marine and fisheries, 1885; minister of finance, 1888-1896. Elected for York, New Brunswick, 1896; and for Toronto North, 1904. Index: Md Minister of finance in Macdonald administration—moves amendment to Sir Richard Cartwright's resolution on unrestricted reciprocity, 299. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Foster, S. K. T Candidate for St. John, New Brunswick, defeated, 25.

Fothergill, Charles. Mc Attacks Mackenzie in Upper Canada Gazette, 38; accuses Mackenzie of disloyalty, 99; moves to pay Mackenzie for report of debates, 102, 103; dismissed from position of king's printer, 110. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Foucher, Jean. Ch Chief farmer at Cap Tourmente, informs Champlain of destruction of establishment at Tadoussac, 176.

Fouez. See St. Maurice River.

Fournier, Telesphore (1824-1896). Studied law, and called to the bar, 1846; one of principal editorial writers on Le National; elected to the House of Commons for Bellechasse, 1870; minister of inland revenue, in Mackenzie government, 1873; minister of justice, 1874; postmaster-general, 1875. Appointed judge of Supreme Court the latter year; resigned, 1895. Index: C One of the leaders of the Quebec Liberals, 24; a popular speaker, 25; kept in opposition by radical programme, 29. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.[137]

Fox, Charles James (1749-1806). British statesman. Index: Dr Thought Quebec Act should have been introduced in Commons, 66; discusses Constitutional Act in House of Commons, 265. S Discusses Constitutional Bill in House of Commons, 9. Bk Death of, 80. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Russell, Life of Fox; Trevelyan, Early Life of Fox; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development.

France. F Condition of, in 1675-1676, 150, 151. Dr Declares war against Britain, 271; anger in, on conclusion of Jay Treaty, 287; refugees from, permitted to enter Canada, 289; some dangerous characters arrive from, 289; takes revenge on Britain in American Revolution, 269.

Franchère, Gabriel (1786-1856). Born at Montreal. Joined the Pacific Fur Company, organized by John Jacob Astor, and sailed from New York for the mouth of the Columbia, 1810. Returned overland, reaching Montreal in September, 1814. Continuing in the fur trade, established at Sault Ste. Marie in 1834; and later in New York. Bib.: Relation d'un Voyage à la Côte du Nord-Ouest de l'Amérique Septentrionale, trans. by J. V. Huntington. For biog., see Morice, Dict.; Bibaud, Pan. Can.

Franchise Act, 1885. Md Its terms, 258-259; fiercely opposed by Liberals, 259-260; repealed by Laurier administration, 260. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party.

François Xavier, Saint. L Patron saint of Canada, 87.

Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790). American statesman and philosopher. Index: Dr Heads commission to enquire into affairs in Canada, 135; his report, 136. WM Did not believe British colonies would revolt, 269. Bib.: Autobiography; Complete Works, ed. by Bigelow. For biog., see Cyc. Amer. Biog.; also Larned, Lit. Am. Hist.

Franklin, Sir John (1786-1847). Served at Trafalgar, in the Bellerophon. Headed overland expedition of 1819-1822, from York Factory by way of Great Slave Lake, to the mouth of the Coppermine, and the Arctic coast; and second expedition, 1825-1827, in which he continued his explorations of the northern coast of the continent. Started on third expedition, by sea, 1845, to make North-West Passage. The ships had to be abandoned, and Franklin and all his men perished in the attempt to reach one of the remote northern posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. Bib.: Works: Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 1823; Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea. For biog., see Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition; Rae, Narrative; McClintock, Narrative of the Fate of Sir John Franklin; Osborn, Career, Last Voyage, and Fate of Sir John Franklin; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Franklin, Michael. Born in England. Came to Halifax, 1752. Elected to the Assembly, 1759; appointed to the Council, 1762; lieutenant-governor, 1766. Organized the militia of the province, 1776-1777: largely instrumental in securing the peace of Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. Appointed commissioner of Indian affairs. Died, 1782. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Fraser. Dr Appointed judge, 183.

Fraser, Captain. Dr His connection with the Walker case, 19, 36, 38.

Fraser, Duncan Cameron (1845-1910). Born in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia. Educated at Dalhousie University; studied law and called to the bar of Nova Scotia, 1873. Appointed to the Legislative Council, 1878, but resigned same year to run for the Assembly. Again called to the Legislative and Executive Councils, 1888. Sat in the House of Commons for Guysborough, 1891-1904; ap[138]pointed a judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 1904; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1906-1910. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Fraser, John James. T Opposition candidate in York County, 86; opposes Confederation, 87; afterwards governor of New Brunswick, 87; defeated in York, 108. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Fraser, Captain Malcolm. Dr Of Royal Emigrants, 112, 124; with Laws on rear attack on Arnold, 130; in charge at Three Rivers, 144; repulses Thompson's attack, 145. D Grandfather of Dr. John McLoughlin, 94; brings Highland Regiment to Canada, 94; settles on St. Lawrence seigniory, 95. Bib.: Wrong, A Canadian Manor and its Seigneurs.

Fraser, Simon (1776?-1862). Brought to Canada as a child from New York state, his widowed mother settling near Cornwall. Joined the North West Company in 1792, and ten years later became a bourgeois or partner. Served for a time at Grand Portage, and sent to the Athabaska district; in 1805, when the Company decided to carry its operations beyond the Rocky Mountains, put in charge of the new field. After establishing trading-posts in New Caledonia, now northern British Columbia, set out from Fort St. James on Stuart Lake, with Jules Maurice Quesnel, and a party of voyageurs and Indians, upon the exploration of the great river that bears his name. In 1811 promoted to the charge of the Red River department, and offered knighthood as a recognition of his services in the cause of exploration, but declined the honour. Was present at the Seven Oaks affair, when Governor Semple of the Hudson's Bay Company lost his life. Retired from the fur trade about the time of the coalition of the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company. Index: D In service of North West Company, 57; ordered to extend operations of Company west of Rocky Mountains, 59; reaches Fraser River, 1806, 59; builds forts on Stuart Lake and Fraser River, 59; ordered to explore river to the sea, 60; his journey down the Fraser, 60-61; proves Tacouche Tesse not the Columbia, 61; builds Rocky Mountain House and other posts, 97-98; given command of Red River department, 1811, 98; offered and declines knighthood, 98; dies, 1862, at age of 86, 98. MS Sent to explore New Caledonia, 108; crosses Rocky Mountains, 1806, and builds fort on Stuart River, 108; his journey down the Fraser, 108-110; arrested by Selkirk at Fort William, 189. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Morice, Northern Interior of British Columbia; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Fraser River. Rises in Rocky Mountains, and flows into Strait of Georgia. Its upper waters discovered by Alexander Mackenzie, 1793; and first explored down to its mouth by Simon Fraser, 1808. The total length of the river is 695 miles. Index: D Mackenzie on, 54; supposed to be the Oregon, 54; native name Tacouche Tesse, 54; mistaken for the Columbia, 59; Simon Fraser on, 60-61; described, 60-61; route of fur-brigades changed to, from the Columbia, 186. MS Mackenzie on, 77-79; Fraser on, 108-109. Bib.: Fraser Journal in Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest.

Fraser's Highlanders. WM Captain of, replies to French sentries in French, 180. Bib.: Kelly, The Fighting Frasers of the Forty-Five and Quebec.

Fréchette, Louis (1839-1908). Practised law, and then journalism. Represented Lévis in the House of Commons, 1874-1878. Chiefly known as a poet. Two of his poems were crowned by the French Academy, 1880, and he was granted the first Montyon prize. Index: Hd His poem on Du Calvet, 292. Bib.: Works: Mes Loisirs; La Voix d'un Exilé; Pêle Mêle; Les Fleurs Boreales;[139] Légende d'un Peuple; Les Feuilles Volantes; Lettres Basile; Originaux et Détra-qués; Lettres sur l'Education. For biog., see Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men; Taché, Men of the Day; Chapman, Le Lauréat; Sauvalle, Le Lauréat Manqué.

Fredericton. Capital of New Brunswick. Situated on the west bank of the St. John River. Founded by Sir Guy Carleton in 1785, and named by him after the Duke of York. Index: W Popular demonstration at, 46; education in, 85-86. T Abandonment of government house, 138-139. Bib.: Hannay History of New Brunswick.

Fredin, Jean. L House of charity established by, 245.

Free Trade. B Its effect on Canadian invasion, 15, 31-32; recommended by Reform convention of 1857, 217; advocated by George Brown, 47, 233. C Peel's measure (1846) kills Canadian industries, 43-44; Cartier's views on, 115-116. E Protest from Canadian Assembly, 29; discussed in Legislature, 45; effects of, on Canada, 57-58. T Unpopular in New Brunswick, 9.

Freeman. Newspaper published at St. John, New Brunswick. Index: T Edited by T. W. Anglin, 85.

Freemason's Hall, Niagara. S First session of Upper Canada Legislature held in, 83, 96; church services held in, 159.

Fremin, Father Jacques. Ch Jesuit, put in charge of Richibucto mission, 235.

French-Canadians. L Aubert's description of, 118, 119; habits and customs, 120-124. Sy Tenacious of their legal institutions, 69; become disaffected, 70; inconsistency of British policy regarding, 71; Constitutional Act increases their power of resistance, 72, 80; Lord Durham on their aspirations for independent nationality, 94; favour responsible government, but oppose union of the provinces, 117; opposed to improving navigation of St. Lawrence and development of the upper province, 206; regard Sydenham as enemy of their race, 233; Sydenham's estimate of, politically considered, 305. E Resent terms of Union Act, 23-24; resent Durham's views on British domination in Canada, 23; increase of their influence, 31. Dr Murray's description of, 25; Carleton on their military strength, 45, 46; on their rapid increase, 47; his anxiety to win their allegiance, 50; indifferent to representative government, 55, 61; their petition to the king, 61; disappointing conduct of, 78; address king expressing satisfaction with Quebec Act, 78; unwilling to enlist against Americans, 87, 150; British government relies fully on their loyalty, 92; some insult their leaders and insist on being disbanded, 99; tired of American occupation, 150; Carleton's summing up of their attitude, 161; delusion of British government on the subject, 178; petition against any further change in their laws, 246; object to a House of Assembly, 246; Dorchester's consideration for, 260; attempt to enroll them for militia service causes riot, 278; more or less affected by revolutionary principles, 278; their attitude serious, 289; report on their state of feeling by Jules de Fer, 301. B Durham and, 12; dissatisfied with terms of union, 15; Peel's distrust of, 16, 17; George Brown's relations with, 43, 48-49, 70, 71, 78-81, 101-102, 105, 123-127; restive about Confederation, 166. Bk Prosperity of, under British rule, 35; their loyalty recognized by Brock and President Dunn, 1807, 86, 87; distrusted by Sir James Craig, 91, 404; Craig hesitates to issue arms to, 102, 103. Hd Characterized, 42, 220-222; Haldimand's experience of, 51, 52; satisfied with change of sovereignty, 53, 79; corps of, formed, 55-57, 139; object to introduction of English civil law, 59, 60; favoured by Quebec Act, 101; their aversion to military service, 111; costume of, 114, 115, 240; fear of communication with rebels, 119, 134, 136, 140, 174, 297; Estaing's[140] proclamation to, 123; affected by alliance of France with revolted colonies, 126, 127, 128, 140; prisoners in Albany take up arms for Congress, 130; averse to taxation, 173; restricted as to disposal of produce, 177; Haldimand's policy towards, 180; his use of corvées disliked by, 182; gratified by news of British defeats, 189; Baroness de Riedesel's description of, 219-220; their attitude towards Loyalists, 264, 271; continued attempts to undermine their loyalty, 273-282, 283; addressed by Congress, 276; MacLean pleads for, 306; Dorchester's policy with, 314-315. Md Ignorance of national affairs, 347; Macdonald's influence with, 347-348. WM Their unfortunate position, 131; two thousand desert the camp to protect their families, 152; placed on right of Montcalm's battle-line, 192; dislodge British detachment from Borgia's house, 193, 195; in general defeat make brave rally, 201-203; only those in vicinity of Quebec submit to the British, 237. L Père Charlevoix on, 117; Aubert on, 118; Mère de l'Incarnation on, 119; habits, dress, etc., of, 120 et seq. Bib.: Sulte, Histoire des Canadiens-Français; Garneau, Histoire du Canada; Bibaud, Histoire du Canada; Christie, History of Lower Canada; Davidson, Growth of French-Canadian Race; Aubert de Gaspé, Les Anciens Canadiens; Salone, La Colonisation de la Nouvelle France: Étude sur les Origines de la Nation Canadienne Française; Greenough, Canadian Folk-Life; Tanguay, Dictionnaire Généalogique; Sulte, Origin of the French-Canadians (R. S. C., 1905); Nicholson, The French Canadian; Fiske, New France and New England; Lambert, Travels in Canada.

French Colonization. WM Principle of, 17; Parkman on, 19.

French Language. BL Imperial Parliament repeals clause of Union Act making English the sole official language, 287; Elgin reads speech from the throne in French as well as English, 287.

French Priests. Hd Attempts to introduce, 181, 187.

French Revolution. Dr Its effect in the United States, 272, 273; principles of, disseminated in Lower Canada, 279. Sy Effects of, in Britain, 11.

Frobisher, Benjamin. A partner of the North West Company. Index: Hd Petition to Haldimand, 261. Bib.: See the memorials of Benjamin Frobisher and Joseph Frobisher, his brother, on the western fur trade, in Archives Report, 1890, and particularly that of Oct. 4, 1784, giving the early history of the North West Company; also correspondence in Archives Report, 1888.

Frobisher, Benjamin. Probably, according to Masson, a son of Joseph Frobisher. Entered service of North West Company, about 1798. Mentioned as clerk of that Company, in 1804 and 1805, and took a violent part in the troubles between the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies. Captured by Hudson's Bay men in 1819, carried to York Factory and imprisoned; escaped, and in a desperate attempt to make his way back to one of the North West Company posts, died of exhaustion at Cedar Lake. Bib.: Wilcocke, Death of Frobisher in Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest.

Frobisher, Joseph. A partner of the North West Company. Member of the fur-trading firm of McTavish, Frobisher and Company. Built a fort on Red River, and penetrated to the Churchill River, 1774, where, at Frog Portage, he built a post. Gave the name of English River to the Churchill. Accompanied Alexander Henry up the Saskatchewan in 1775. Returned to Montreal, but retained a large interest in the fur trade until 1798, when he retired. Index: Hd His petition to Haldimand, 261. MS Builds trading-post on Sturgeon Lake in 1772, 4. Bib.: Henry, Travels and Adventures, ed. by Bain; Mackenzie, History of the Fur Trade in his Voyages.

Frobisher, Sir Martin (1535?-1594). Navigator. Made three voyages to[141] America in search of the North-West Passage, 1576, 1577, and 1578. Vice-admiral in Drake's expedition to West Indies, 1586; led one of the squadrons against the Spanish Armada; took part in Hawkins's expedition, 1590. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Frobisher, Thomas (1744-1788). Partner of the North West Company. With Joseph Frobisher, Alexander Henry, and Peter Pond, in the North-West, 1775. In that year, explored the Churchill River as far as Isle à la Crosse Lake. Index: MS Builds trading-post at Sturgeon Lake, 1772, 4. Bib.: Henry, Travels and Adventures; Mackenzie, History of the Fur Trade in his Voyages.

Frog Portage. Or Portage de Traite, leading from the Saskatchewan River, by way of Cumberland Lake, the Sturgeon-Weir River, Heron, Pelican, and Woody Lakes, to the Churchill. It was discovered by Joseph Frobisher, who built a temporary trading-post there in 1774. Two years later Thomas Frobisher built a more substantial fort at the same place. He was joined there in that year by Alexander Henry, and plans were matured for intercepting the western Indians on their way down the Churchill to trade at Prince of Wales Fort. Alexander Mackenzie says that the Indians called the portage Athiquisipichigan Ouinigam, or the Portage of the Stretched Frog Skin. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Frontenac, Louis de Buade, Comte de Palluau et de (1620-1698). F Particulars respecting his early life scanty, 61; enters army under Prince of Orange at age of fifteen, 62; promoted to rank of maréchal de camp, 62; peace of Westphalia, 1648, releases him from military life, 63; marriage, and birth of son, 63; his wife separates from him, 63; extravagant habits of, 64; commands Venetian troops in defence of Crete against Turks, 64; leaves France for Canada, midsummer of 1762, 65; endeavours to constitute "three estates" and summons an Assembly, 67; action disapproved by king, 67; his instructions regarding the ecclesiastical power, 69; friendly to Sulpicians and Récollets, 74; plans a visit to Cataraqui, 74; conducts an expedition to Cataraqui, 76-84; invites Indians to conference at that place, 79; harangues them and distributes presents, 81, 82; erects fort, 83; expedition not approved by minister, 84; Frontenac defends it, 85; difficulties with Perrot, governor of Montreal, and the Abbé Fénelon, 90-104; captures twelve coureurs de bois, 99; sends Perrot and Fénelon to France with report on case, 102; the king's reply, 103; enemies at court, 110; honour paid to him in church curtailed by Laval, 112; attitude towards ecclesiastical powers, 113; difficulty with bishop over issue of trading permits, involving carrying of liquor to Indians, 116; king prohibits permits, 116; visits Cataraqui (Fort Frontenac), 117; appeals against king's decision, 117; instructed not to meddle with questions of finance, etc., 120; authorized to grant hunting permits, 125; number to be issued restricted, 128; dispute with Intendant Duchesneau as to presidency of Sovereign Council, 133-140; censured by minister for his contentious spirit, 135; again cautioned by king and minister, 136; recalled, 143, 144; asks home government for soldiers, 145; summons conference on Indian question, 146; arranges peace between Senecas and Ottawas, 146; orders strengthening of fortifications of Montreal, 147; relations with Du Lhut, 162; has Récollet confessor, Father Maupassant, 165; alleged disorders in his household, 165; commends Sulpicians, 168; his recall a triumph for clerical opponents, 171; on return to France makes light of La Barre's demand for troops, 173; reappointed governor of Canada, 229; arrives at Chedabucto, 232; arrives at Quebec, 232; goes to Montreal, 233;[142] exaggerates number of killed in Lachine massacre, 227; tries to arrest destruction of Fort Frontenac, 233; organizes raiding parties against English colonies, 234-236; brings out with him from France survivors of Indians captured for the galleys, 237; sends deputation to Iroquois, 237; sends reinforcements to La Durantaye, 241; his address to the Lake tribes, 242; result of his raids on English settlements, 253; improves fortifications of Quebec, 254; his relations with the Sovereign Council, 254-257; goes to Montreal where anxiety prevails, 257; his expedition to Lake Indians successful, 258; dances a war dance, 260; protests to Massachusetts authorities against attack on Pentagouet, 270; gets news at Montreal of approach of expedition against Quebec, 282; replies to Phipps's demand for surrender, 288, 289; recommends attack on Boston by sea, 316; describes ravages of the Abnaki, 317; estimate of military losses in Canada, 318; expresses himself as opposed to large expeditions, 320; orders De Louvigny at Michilimackinac to send down Indians with their furs, 323; firm in negotiations with Iroquois, 325, 338; complaints made against, 333-336; gives theatrical representations at Quebec, 336; question of Tartuffe, 337; restores Fort Frontenac against instructions of minister, 341; directs campaign against Iroquois, 350-353; reports his victory to the king and asks for recognition, 353; receives cross of St. Louis, 354; receives news of peace of Ryswick, 354; corresponds on question of sovereignty over Iroquois with Earl of Bellomont, governor of New York, 355; his last despatch to home government, 357; illness and death, 357-359; his will, 358; no known portrait, 360; funeral sermon and critical annotations thereon, 361. L Governor, erects fort at Cataraqui, 84, 145; takes Récollets under his protection, 112; arrival of, 143; his services and character, 144; supports La Salle, 149; prejudiced against the Jesuits, 157; tries to arrest coureurs de bois, 160; imprisons Perrot, governor of Montreal, 160; takes offence at sermon preached by Abbé Fénelon, 161; previously annoyed by sermon of Jesuit Father, 161; demands copy of Fénelon's sermon, 162; difficulty with De Bernières, 162, 163; censured by the king, 164, 165; quarrels with intendant, 167; recalled, 168; sends unfavourable reports regarding clergy, 170; summons conference on liquor traffic, 172; reappointed governor, 218; arrival of, 228; organizes three detachments to operate against English colonies, 229; his answer to Phipps, 229; attacks the Iroquois, 233; death of, 234. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac; Myrand, Frontenac et ses Amis; Lorin, Le Comte de Frontenac; Legendre, Frontenac; Brady, Frontenac, the Saviour of Canada.

Fulford, Francis (1803-1868). Educated at Oxford; ordained, 1828. Consecrated first Anglican bishop of Montreal, 1850, and sailed for Canada the same year. In 1860 metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of Canada. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am. and Last Three Bishops; Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland.

Fuller, Thomas Brock (1810-1884). Born in Kingston. Educated at the Grammar Schools at Hamilton and York and at Chambly Theological Seminary. Ordained priest, 1835; laboured in various parts of Canada; archdeacon of Niagara, 1869; bishop of Niagara, 1875. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland.

Fundy, Bay of. Explored by De Monts and Champlain in 1604. Probably visited a hundred years earlier by Basque and Breton fishermen, and possibly by the Northmen several centuries before. Known to the Portuguese as Baia Fundo (Deep Bay). Named by De Monts, La Baie Française. The year 1604 witnessed not only the first exploration of which any narrative survives,[143] but also the first European, settlement on the shores of the bay. See also Acadia. Bib.: Champlain, Voyages.

Fur Trade. F Burdensome restrictions on, 38, 154. Ch Short history of, 119 et seq. E Under the French régime, 183. Dr Complicated questions in connection with, 57. Hd Importance attached by Haldimand to, 260-261. S In Upper Canada, 105-107. D Maintained supremacy of British flag in far West, 37; of the Russians, stimulates adventure and exploration, 38; forerunner of civilization, 49. MS Growth of, under North West Company, 7; coureurs de bois and mangeurs de lard, 14, 168; traders were men of intelligence and intellectual tastes, 27; bois-brûlés, 167; predominance of Scottish element, 219; mariage du pays, 263; Canada's debt to, 281-290; names of famous fur-traders given to Canadian rivers, lakes, and towns, 282; fur-trader as pioneer of settlement, 283-284; character of the traders, 288-289; stood for law and order, 289. See also Hudson's Bay Company; North West Company; X Y Company; Pacific Fur Company; Company of New France, etc. Bib.: Mackenzie, History of the Fur Trade in his Voyages; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Biggar, Early Trading Companies of New France; Parkman, Works; Henry, Travels and Adventures; Henry-Thompson Journals, ed. by Coues; Harmon, Journal; Franchère, Narrative; Larpenteur, Forty Years a Fur Trader; Chittenden, History of the American Fur-Trade; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Willson, The Great Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Begg, History of the North-West.

Gabriel. Ch French vessel seized by English, 222.

Gage, Thomas (1721-1787). Fought under Braddock at Monongahela, 1755, and under Abercrombie at Ticonderoga, 1758. Took part in the campaign for the conquest of Canada, 1759; made military governor of Montreal after its capitulation, 1760. Succeeded Amherst, 1763, as commander-in-chief, with headquarters at New York. Sailed for England, 1773, leaving Haldimand in command. Returned the following year, as governor of Massachusetts. After the battle of Bunker Hill, 1775, recalled. Index: Dr Requests Carleton to send him two regiments, 78. S In command at Boston, 19. Hd At Ticonderoga, 19; his letters to Haldimand, 22, 23; in command at Oswego, 28, 29; at Albany, 31, 33; governor of Montreal after surrender, 40, 41; his opinion of Croix de St. Louis wearers, 52; replaces Amherst at New York, 53, 57, 58, 60, 61, 66, 68, 70, 72, 73, 77, 79-81; visits England on leave of absence, 83; correspondence with Haldimand, 89, 94, 95; resumes chief command in America, 96-98, 121; his position in Boston, 101; intended retirement of, 105; his lack of energy, 108; recall of, 110; Indian policy of, 147; his reply to Washington's complaint as to treatment of prisoners, 249; death of, 335. Bib.: Letters of the Two Commanders-in-Chief, Generals Gage and Washington; Detail and Conduct of the American War, under General Gage. See also Mass. Hist. Soc. Colls., vols. 12, 14, and 34; and Haldimand Papers (Canadian Archives). For biog., see Dict. Nat. Biog.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Gaillardin, Claud J. C. (1810-1880). F French historian, referred to, 152. Bib.: Histoire de Louis XIV.

Gaillon, Michel. Ch Member of Roberval's expedition, executed, 44.

Galiano, Dionisio. Accompanied Maurelle in 1792 to North-West Coast. Carried out considerable surveys for the Spanish government, partly in conjunction with Vancouver. Index: D Explores North-West Coast with Valdez,[144] 35; meets Vancouver, 35; journal published at Madrid in 1802, 36. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast.

Galinée, René de Bréhant de. A member of a noble family of Brittany; came to Canada in 1668. With his fellow-Sulpician, Dollier de Casson (q.v.), carried out an important exploration in 1669-1670, from Montreal up the St. Lawrence, and around the south shore of Lake Ontario to Burlington Bay; thence to the Grand River, which they descended to Lake Erie, where they wintered. In March, 1670, they continued their journey along the north shore, passed through Lake St. Clair, and coasting the south side of Manitoulin Island, reached Sault Ste. Marie, where they found Marquette and Dablon. They returned to Montreal by way of Lake Nipissing and the Ottawa. Galinée's narrative of the journey was sent home to the king. He himself returned to France in 1671. Index: L With Dollier, plants the cross on shores of Lake Erie, 11; arrives from France as missionary, 105; on Lake Erie, 108; La Salle accompanies him to Niagara, 148. Bib.: Exploration of the Great Lakes, 1669-1670: Galinée's Narrative and Map, ed. by James H. Coyne (Ont. Hist. Soc., 1903).

Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849). American statesman. Bk United States secretary of the treasury, 81, 108. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Adams, Writings of Albert Gallatin; Adams, Life of Gallatin.

Galleran, Guillaume. Ch Récollet priest, 149.

Gallicanism. L Cause of difficulty between the court of France and the pope, 184, 201.

Galt, Sir Alexander Tilloch (1817-1893). Son of John Galt (q.v.). Elected to the Legislature, 1849, for Sherbrooke. Dropped out of public life for several years, but in 1853 again elected for Sherbrooke. Took an active part in the movement leading up to Confederation; a member of several administrations before and after Confederation; high commissioner in Great Britain, 1880-1883. Index: Md Declines task of forming a ministry, 86; becomes minister of finance in Cartier-Macdonald administration, 86; speaks in favour of Confederation, 96; goes to England with Cartier and Rose to secure approval of British government to proposed union, 97; one of commissioners sent to England in 1865 to confer with Imperial government on Confederation, defence, reciprocity, etc., 120-121; minister of finance in first Dominion ministry, 134; resigns, 1867, and succeeded by Rose, 136; introduces high tariff (1859), 218; his protection policy supported by Macdonald, 219; appointed high commissioner, 227. T Makes Confederation a Cabinet question, 63; delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 74-75; to Quebec Conference, 76; presented to the queen, 124; minister of finance in first Dominion ministry, 129, 130. B Asked by Sir Edmund Head to form government, declines, 106, 133; favours federal union, 106; takes Cayley's place in Macdonald-Cartier government, 107; advocates in 1858 federal union of all British North American provinces, 132-133; pledges Cartier government to federal union policy, 133; mission to England, 133; his connection with reciprocity negotiations in 1865, 193-196; his connection with negotiations with George Brown as to Confederation, 152, 154-155, 160; goes to England on Confederation mission, 186. C Goes to England with Cartier and Rose in connection with Confederation, 56-57; refuses decoration of C. B., 126-127. Bib.: Works: Canada from 1849 to 1859; Union of the British North American Provinces. For biog., see Taylor, Brit. Am.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development.[145]

Galt, John (1779-1839). Came to Canada, 1824; returned to England; came out again in 1826, remaining until 1829. Associated, in the Canada Company, with William Dunlop, Thomas Talbot, and Samuel Strickland. Founded towns of Guelph and Goderich. Town of Galt named after him. See Canada Company; Dunlop; Talbot; Strickland. Bib.: Works: Ayrshire Legatees; Annals of the Parish; Sir Andrew Wylie; The Entail; Bogle Corbet; Stanley Buxton; Eken Erskine; The Lost Child; The Member; The Radical; Laurie Todd; Life of Byron; Lives of the Players; Autobiography; Literary Life and Miscellanies. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Lizars, Days of the Canada Company.

Galt. A town in Ontario founded by the Canada Company, about 1827. Named after John Galt. Situated on the Grand River. Bib.: Lizars, Days of the Canada Company.

Gamache, René de Rohault, Marquis de. Ch Endows Jesuit College at Quebec, 228.

Gannentaha. L Mission at, miraculously escapes massacre, 65. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America.

Garakontié. L Iroquois chief, conversion of, 65; edifying death of, 73.

Garfield, James Abram (1831-1881). Twentieth president of the United States. Index: B Favourable to proposed Reciprocity Treaty of 1864, 230-231. Bib.: Hinsdale, Works of Garfield; Gilmore, Life of Garfield; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Garneau, François-Xavier (1809-1866). Studied law and practised as a notary; afterwards clerk of the Legislative Assembly and city clerk of Quebec; member of the Council of Public Instruction; president of the Institut Canadien. Index: P Condemns Papineau's conduct in rejecting Lord Goderich's offer, 77. E Attacks Hincks for suggesting amendment to Union Act, 123; Hincks's denial, 123. Hd On the evils of English law, 59; on Murray, 60; on Haldimand, 291, 292. Bib.: Histoire du Canada, trans. by Andrew Bell. For biog., see Casgrain, F.-X. Garneau; Morgan, Cel. Can. and Bib. Can.

Garnier, Charles. Accompanied Jogues and Chatelain to the Huron mission, 1636; and, with the former, to the Tobacco Nation, near Nottawassaga Bay, 1639-1640. Returned to the Huron mission, where, in 1649, died a martyr to his faith, slain by an Iroquois hatchet. Index: L Death of, 5. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Lalemant, Relation des Hurons, 1640.

Garnier de Chapouin. Ch Provincial of Récollets, appoints four missionaries for Canada, 85.

Garreau, Leonard. Jesuit father. Index: L Death of, 11.

Garry, Nicholas. The Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company having been amalgamated in 1821, Garry, then a director of the former Company, was sent out to the North-West with Simon McGillivray, in that year, to make the necessary arrangements. Garry's diary of this journey is published in the Royal Society Trans., 1900. Subsequently deputy governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1822-1835. Fort Garry was named after him. Bib.: Bryce, Manitoba and Hudson's Bay Company.

Gaspé. See Aubert de Gaspé.

Gaspereau River. A small tidal stream, flowing into the Basin of Minas. Grand Pré, once a principal settlement of the Acadians, stands upon its banks.

Gates, Sir Thomas (1596-1621). Governor of Virginia. Index: Ch Grant to, by James I of England, 223. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Gaudais-Dupont, Louis. L Comes out as royal commissioner to take over Canada from Company of New France, 41.[146]

Gaufestre, Jean. Ch Récollet, returns to France, 209.

Gavazzi Riots. E Father Gavazzi's lectures, 124; cause riots in Quebec and Montreal, 124-125; Clear Grits attack Hincks and the government for failure to suppress riots, 125. Bib.: Gavazzi, Lectures and Life; Dent, Last Forty Years; Hincks, Reminiscences.

Gazette (Halifax). Established 1752. First newspaper published in what is now the Dominion of Canada. Bib.: Wallis, Hist. Sketch of Can. Journalism in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5.

Gazette (Montreal). Established 1778. Index: C Denounces ministerial responsibility, 97. Hd Establishment of, 276. BL Denounces La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 140. Bk Editor of, arrested by order of the Legislative Assembly, 93. Mc Mackenzie's obituary in, 514. Bib.: Wallis, Hist. Sketch of Can. Journalism in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5.

Gazette (Quebec). Established 1764. Index: Hd First newspaper printed in Quebec, 190; its news columns censored, 191; publishes letters contained in an intercepted rebel mail, 225; advertisements in, 231-242; articles on moral themes, 246. Sy Its opposition to union of the provinces, 194, 211, 212. Bk Falls under displeasure of Legislative Assembly, 93. Bib.: Wallis, Hist. Sketch of Can. Journalism in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5.

Gazette (Toronto). Mc Mackenzie's newspaper, first published May 12, 1838, 433; last issue, 461. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

General Election, 1841. Sy Rioting in connection with, 290, 291; result of, 291.

Genest, Edmond Charles (1765-1834). Dr Minister of France to the United States, 272; his intrigues in Canada, 273, 274. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Genevay, Jean François Louis. Hd French secretary to Haldimand, 305; receives bequest from Haldimand, 342; his tomb, 346.

Geological Survey. First suggested by Dr. Rae, in 1832. W. E. (afterwards Sir) Logan was appointed provincial geologist, 1842, and, the government having decided to carry out a geological survey of the province, he took charge of the work the following year. The establishment of the survey was largely the result of petitions presented by the Natural History Society of Montreal, and the Quebec Literary and Historical Society. The first report was for the year 1843. Twenty years later, the reports 1843-1863 were summarized in a volume of 983 pages, Geology of Canada. The periods 1863-1866 and 1866-1869 were each covered in a single report. Thereafter, annual volumes were published. Two general indexes have been issued, one for the reports 1863-1884, and the second for 1885-1906.

George IV (1762-1830). King of England, son of George III and the Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. In 1795 married the Princess Caroline of Brunswick. In 1811 regent, and in 1820 succeeded George III. Index: W Grants charter to King's College, Fredericton, 49. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

George, Sir Rupert D. H Provincial secretary of Nova Scotia, 57; dismissed from office, 111; challenges Joseph Howe to a duel, 244. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Georgian Bay. An arm of Lake Huron. Discovered by Joseph Le Caron, a Franciscan, 1615. Champlain reached the shores of the bay the same year. Index: Ch Champlain crosses, 88.

Germain, Charles. Appointed missionary to the Abnaki Indians on the St. John River, 1845. Authorized agent of the government at Quebec for the purpose of destroying British supremacy in Acadia. Assisted De Ramezay in[147] his plans for the attack on Mines, 1747. Removed to Miramichi, 1757. After the fall of Quebec, took up the cause of the British. Received a pension of £50 a year from the government at Halifax, 1761. Retired to Quebec, taking with him a number of Indian families. Died, 1779. Bib.: Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Germain, Lord George. See Sackville.

German and Swiss Colonists. Hd In America, scheme to enroll, 9.

German Troops. Hd Commanded by Riedesel, 114; not adapted to work required of them, 126, 136; reorganization of, 141; Haldimand not satisfied with, 141; some settle near Cataraqui, 265; leave Canada, 293, 296.

Germans and Dutch. Dr Large admixture of, among United Empire Loyalists, 240.

Gerris, Sarah. F Captured at Fort Loyal, exchanged for one of Phipps's prisoners, 303.

Gerry, Elbridge (1744-1814). American statesman. Index: Bk Governor of Massachusetts, 172. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Gerrymander. See Redistribution Bill.

Gibault, Père. Hd Absolves French of the west from their allegiance to Britain, 167.

Gibbs, Thomas Nicholson (1821-1883). Born in Terrebonne, Quebec. Engaged in business pursuits at Oshawa. Defeated for election to the Assembly for South Ontario, 1854, but successful, 1865. Elected to represent South Ontario in the House of Commons, 1867, the defeated candidate being George Brown. Secretary of state and minister of inland revenue in the government of Sir John A. Macdonald, 1873. Appointed to the senate, 1880.

Gibson, David. Mc Organizes shooting matches, 342; rebels meet at his house, 360; opposes advance on Toronto, 362; his house burned, 375; objects to Mackenzie's plans, 376; escapes, 380. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Gibson, John Morrison (1842- ). Educated at the University of Toronto; studied law and called to the bar of Ontario, 1867. Elected to the Ontario Assembly for Hamilton, 1879; provincial secretary, 1889; commissioner of crown lands, 1896; attorney-general, 1889-1905; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1908. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Giffard, Robert. First seignior in New France. Mentioned at Quebec in 1627; returned to France, 1629; established at his Beauport seigneury, 1634; a member of the Council, 1646; syndic of Quebec, 1648; gave his St. Gabriel property to the Jesuits, 1667. Index: Ch Landed with his family by Kirke on St. Pierre Island, 174; comes to Canada with forty colonists, 250; receives grant of land near Beauport, 251. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Gilbert, Thomas. W Member for Queens, New Brunswick, an advocate of old-time Toryism, 96. T Proposes to convert King's College into agricultural school, 20, 21; his bill defeated, 91.

Gillam, Benjamin. Son of following. Commanded a trading expedition from Boston to Hudson Bay in 1683, and built a fort some miles up the Nelson River. Pierre Radisson captured the fort, and carried Gillam a prisoner to Quebec, where he was promptly released by the governor. Sailed for Boston, and arrested on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company for poaching in their territory. Seems to have turned pirate a year or two later; captured at Boston, carried to England with Captain Kidd, who had been arrested at the same time, and hanged with his fellow pirate. Bib.: Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West.[148]

Gillam, Zachariah. A New England skipper, sent out in 1668 by Prince Rupert and his associates, to Hudson Bay, in command of the Nonsuch, on a voyage of exploration and trade. Medard Chouart (q.v.) sailed with him, while Pierre Radisson (q.v.) followed, in 1669, in the Waveno. Gillam's journal of the voyage is quoted in Joseph Robson's Hudson's Bay. Made several subsequent voyages to the bay, on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1684 his ship crushed in the ice at the mouth of Nelson River, and he and several of the crew perished. Bib.: Robson, Account of Six Years' Residence in Hudson's Bay; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Gillmor, A. H. T Provincial secretary in Smith ministry, New Brunswick, 91; a strong Liberal, 91.

Gilmore, George. Hd School teacher at St. Johns, 235.

Ginseng. Hd Gathered by Jesuits, for shipment to China, 148; brought $5 a pound, 148; Indians engaged in trade, 148.

Gipps, Sir George (1791-1847). Born at Ringwould, England. Educated at King's School, Canterbury, and at the Military Academy, Woolwich. Entered the army, 1809; served throughout the Peninsular War; employed in the West Indies, 1824-1829; appointed private secretary to the first lord of the Admiralty, 1834; sent to Canada as commissioner, together with Lord Gosford and Sir Charles Grey, to attempt to allay prevailing discontent, 1835; knighted, 1835; governor of New South Wales, 1836-1846. Index: P Royal commissioner sent to Canada with Lord Gosford and Sir Charles Grey, in 1835, 111. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Lang, New South Wales.

Girouard, Désiré (1836- ). Born at St. Timothée, Quebec. Educated at Montreal College; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada. For some years sat in the House of Commons. Appointed judge of Supreme Court of Canada, 1895. Index: F On loss of life in massacre of Lachine, 224; at La Chesnaye and other places, 226. Bib.: Lake St. Louis and Cavelier de la Salle. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Canadian Who's Who.

Girouard, John Joseph (1795-1855). Born in Quebec. Studied law, and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1816. Elected to the Assembly, 1830; a strong supporter of Papineau; took an active part in the Rebellion of 1837-1838; imprisoned at Montreal for six months. Resumed the practice of law. Offered a portfolio on the La Fontaine-Baldwin administration, but refused to accept office; took no further part in public life. Index: BL Associated with La Fontaine in constitutional agitation in Lower Canada, 49; commissionership of crown lands promised to, 124; declines appointment, 134; referred to as a rebel in Transcript, 141; attacked by Tory press, 150. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Gisborne, Frederick Newton (1824-1892). Came to Canada from England in 1845. Joined the staff of the British North American Electric Telegraph Association, 1847, and became general manager. In 1852, laid the first submarine cable in America, joining New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island; and in 1856, laid another to Newfoundland. Conceived the idea of connecting Europe and America by a submarine cable, and succeeded in enlisting the interest of Cyrus W. Field. The cable finally completed, 1858. Appointed superintendent of the Dominion government telegraph and signal service, 1879. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Giscome Portage. Leading from the Parsnip River to the Fraser, in northern[149] British Columbia. Named by an independent trader, Peter Dunlevy, after his cook, about the year 1873. Both Mackenzie and Simon Fraser crossed from the Parsnip to the Fraser, the former in 1793, and the latter in 1806, but neither went by way of Giscome Portage, which was not discovered until some years later. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Givins, James. Bk Appointed aide-de-camp, 247.

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809-1898). British statesman. Index: Sy Elected to Parliament for Newark, 22; defeated at Manchester, 48. E His opinion of Lord Elgin, 7, 78; sympathy for Confederate States, 202. B Defends free trade policy, 31; not in favour of Intercolonial Railway, 143; on committee to discuss Confederation and defences of Canada, 186. BL His speech on Rebellion Losses Bill, 326-327, 328; his interview with Hincks, 328. Md Opposes Rebellion Losses Bill, 41; withdraws claim against United States on account of Fenian Raids, 176-177. T Insists on sinking fund for Intercolonial scheme, 57. Bib.: Works: The State in its Relations with the Church; Gleanings from Past Years. For biog., see Morley, The Life of William Ewart Gladstone; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Gladwin, Henry. Joined the army, 1753; took part in the expedition under Braddock; promoted to rank of major, 1759; in command at Detroit during siege by Pontiac; served throughout the American Revolutionary War; major-general, 1782. Died in England, 1791. Index: Dr Defence of Detroit by, in Pontiac's War, 5. Bib.: Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac; Moor, The Gladwin Manuscripts; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Glandelet, Abbé Charles. L Accompanies Laval to Canada, 141; theologist of chapter of Quebec, 197. F Preaches against theatre, 336.

Glassion, de. Dr Superior of Jesuits, sends petition to the king, through Carleton, 35.

Glegg, Captain J. B. Aide-de-camp to General Brock. Index: Bk Carries summons for surrender of Detroit, 251, 255; carries despatches to Quebec, announcing victory, 259. Bib.: Richardson, War of 1812, ed. by Casselman; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812.

Glen, John Sanders. F Magistrate of Schenectady, life spared, 247.

Glenelg, Charles Grant, Baron (1778-1866). Born in Kidderpore, India. Educated at Magdalen College, Cambridge, England, and called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1807. Member of the British House of Commons, 1811-1835. Appointed lord of the treasury, 1813; chief secretary for Ireland and a member of the Privy Council, 1819; vice-president of the Board of Trade and treasurer of the navy, 1823; president of the Board of Control, 1830-1834, and colonial secretary, 1835. Created Baron Glenelg, 1835. Resigned the secretaryship, 1839, and made land tax commissioner. Died in Cannes. Index: W His incompetence and procrastination, 42; on casual and territorial revenues of New Brunswick, 61-62. Sy President of Board of Trade, 16; resigns, 16; unequal to duties of colonial office, 57. BL Appointment of Head as governor, 36; Head's letter to, 41. H Instructs Sir Colin Campbell to grant a measure of responsible government to Nova Scotia, 44-45; Joseph Howe's letter to, on ocean steamship service, 232. Mc Opposes responsible government, 20; on colonial self-government, 73; refers report of the Committee on Grievances to the king, 263; his reply to report, 280; on Executive Councils, 302; schooled by Head, 304; Head disobeys his orders, 307; on non-elective Legislative Council, 324. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Glengarry. A county in Ontario, on the St. Lawrence. Named after the[150] famous glen in Inverness, Scotland. Many Scottish Highlanders left their native country after the battle of Culloden in 1746, and emigrated to America. They were all intensely loyal, and when the Revolution broke out many moved north into Canada, settling on the Niagara frontier, the bay of Quinté, and the banks of the St. Lawrence. From the latter settlement sprang the present Glengarry County. In 1804-1805 Bishop McDonell obtained several grants of land in the district for the Highlanders of the disbanded Scottish Glengarry Regiment, and for twenty-five years promoted the interests of the colonists. He raised, in 1812, the Glengarry Fencibles Regiment, which rendered valuable service during the war. Bib.: Macdonell, Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada.

Glengarry Fencibles. Bk Canadian Highland corps, 180.

Glenie, James. W Member for Sunbury, in New Brunswick Assembly, 1792-1809, 13; a pioneer reformer, 13.

Globe. Newspaper published at Toronto; established, 1844. Index: B Advocates responsible government, ix; its establishment, 9, 10; on elections in Upper Canada in 1844, 25; criticism of Draper, 27; on Toryism, 32; supports Elgin's attitude towards the Rebellion Losses Bill, 36; attacks the Clear Grits, 40, 41; upholds British system of responsible government, as superior to the American system, 42; gives credit to French-Canadians for supporting Reform cause, 43; attitude towards Roman Catholic questions, 44-46, 48; advocates secularization of Clergy Reserves, 55; on free schools, 62; first issued as a daily, Oct. 1, 1853; its earlier history, absorbs North American and Examiner, 1855, 74; its policy, 75; on the Quebec Rouges, 78-79; contains appeal on behalf of fugitive slaves, 112; and the "no popery" agitation, 121, 123; advocates uniform legislation for Upper and Lower Canada, 130; assails Separate School Bill, 145; Brown's pride in, 150, 247; effect of Brown's position in Macdonald ministry, 209; contains R. B. Sullivan's address on North-West Territories, 211; Brown's article on North-West, 1852, 213; letters of "Huron" on North-West, 215-216; advocates union of North-West with Canada, 217, 218; attacks Canada First party, 236, 237, 238, 239, 241; Peter Brown writes for, 243; edited by Gordon Brown, 244, 245; reveals George Brown's views, 248, 249; its support of Wilson, 250; attacks Mr. Justice Wilson, 250, 252, 253; the office of publication, 255; shooting of George Brown, 255-258. E Hostile at first to Clear Grits, 111; edited by George Brown, 111. BL Established by George Brown, Mar. 5, 1844, 223-224; its fighting policy, 224; attacks Metcalfe, 225; denounces the Grits, 342; outcry against Roman Catholicism, 343. Mc Justifies the Rebellion of 1837, 13; on Mackenzie's expulsions, 254; on Mackenzie's retirement from public life, 498; Mackenzie's obituary, 511; on Mackenzie's personality, 523. Md Founded by George Brown with his father, 52; on the Redistribution Bill, 275; on the elections of 1887, 282-283; supports commercial union, 295. Bib.: Wallis, Historical Sketch of Canadian Journalism in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5; Buckingham, George Brown and the Globe in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5; Mackenzie, Hon. George Brown.

Godard, Charles. S Agent for government of Upper Canada, 178.

Goddard, John. T Elected for St. John, New Brunswick, 25.

Gode, Nicolas. L Land bought from, for church at Montreal, 88.

Godefroy, Jean-Paul. Ch Interpreter, 144.

Godefroy, Thomas. Ch Interpreter, 144.

Goderich, Viscount. See Ripon.[151]

Goderich. Town in Ontario, situated at mouth of River Maitland, Huron County, Ontario. Founded by John Galt and Wm. Dunlop about 1827. Bib.: Lizars, Days of the Canada Company.

Gomara, Lopez de. Ch Suggests a canal through Isthmus of Panama, 14.

Gondoin, Nicolas. Ch Jesuit missionary at Miscou, 234.

Gordon, Brigadier-General. Dr Murder of, 152.

Gordon, Arthur Hamilton. See Stanmore.

Gordon, Robert. T Member for Gloucester in New Brunswick Assembly, votes against Liberals, 18.

Gore, Sir Charles S. Born in Scotland, 1793; the third son of the second Earl of Arran. Entered the army, 1808; served throughout the Peninsular War; ordered to Canada, 1814; returned to Europe and present at the battle of Waterloo, 1815. Again came to Canada; in command of the troops in Lower Canada during the Rebellion of 1837-1838; subsequently knighted and advanced to the rank of lieutenant-general. Index: C At St. Denis, 7. P In command of troops in Rebellion of 1837 in Lower Canada, 128-129; marches on St. Denis, 130; second expedition against St. Denis, 134. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Gore, Sir Francis (1769-1852). Served in the army; lieutenant-governor of Bermuda, 1804; lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 1806-1817. Index: Bk Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 8, 78; his civil and military service, 78; arms supplied to, 97; arrives at Quebec from the west, 132; Brock's high opinion of, 143; goes to England on leave, 159. E Postpones secularization of Clergy Reserves by proroguing Legislature, 146. Bib.: Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada; Kingsford, History of Canada.

Gore District. In Upper Canada; named after Governor Gore. Index: Sy Resolutions in favour of responsible government adopted at meeting of inhabitants, 125, 126.

Gorham, John. A native of Massachusetts. Stationed at Annapolis in command of a body of provincial troops, 1845; sent to Boston to procure aid against a threatened attack; induced to proceed to the siege of Louisbourg under Pepperrell; appointed colonel. Returned to Annapolis and placed in command of the Boston troops sent to Mines with Colonel Noble. Afterwards commanded a body of Rangers raised in New England for service in Acadia. A member of the Council of Nova Scotia. Returned to Massachusetts, 1752. Bib.: Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins; Marshall, Life of Pepperell.

Gosford, Archibald Acheson, second Earl of (1775?-1849). Governor-general of Canada, 1835-1838. Index: P His mission of conciliation to French-Canadians, 110; hostility of Papineau, 110; replaces Aylmer in 1835, 111; his character, 111-112; entertains Papineau, 112-113; his appeal for reconciliation, in opening Parliament, 113; his secret instructions published in Toronto, 113; their terms, 114; session of 1836, 115-116; dismisses Parliament, 116; eve of the Rebellion, 116-117; appoints Bédard judge, 117; proclaims martial law in the district of Montreal, 137; returns to England, 138; on the official class in Lower Canada, 158. BL His attempts to placate popular leaders in Lower Canada, 45; compared to Bagot, 151. C His amnesty proclamation, 9. W Conversation with William IV, 22. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Gosselin, Abbé Auguste (1843- ). Born at St. Charles de Bellechasse, Quebec. Educated at Quebec Seminary and at Laval University. Ordained priest, 1866; subsequently chancellor of the Quebec Diocese, and vicar of the[152] Basilica. Retired from the ministry to devote himself to literary work, 1893. Index: L On Laval's absolution, 35; on mandement creating Seminary, 49; on policy of Laval, 169; on great extent of parishes in Laval's time, 195. F His opinion of Talon, 54; on administration of La Barre, 172; on Laval's choice of de Saint-Vallier, 191; on Frontenac's attitude towards religion, 359. Bib.: Works: Vie de Laval; Henri de Bernières; Le Docteur Labrie; Québec en 1730; Mgr. de Saint-Vallier et son Temps; D'Iberville; Jean Bourdon. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Gouin, Sir Lomer (1861- ). Born in Grondines, Quebec. Educated at Sorel College and Laval University, Montreal; studied law and called to the bar of Quebec, 1884. Elected to the Assembly for the St. James division of Montreal, 1897; minister of public works in the Parent administration, 1900; premier, 1905; knighted, 1908. Bib.: Canadian Who's Who.

Gourlay, Robert Fleming (1778-1863). Born in the parish of Ceres, Fifeshire, Scotland. Attended St. Andrews University. Took part in an inquiry into the condition of the poor in Great Britain, and carried on an aggressive agitation for a reform of the poor laws. Came to Canada, 1817, and settled at Kingston. Becoming convinced of the need of radical changes in the land system of Upper Canada, attacked the administration with so much energy that he was finally, after a grossly unfair trial, expelled from the province. Returning to Scotland, devoted himself to the preparation of his work on Upper Canada; lost most of his property as the result of lawsuits; and imprisoned for a personal attack on Lord Brougham in the lobby of the House of Commons. On his release, visited the United States about 1836, and instrumental in dissuading Ohio sympathizers from joining the movement under William Lyon Mackenzie. In 1842 his case brought before the Legislature of Upper Canada, and the House decided that his arrest had been "illegal, unconstitutional and without possibility of excuse and palliation, and the sentence declared null and void." Did not, however, return to Canada until 1856, when he was granted a pension of fifty pounds; this he refused because he considered that his vindication had not been complete. Contested Oxford County in 1860, but defeated; returned to Edinburgh, where he died. Index: Mc Comes to Canada, 1817, 89; arouses public feeling, 89; tried for libel at Kingston and again at Brockville, and acquitted at both places, 89; tried under Alien Act, and ordered to leave province, 90; refuses and is committed to jail, 90; habeas corpus proceedings fail, 90; treatment in prison, 91; Chief-Justice Powell orders him to leave province, 92; banished, 93. BL Exaggerated language of his petition, 12. E Collects information on best means of developing resources of Upper Canada, 147. R His statistics of education in Upper Canada, 55; his imprisonment and banishment, 63, 67. Bib.: Statistical Account of Upper Canada. For biog., see Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Governors. Sy Their powers and functions, and relations to the home government on the one side and the colonial Legislatures on the other, 74-76.

Gowan, Ogle R. (1796-1876). Born in Ireland. Edited for some years the Antidote, published in Dublin. Came to Canada, 1829, and settled in the county of Leeds. At once took a leading place in the politics of Canada. First elected to the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, 1834, and continued as representative, with brief intervals, until 1861. Served in the militia during the troubles of 1837-1838; commanded the right wing at the battle of the "Windmill" and severely wounded. For twenty years[153] grandmaster of the Orange Order. Index: BL His interview with Metcalfe, and his letter, 187; challenges Hincks, 218; loses his seat in Assembly, 279. E Insults Lord Elgin at Brockville, 79. Bib.: Responsible or Parliamentary Government. For biog., see Cyc. Am. Biog.; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Last Forty Years.

Goyer, Olivier. F Récollet, preaches funeral sermon on Frontenac, 361.

Goyogouins. See Cayugas.

Graham, Sir James. Sy His views on corn duties and Irish Church, 40.

Grammar Schools. S Simcoe's desire to establish, 169. See Education.

Grand Jury. Dr Presentment of, 14; protested against by Murray, 15.

Grand Portage. Near western end of Lake Superior, about twenty miles south of Fort William. As in the case of so many other historic Canadian places, it is impossible to say who was the first white man to stand upon this famous centre of the fur trade. Radisson came this way in 1662; Du Lhut in 1678; Noyon in 1688; La Noüe in 1717; but there is no evidence that any of the four were actually at Grand Portage. It is first mentioned in a memoir by Pachot, 1722; and the earliest authenticated visit to the spot is that of La Vérendrye, 1731. From that time it grew steadily in importance until finally abandoned, 1801, in favour of Fort William. The name was applied both to the trading-post on the shore of Lake Superior, and to the portage thence to the Pigeon River. Index: MS Described, 13; the portage, 13; as it is to-day, 13; in Mackenzie's day, 14; Mackenzie at, 54. Bib.: Mackenzie, History of Fur Trade in his Voyages; Henry-Thompson Journals, ed. by Coues; Henry, Travels and Adventures; Carver, Travels; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Grand Pré. A village on the shores of the Basin of Minas. Stands upon or near the site of the old village of the same name, one of the principal settlements of the Acadians. The scene of many conflicts between the French and English; and of the final expulsion of the Acadians. See Acadians. Bib.: Parkman, Half Century of Conflict and Montcalm and Wolfe.

Grand Trunk Railway. C Entrusts Cartier with its legal business, 22; Carrier's deep interest in its development, 48; line extended from Quebec to Rivière du Loup, 49, 114. BL Construction of, up to 1848, 301. B Owners of said by Dorion to be the real authors of Confederation, 176; Taché-Macdonald government condemned for subsidizing, 176. E Early history of, 99, 100, 101, 115-116; Hincks's connection with, 100, 115. H Hincks makes arrangements in England for construction of, 143; terms and conditions not altogether satisfactory, 143. Md Early history, 45; financial difficulties, 90. Bib.: Brown, History of Grand Trunk Railway; Lanning, Historical Sketch of the Grand Trunk Railway in Canada: An Ency., vol. 2.

Grant, Alexander (1734-1813). Administered the government of Upper Canada as senior member of the Executive Council, on death of General Hunter, 1805. Index: Bk Administers government of Upper Canada, 69. S Member of Legislative Council, 49, 79; member of the Executive Council, 80. Bib.: Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada.

Grant, Cuthbert. One of the leading traders of the North West Company in the West, in the early days. With Peter Pond on the Athabaska, and sent by him, 1786, to establish a post near mouth of Slave River; at Fort Chipewyan, 1789; at Fort Qu'Appelle, 1793; with David Thompson on the Assiniboine, 1797. Died, 1798 or 1799. Index: MS Partner of the North West Company,[154] 58; in charge of the Centre (Red River and Assiniboine) country, 58. Bib.: Henry-Thompson Journals, ed. by Coues; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Grant, Cuthbert. Son of foregoing. Scottish half-breed, in western fur trade. Educated at Montreal, and entered service of North West Company. Led the half-breeds in the Seven Oaks affair. Some years later settled near White Horse Plains, on the Assiniboine, and appointed Warden of the Plains by the Council of Assiniboia. Became himself a member of the Council. Index: MS Leader of the half-breeds at Red River—serves notice on the colonists to leave the district, 174; brings a party of bois-brûlés down from Qu'Appelle to drive out the settlers, 180; and the Seven Oaks affair, 180-182. Bib.: Bryce, Manitoba and Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West.

Grant, George Monro (1835-1902). Born at Albion Mines, Nova Scotia. Educated at University of Glasgow. Entered Presbyterian ministry in Nova Scotia. Accompanied Sandford Fleming overland to British Columbia, 1872. Principal of Queen's University, 1877, and built it up to the first rank among Canadian universities. Index: Md Principal of Queen's University—on ignorance in Maritime Provinces as to the West, 155; opposes commercial union, 295; on character of Sir John A. Macdonald as man and statesman, 329-330; one of Macdonald's strongest and most ardent supporters, 340; but would not support him when he felt he was in the wrong, 341. Bib.: Works: Ocean to Ocean; Advantages of Imperial Federation; Our National Objects and Aims; Religions of the World in Relation to Christianity; Picturesque Canada. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Dent, Can. Por.; Grant and Hamilton, Principal Grant.

Grant, Sir William (1752-1832). Commanded volunteers at siege of Quebec, 1775; attorney-general of Canada, 1776; chief-justice of Chester, 1798; solicitor-general, 1799-1801; master of the Rolls, 1801-1817. Index: Dr Removed from judgeship, returns to England and becomes Master of the Rolls, 184. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Gravé, Jeanne. Ch Daughter of Dupont-Gravé, 47.

Gravé, Robert. Ch Son of Dupont-Gravé, accompanies Champlain on voyage of discovery, 34.

Graves, Samuel (1713-1787). British admiral. Index: S Godfather of Simcoe, 15; commands naval force at Boston, 19. Dr Refuses to send transports to Quebec, 92. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Gray, John Hamilton (1814-1889). Born in Bermuda. Entered political life in New Brunswick in 1850, and became a leading member of the provincial government. Took part in the negotiations leading up to Confederation, and sat in the first Dominion Parliament as member for the city of St. John. In 1872 appointed to the Supreme Court of British Columbia. Index: T Elected for St. John County, 1850, 10; his character and appearance, 13; deserts the Liberals, 13; joins the government, 18, 23; his course condemned, 24; member for St. John County, 30; becomes attorney-general, 41; delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 73; and to Quebec Conference, 77; Confederation candidate in St. John County, 85, 109; becomes Speaker of Assembly, 114; elected to House of Commons, 1867, 131. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Gray, John Hamilton (1811-1887). Born in Prince Edward Island. Entered the army, 1831, and served for twenty-one years, retiring 1852. Returning to Prince Edward Island, elected to the provincial Legislature, and became premier in 1863. The following year presided at the Charlottetown Conference, and also[155] attended the Quebec Conference. Made a C. M. G., 1871. Index: T Chairman of Charlottetown Conference, 76; premier of Prince Edward Island, 77; delegate from Prince Edward Island to Quebec Conference, 77. Bib.: Campbell, History of Prince Edward Island.

Gray, Robert (1755-1806). American captain and explorer. Index: D Voyage to North-West Coast in 1787, 23; at Nootka, 1788-1789, 24; second voyage—enters mouth of Columbia River, May 11, 1792, 24; names the river, 24. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast; Laut, Vikings of the Pacific.

Great Bear Lake. In Northern Canada. Area 11,821 square miles. Discovered by men of the North West Company, and a post established on or near the lake about 1800. Fort Franklin built on south-west shore, 1825, where Franklin wintered with Richardson and Back. Fort Confidence built by Dease and Simpson, 1873, at eastern end of Dease Bay, on the lake. Index: MS Area of, 39. Bib.: Franklin, Second Expedition; Simpson, Narrative of Discoveries; Bell, Great Bear Lake (Geol. Survey, 1899); Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Great Lakes. WM The domain of France, 18. See also under names of the individual lakes. Bib.: Curwood, The Great Lakes; Channing, Story of the Great Lakes.

Great Mohawk (Grand Agnié). F Christian Mohawk leader, 246.

Great Portage. Hd Trade route to the interior, 163. See Grand Portage.

Great Slave Lake. In Northern Canada. Area 10,719 square miles. Discovered by Samuel Hearne (q.v.), in 1771. A post built there, 1786, by Leroux and Grant, of the North West Company. Three years later Alexander Mackenzie passed through the lake on his way to the mouth of the Mackenzie River. Visited later by many other explorers and fur traders, this being on the route to the far North and North-West. Index: MS Discovered by Samuel Hearne, 3, 31; Leroux builds post on, 18; Mackenzie on, 35, 36, 48, 49; forts on, 54-55. Bib.: Hearne, Journey to Coppermine; Mackenzie, Voyages; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Great Western Railway. Charter granted 1834, and renewed 1845. Absorbed by the Grand Trunk in 1882. Ran from Hamilton to the international boundary opposite Detroit. Index: E Construction stimulated by provincial guarantee, 1849, 99. Bib.: Trout, History of Canadian Railways in Canada: An Ency., vol. 2.

Greeley, Horace (1811-1872). American journalist. Index: Mc Editor of New York Tribune, 472; Mackenzie's friend, 473; his influence with Mackenzie, 474. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Green, Benjamin (1713-1772). Accompanied the expedition against Louisbourg as secretary, 1745; remained there as government secretary until 1749; removed to Halifax, and appointed a member of the Council of Nova Scotia. Treasurer of the province for many years. Administrator of the government, 1776. Bib.: Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Greene, Nathanael (1742-1786). Dr American general, watches Leslie's army in South Carolina, 197; destitute condition of his force, 204. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Greenway, Thomas (1838-1909). Born in Cornwall, England. Came to Canada with his parents, 1844. Educated at the public schools of Huron County, Ontario. Engaged in business for ten years at Centralia. Defeated on two occasions for election to the House of Commons, but elected, 1875; did not offer for re-election. Removed to Manitoba, 1878, and engaged in farm[156]ing. Elected to the Assembly, 1879; leader of the Liberal opposition, 1887; premier, 1888; his government defeated, 1899. Elected to the House of Commons, 1904. Appointed a member of the Dominion Railway Commission, 1898. Bib.: Begg, History of the North-West; Morgan, Can. Men.

Gregory, John. Born in England. Came to Montreal, and engaged in the fur trade. Associated with A. N. McLeod, Alexander Mackenzie, Peter Pangman, and others, in opposition to the North West Company. Index: MS In opposition to North West Company, 10, 11; his share as partner of North West Company, 58. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Gregory, William. The first chief-justice of the province of Quebec. His commission bears date August 24, 1764; succeeded by William Hey, September 25, 1766.

Grenville, George Leveson-Gower, second Earl (1815-1891). Entered Parliament, 1836; secretary for foreign affairs, 1851-1852, 1870-1874, 1880-1885; colonial secretary, 1868-1870 and 1886. Index: Md Colonial secretary, his part in the transfer of North-West Territories to Canada, 157. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Grenville, William Wyndham, Baron (1759-1834). Entered Parliament, 1782; paymaster-general, 1783; Speaker of the House of Commons, 1789; created Baron Grenville, 1790; secretary for foreign affairs, 1791; first lord of the treasury, 1806. Index: Dr Succeeds Sydney in colonial office, 248; sends out draft bill for better government of the province, 248. S Sends draft of Constitutional Act to Lord Dorchester, 2. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Grenville, Thomas (1755-1846). Dr Accompanies Oswald to Paris to discuss terms of peace, 192. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Grey, Charles, second Earl (1764-1845). Distinguished British statesman, noted particularly for his connection with the first Reform Bill. Sy Becomes prime minister, 25; resigns, 45. Mc W.L. Mackenzie's opinion of, 221; favours amnesty for Mackenzie, 478; Mackenzie's letter to, 479. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Grey, Life of Lord Grey.

Grey, Henry George, third Earl (1802-1894). Secretary for the colonies, 1830-1833; secretary for war, 1835-1841; succeeded to the earldom, 1845; again secretary for the colonies, 1846-1852. Index: E Colonial secretary, 13; on Metcalfe's mistaken policy, 36; Elgin's letters to, 54-55; persuades Elgin to retain governor-generalship, 77; and the Clergy Reserves, 164-165. BL Colonial secretary—his attitude towards Canada, 267-272; Baldwin's reference to, 268-269; sanctions representative government, but with a reservation, 273; his instructions to Elgin, 274; Elgin's letter to, 285. Md Friendly attitude towards responsible government, 33; his despatch to Sir John Harvey on responsible government, 33; text of the despatch, 47-50. W His despatch on money grants, 1847, 96; on colonial administration, 113; disallows Hemp Bounties Bill, 118. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Grey, Albert Henry George Grey, fourth Earl (1851- ). Born Howick, England. Educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of British House of Commons, 1880-1886; administrator of Rhodesia, 1896-1897; director of British South Africa Company, 1898-1904. Succeeded Lord Minto as governor-general of Canada, 1904. Bib.: Hubert Hervey: a Memoir. For biog., see Who's Who.

Grey, Sir Charles Edward (1785-1865). Educated at Oxford University; called to the bar, 1811; commissioner in bankruptcy, 1817; judge of the Supreme Court of Madras, 1820; knighted, 1820; sent to Canada as one of three commissioners to investigate causes of prevailing discontent, 1835; elected[157] to the House of Commons, 1838; governor of the Barbados, 1841-1846; governor of Jamaica, 1847-1853. Index: P Royal Commissioner, sent to Canada with Lord Gosford and Sir George Gipps in 1835, 111. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Greywell Hill. Dr Hampshire residence of Lord Dorchester, 307.

Grisler, Charles. S Shot for desertion, 73.

Griffon. F Vessel built by La Salle and lost in Lake Michigan, 159.

Grignan, de. F Son-in-law of Mme. de Sévigné, a candidate for governorship of Canada, 65.

Grondines. WM French vessels retreat to, 152.

Groseilliers. See Chouart.

Guelph. A city of Western Ontario, situated on the Speed River, in the county of Wellington. Founded by John Galt (q.v.), 1827. Bib.: Lizars, Days of the Canada Company.

Guernsey. Bk Island of, birthplace of Brock, 1-6.

Guerrière. Bk British ship taken by the Constitution, 284.

Guers, Jean-Baptiste. Ch Accompanies Champlain to Quebec, 1620, 121.

Gugy, Conrad (1730-1786). Born at the Hague; son of a Swiss officer in the Dutch service. Educated for the engineers; disposed of his commission and settled in Quebec. Subsequently secretary to Sir Frederick Haldimand and a member of the Legislative and Executive Councils. Index: Hd Swiss, Haldimand's secretary, 62; his tomb, 345. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Gugy, Conrad Augustus. Educated at Cornwall under John Strachan. Served for a time in the army; afterwards studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada. Elected a member of the Assembly. Led the troops at the assault of St. Eustache. Subsequently adjutant-general and commissioner of police. Index: P Defends the government in the Assembly, 1835, 101-102; on French-Canadian grievances, 103; a major in the militia, 103; serves with Colborne at St. Eustache in 1837, 103; advocates native-born ministry, 196. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Guienne Regiment. WM Soldier of saves Captain Ochterlony, mortally wounded, from being scalped, 142; Wolfe wishes to reward him, but reward declined by Vaudreuil, 145; ordered to Heights of Abraham, 160; unwise withdrawal of, from Plains of Abraham, 184; in battle of Ste. Foy, 257. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Bradley, Fight with France.

Guilbault. Ch Merchant, assists in taking Fort St. Pierre, 236.

Guilford, Frederick North, second Earl of (1732-1792). Entered Parliament, 1754; chancellor of the exchequer 1767; premier, 1770; resigned in 1783. Index: Dr On Quebec Act, 66; defeat of his government, 191. Hd His difficulty with settlers at Vincennes, 92; burnt in effigy, 97; Haldimand's letters to, 259, 265; his idea of a military settlement in the Eastern Townships, 264. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Guines, Modiste. Ch Récollet, 115.

Guise, Captain. D His voyage to North-West Coast for sea-otter, 22.

Gunn, Donald (1797-1878). Born in Falkirk, Scotland. Entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1813. Left the service, 1823, but continued to reside in the Red River Settlement. Appointed one of the judges of the Court of Petty Sessions, and for a time president of the Court. Appointed a member of the Legislative Council of Manitoba, 1870. Bib.: Begg, History of the North-West.[158]

Gurnett, George. Mc Brought to the bar, 152; editor of the Courier, 165; style of, 165.

Guyard, Marie. See Marie de l'Incarnation.

Guyon, Jean. Ch Mason, accompanies Robert Giffard to Canada, 252.

Guyon, Jean. L Canadian priest, accompanies Laval to France, 199; death of, 219.

Gwillim, Elizabeth Posthuma. S Married to Simcoe, 40; descent and characteristics, 40.

Habeas Corpus Act. Hd Not in operation in Haldimand's time, 275; demanded by Du Calvet, 291. Bib.: Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents relating to Canada; Dict. Eng. Hist.

Habitants. The peasants of Quebec. Index: Dr More independent than peasantry of France, 12; raised to dignity of jurymen, 40; their objection to juries, 68. WM Superior to peasantry of France, 23. C Home life and hospitality, 118-119. Bib.: Greenough, Canadian Folk-Life; Fréchette, Christmas in French Canada; Morgan and Burpee, Canadian Life in Town and Country; Fiske, New France and New England; Lambert, Travels in Canada.

Habitation de Québec. The first building in Quebec. Erected by Champlain, 1608. Stood about where the church of Notre Dame des Victoires stands to-day. An illustration of the Habitation is in Champlain's Voyages. See also Chateau St. Louis. Index: Ch Constructed by Champlain, 41; description of, 44. Bib.: Champlain, Voyages; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Hagarty, Sir John Hawkins (1816-1900). Born in Dublin. Educated at Trinity College there. Came to Canada, 1834. Studied law, and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1840. Appointed puisne judge of the Court of Common Pleas, 1856; transferred to the Court of Queen's Bench, 1862; appointed chief-justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 1868; chief-justice of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1878; chief-justice of Ontario, 1884. Served as administrator of the province, 1882. Retired from the bench, 1897. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men.

Hagerman, Christopher Alexander (1792-1847). Born in Adolphustown, Ontario. Educated at Kingston; studied law and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1815. Served during the War of 1812-1814 with the militia, being for a time aide-de-camp to the governor-general. Collector of customs at Kingston, and member of the Executive Council, 1815. Elected a member of the Assembly, 1819. Appointed temporarily judge of the King's Bench, 1828; solicitor-general, 1829. Removed from office by the colonial secretary on the representations of William Lyon Mackenzie; subsequently restored. Appointed attorney-general, 1837; puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1840. Index: Mc Solicitor-general, accuses Mackenzie of libel, 208; dismissed from office, 232; goes to England, 233; restored to office, 234; threatens House with vengeance of troops, 298. Sy Attorney-general, opposes union of provinces, 207, 208; made judge, 252. BL Brands Mackenzie as "a reptile unworthy of the notice of any gentleman," 15; removed from office of solicitor-general, 15; restored, 16; succeeded in 1840 by Draper, 77. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion and Last Forty Years; Read, Lives of the Judges.

Halard, Jacques. Ch Brings out stores for De Caën, 136.

Haldemans of Pennsylvania. Hd Cousins of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 87, 343.

Haldimand, Antoine François. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, settled in England, 72, 88, 105; goes bail for his uncle, 311; very successful[159] in business. 311; his intimate relations with his uncle, 312, 332, 338, 341, 342.

Haldimand, Barthélemi. Hd Uncle of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 2; a philanthropic fighting Calvinist, 2.

Haldimand, Bertrand. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 311, 340.

Haldimand, François-Lois. Hd Father of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 2.

Haldimand, François-Louis. Hd Brother of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 2, 312, 343.

Haldimand, Sir Frederick (1718-1791). Hd Descent and birth, 1-3; antagonism to French nation, 3; joins Prussian army, 3; previous military service, 5; present at battle of Mollwitz, 6; his admiration for the king of Prussia, 6; recommended to command of second battalion, Royal American regiment, 9; stationed at Philadelphia, 11; sent to Albany and afterwards to southern colonies to recruit, 13; but slightly acquainted with the English language, 15; popular in the military profession, 15; resemblance to George Washington, 15; exchanges to fourth battalion of Royal Americans, 17; joins expedition against Canada, 17; wounded at Ticonderoga (Carillon), 21; in correspondence with General Gage, 22, 23; in command at Fort Edward, 22; marches to Oswego, 25; repulses attack of French under La Corne de St. Luc, 26; yields precedence at Niagara to Sir W. Johnson, 27; returns to Oswego, 27; builds block-houses, 32; makes vegetable gardens for benefit of his troops, 33; joins in attack on Fort de Lévis, 36; ordered to take possession of one of the gates of Montreal, 38; demands the French flags, 39; remains two years at Montreal under Gage, 40; succeeds Burton at Three Rivers, 42; promoted to rank of colonel in British army, 42; becomes British subject, 42; divides government of Three Rivers into four districts, 43; his proclamations, 45; his relations with Murray, 49; with his nephew, 50; his land purchases, 50, 51; on Burton's return to Montreal, 53; again at Three Rivers, 53; suppresses irregular trading with Indians, 54; difficulties of his position, 60; obtains leave of absence and visits England, 61; transferred to Florida, 63; unpleasant relations with Governor Johnstone, 65, 73; improves conditions for the troops, 66-69; lays out gardens, 71; tries to promote agriculture among Indian tribes, 72; surveys Mobile River and Bay, 77, 78; transferred to St. Augustine, 78; his farm of Mon Plaisir, 78; sent back to Pensacola, 80; his position pecuniarily burdensome, 82, 87; made major and placed in command at New York, 83; his attitude in relation to colonial trouble, 84, 85; visits relatives in Pennsylvania, 87; relations with Governor Tryon, 89; his views on employment of troops in Indian and civil disturbances, 89, 90, 92; foresees civil war, 98; summoned by Gage to Boston, 102; his property in New York stolen or destroyed, 103; recalled to England, 105; his reception there, 106; made inspector-general of forces in West Indies, and raised to rank of general in America and lieutenant-general in the army, 107; receives £3000 to cover past outlays, 107; appointed governor of Canada, in succession to Carleton, 113; visits Yverdun, 113, 116; his reception at Quebec, and at Montreal, 117, 119; receives news of a treaty between France, Spain, and the revolted colonies, 124; fortifies post on Carleton Island, 124; his distrust of French-Canadians, 127, 128; issues letters of marque, 130; improves mail service with England, 131; his report to Lord George Germaine, 132-143; his policy with the Indians, 147, 259; opens letter addressed by Guy Johnson to Germaine, 155; reprimanded, 156; his efforts to keep peace between rival officers, 157-159; prohibited trading by officials, 162; on the value of Indian allies, 164; negotiates with Washington for Henry Hamilton's release from[160] prison, 169; his later opinion of Indians in battle, 170; disapproves the savagery of Butler's Indians, 170; suspends Allsopp, member of Council, for sedition, 175; surrounded by spies, 175; disagreements with Council, 176-178; prohibits exportation of grain, 177; befriends Ursuline nuns, 179; his rules of conduct, 179; sends back two priests from France, 181; strengthens fortifications of Quebec, 183; causes canals to be made at Coteau du Lac and Cascades, 185; visit to Montreal and benefactions to its institutions, 186; greatly mortified by despatch hinting that, in case of extreme danger, Carleton might be sent to take command, 188; desires to resign his post, 189; concerned at sympathy of leading French-Canadians with the French in the war, 190; takes census, 190; founds library at Quebec, 190; exercises a certain censorship of press, 191; his proclamations, 192; consents to remain in Canada till conclusion of peace, 194; his cautious attitude in connection with the Vermont question, 200, 208, 211, 212; breaks off negotiations, 217; his instructions regarding vaccination, 230; exercises fatherly care over his officers, 236; his opinion of Canadian horses, 245; his resemblance in character to Washington, 250; receives Baron Steuben at Sorel, 259; declines to surrender western forts, 260; assists the North West Company, 261; his advice to home government respecting western posts, 262; opposed to idea of military settlement in eastern townships, 264; efforts on behalf of Loyalists, 265; the founder of Ontario, 271; his unpopularity, 273; has to grapple with treasonable intrigues, 273-282; admissions in his favour by French-Canadian authorities, 291, 292; the kindness of his disposition, 293-296; godfather to two of Baron Riedesel's children, 296, 299; his physical ailments, 299; his garden at Quebec, 299; his regard for the Riedesels, 299-304; his departure from Canada, 309; arrested at suit of Du Calvet, 310; bailed by his nephew, 311; receives Order of the Bath, 313, 322; promoted to be general in America, 313; his papers in the Archives in Ottawa, 319; Dr. Brymner's opinion of, 320; his diary, 321; the king's high regard for him, 321, 322; the queen's, 322, 336; characteristics, 323-329; his opinion of Lord Amherst, 326; on friendly terms with Lord Sydney, 326; his hospitality to Canadians, 327; meets Sir Guy Carleton, in London, 330; his opinions of various persons, 332, 333; notes from his diary, 333-340; poor opinion of the French, 335; goes to Switzerland, 336; returns to London, 337; his death, 340; his will, 340-343; memorial tablet to, in Westminster Abbey, 346; his devotion to British interests, 347. Bk His able administration of the government of Canada, 37; first canals made under his orders, 48. Dr His valuable papers, 7; news received of his appointment as governor, 183; his unwillingness to accept post, 183; arrival of, 189; exchange of prisoners made by, 207. E Constructs St. Lawrence canals, 97. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Lucas, History of Canada; Bradley, The Making of Canada; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Haldimand Papers (Canadian Archives).

Haldimand, Frederick. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 17; serves in his uncle's battalion, 49; runs into debt, 50; drowned, 61, 294; Haldimand's affection for, 62.

Haldimand, Henry. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 311; his death, 312.

Haldimand, Honnête Gaspard. Hd Grandfather of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 2, 17, 72, 311.

Haldimand, Jean Abraham. Hd Younger brother of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 2, 17, 72, 88, 311.

Haldimand, Jean-Lois. Hd Uncle of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 2, 4.

[161]

Haldimand, Justine. Hd Sister of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 3; death of, 338.

Halifax and Harbour from Dartmouth about 1760 Drawn on the spot by Richard Short Halifax and Harbour from Dartmouth about 1760 Drawn on the spot by Richard Short

Haldimand, Louis. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, 88; his arrival and reception in Boston, 109; promoted, 110, 294; his debts, 312.

Haldimand, Pierre. Hd Nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand, joins him in Florida, 72; placed in charge of seigniory of Pabos, 73, 111; appointed ranger of the woods, 294; death of, 294.

Haldimand, William. Hd Grand-nephew of Sir Frederick Haldimand; and director of Bank of England, 343.

Haldimand Papers. Hd In Canadian Archives, 319, 320.

Haliburton, Thomas Chandler (1796-1865). Born at Windsor, Nova Scotia. Educated at the Grammar School and at King's College there. Called to the bar and practised for a time at Annapolis. Represented the county of Annapolis in the Nova Scotia Legislature, and in 1829 appointed district judge of the Court of Common Pleas. In 1841 transferred to the Supreme Court. Resigned in 1856, and removed to England, where three years later, entered Parliament as member for Launceston. Died at his home, Gordon House, on the Thames. Index: H Contributes to Nova Scotian, 9; his History of Nova Scotia published by Joseph Howe, a financial failure, 10; friendship for Howe, 10; sails for England with Howe, 267; Howe's poetical toast to, 267-268. Md Advocates Confederation, 96. Bib.: Works: An Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia; The Clockmaker, or The Sayings and Doings of Samuel Slick of Slickville; Bubbles of Canada; Reply to the Report of the Earl of Durham; Letter-bag of the Great Western, or Life in a Steamer; Attaché, or Sam Slick in England; Old Judge, or Life in a Colony; English in America; Traits of American Humour; Wise Saws and Modern Instances; Americans at Home; Nature and Human Nature; Address on the Present Condition, Resources, and Prospects of British North America; Season Ticket. Brief biographies are found in Dict. Nat. Biog.; Morgan, Bib. Can.; Allibone, Dict. Eng. Lit.; Calnek and Savery, History of the County of Annapolis; Chasles, Études sur Littérature des Anglo-Americains; Crofton, Haliburton: a Centenary Chaplet. See also last-mentioned volume for a bibliography of the various editions of his works and a list of articles, in books and magazines, on the man and his works; also A. H. O'Brien's exhaustive bibliography, in R. S. C., Trans., 1909.

Halifax. A seaport, and the capital of Nova Scotia; founded in 1749 and named after the Earl of Halifax, then president of the Board of Trade. The first settlers were brought out from England in that year by Governor Cornwallis, in thirteen transports; following year made the capital of the province (then including New Brunswick), instead of Annapolis; in 1842 incorporated as a city; became, with its fortifications, observatory stations, harbour mines, etc., one of the fortresses of the Empire and the chief British naval station in North America; garrisoned by Imperial troops until 1905, when they were withdrawn and replaced by a Canadian garrison. Index: H Birthplace of Joseph Howe, 1; the North-West Arm, 1; Melville Island, 5; newspapers (see Chronicle; Acadian; Nova Scotian); municipal government in, in 1835, 20; Howe's trial for libelling magistrates of the city, 21, 29; represented by Howe and Annand, 1836, 29; bill for incorporation of, 69; Howe re-elected for, 73; James MacNab elected for, 106; railway communication with Windsor, 118. Bib.: MacMechan, Halifax in Books, a collection of pen-pictures of Halifax and its people by many writers from Edmund Burke to Rudyard Kipling, and including Marsden, Narrative; Tom Moore, Letters; McGregor, Maritime Colonies of British America; Moorsom, Letters from Nova Scotia;[162] Sleigh, Pine Forests; Mrs. Williams, Neutral French; Marryat, Frank Mildmay; Dickens, American Notes; Johnston, Notes on North America; Cozzens, Acadia; Sladen, On the Cars and Off; Haliburton, Nova Scotia; Thomas B. Akins, History of Halifax (Nova Scotia Hist. Soc. Trans., vol. 8); Mackay, Sketch of City of Halifax, in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5; Regan, Sketches and Traditions of the North-West Arm; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Halifax Award. The treaty of Washington having provided for a commission, to settle the compensation due Canada by the United States for the use of her fisheries, in 1877 the United States appointed E.H. Kellogg, Canada appointed Sir Alexander Galt, and these two agreed upon M. Delfosse, Belgian minister to Washington, as a third. The commission met at Halifax, and after long and careful deliberation, decided that Canada should be paid $5,500,000, the American commissioner protesting. The award was paid, after some delay. See Washington, Treaty of. Bib.: Record of the Proceedings of the Halifax Fisheries Commission, 1877.

Hall, Major George D. Sy Appointed military secretary and aide-de-camp, 152.

Halliburton, Sir Brenton (1773-1860). H Chief-justice, of Nova Scotia, presides at trial of Joseph Howe for libel, 24; contest for his office, 168; his son challenges Howe, because of supposed insulting references to the father, 236. Bib.: Hill, Memoir of Sir Brenton Halliburton; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Halliburton, John Croke (1806-1884). Eldest son of Sir Brenton Halliburton, chief-justice of Nova Scotia. Called to the bar, 1829; appointed deputy-clerk of the Legislative Council, 1830, and clerk, 1838. In early life challenged Joseph Howe to a duel, but neither of the duellists injured. Index: H Challenges Joseph Howe, 236; the duel, 236-244.

Haly, Sir William O'Grady (1811-1878). Entered the army, 1828. Served with distinction in the Crimea and in India. Created K.C.B., 1855. Appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in British North America, 1873. Acted as administrator of the government of Canada during the absence of Lord Dufferin, 1875. Attained the rank of general, 1877. Died in Halifax.

Hamilton. City of Ontario, on Burlington Bay, west end of Lake Ontario. Laid out and settled, 1813, by George Hamilton, from whom it takes its name. Index: BL Early municipal government of, 298, 300. Bib.: Lovell, Gazetteer.

Hamilton, Alexander (1757-1804). American statesman. Index: Dr Anxious to keep on good terms with Britain, 286; Talleyrand's opinion of, 287. Bib.: Hamilton, Life of Alexander Hamilton. For further biog., and bibliog. of works by and of him, see Cyc. Am. Biog. and Lit. Am. Hist.

Hamilton, John (1801-1882). Born in Queenston, Ontario. Removed to Kingston, 1840. Throughout his life largely interested in inland navigation, and the first to introduce iron vessels on Canadian waters. Sat in the Legislative Council of Upper Canada, 1831-1841; in the Legislative Council of Canada, 1841-1867; and in the Senate from 1867 until his death. On the completion of his fiftieth year of continuous service in the Upper Chamber, presented with an address of congratulation by his fellow-senators.

Hamilton, Henry. Lieutenant-governor of Detroit during Revolutionary War; captured at Vincennes, 1779, and imprisoned. Retired from the army, 1783; lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1784-1785; governor of Bermuda, 1790-1794. Died in Antigua, 1796. Index: Hd Governor of Detroit, occupies[163] Vincennes on Wabash, 167; captured and imprisoned by Americans, 168; made lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 314. Died, 1796. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada.

Hamilton, Paul (1762-1816). Bk United States secretary of the navy, 173. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Hamilton, Pierce Stevens (1826-1893). Studied law, and called to the bar, 1851. Entered journalism, and edited Acadian Recorder, 1853-1861. Appointed chief commissioner of mines for Nova Scotia. An early advocate of Confederation. Index: B Advocates Confederation, 129. T His views on union of the colonies, 65-66. Bib.: Works: Union of the Colonies of British North America; Feast of Ste. Anne and other Poems.

Hamilton, Robert. S Member of Legislative Council, 79; accused by Simcoe of "republicanism," 97; visits England and takes legal advice respecting land matters in Upper Canada, 103; his house at Queenston, 179; entertains Prince Edward, 184; appointed lieutenant of county of Lincoln, 198.

Hammond, George (1763-1853). S British minister at Philadelphia, consulted by Simcoe on the situation, 134, 144. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Hampton, Sir John Somerset Pakington, first Baron (1799-1880). Sat for Droitwich in British Parliament, 1837-1874; secretary for war and colonies, 1852; first lord of Admiralty, 1858 and 1866; secretary for war, 1867-1868. Index: E Opposes the secularization of Clergy Reserves, 165, 166, 167. B And the Clergy Reserves, 59. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Hancock. Bk Private of 41st, first man killed in War of 1812, 236.

Hancock's House. S Skirmish at, 24.

Handy, Henry S. Mc Commander of "patriot" army, 427; quarrels with "General" Sutherland, 427; occupies Sugar Island, 428; put to flight, 428; forms new plot to revolutionize Canada, 437; its extent, 438; failure of, 439. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Hanington, Daniel (1804-1889). Sat for over half a century in one or other of the branches of the New Brunswick Legislature. Elected to Assembly, 1834, for Westmoreland, which he represented up to 1862. A member of the Executive Council under Sir Edmund Head; Speaker of the Assembly for several years; appointed to the Legislative Council, 1867, and president of that body, 1883-1886. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Hanington, Daniel Lionel (1835-1909). Born at Shediac, New Brunswick. Called to the bar, 1861; in 1870 entered the New Brunswick Assembly, representing Westmoreland until 1874; and reëlected, 1878; member of the Executive Council, 1878; premier of the province, 1882; resigned, 1883. In 1892 appointed a puisne judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. Index: T Elected Speaker of New Brunswick Assembly, 30. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Hanks, Captain. Bk Surrenders Michilimackinac, 211; killed at Detroit, 255.

Hanna, James. D Voyage of 1785, 22; on enormous profits of sea-otter trade, 22.

Hanna, Michael (1821-1882). Born in Ireland. Came to Canada, 1839, and completed his studies at St. Mary's College. Ordained to the priesthood, 1845. Held various charges in Nova Scotia. Subsequently became vicar-general of the diocese of Halifax and archbishop, 1877. Died in Halifax.

Harding, James A. T Returned for St. John, 25, 30, 43.

Hardy, Arthur Sturgis (1837-1899). Born at Mount Pleasant, Ontario. Studied law, and called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1865; practised his profes[164]sion at Brantford; Q. C., 1876. Elected to the Ontario Legislature, 1873; provincial secretary, 1877; commissioner of crown lands, 1889; premier, 1896. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Biggar, Sir Oliver Mowat.

Hargrave, James. Chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company. Index: MS In charge of York Factory, 226; correspondence with Rev. Wm. Cochrane, 227; made chief trader, 1833, and chief factor, 1844, 227; Simpson's letters to, 261-262. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Harlay, de. L Archbishop of Rouen, desires ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Canada, 133; called to the see of Paris, 134; desires to bring diocese of Quebec under his jurisdiction, 184.

Harmon, Daniel Williams. Born in Vermont. Entered service of North West Company, 1800, at Montreal, and left immediately for the western fur country. Returned to the east in 1819, bringing with him his Journals, covering this period, which were edited by Daniel Haskel, of Burlington, Vt., and published at that place in 1820; reprinted in New York, with a brief introduction, 1903. Returned to the West, and remained there several years, finally settling with his native wife and family on the shores of Lake Champlain. One of his daughters conducted a private school in Ottawa for many years. Index: D Stuart's lieutenant in New Caledonia, 98. Bib.: Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America. For biog., see Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Haro, Gonzalez Lopez de. D Finds Russian establishments, 38. Bib.: Bancroft, North-West Coast.

Harrison, Robert Alexander (1833-1878). Studied law, and appointed to crown law department of Upper Canada, 1854. Retired, 1859, and practised in Toronto. Member for Toronto in first Dominion Parliament, 1867-1872. Chief-justice of the Court of Queen's Bench, Ontario, 1875-1878. One of the arbitrators in Ontario boundary dispute, 1878. Author of many legal works; and edited Poker, a humorous paper, 1859-1860. Index: B His connection with the contempt of court suit against George Brown, 249-254. Md Chief-justice, serves on Ontario Boundary Commission, 255. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Read, Lives of the Judges.

Harrison, Samuel Bealey. Sy Provincial secretary for Upper Canada, 283; his resolutions on responsible government, 310, 311. BL Provincial secretary for Upper Canada, 1841, 76; a moderate Liberal, 78; Baldwin's confidence in, 78; retains office under La Fontaine-Baldwin administration, 134; Constitutional Society of Orillia recommends his dismissal, 167; member for Kingston—opposes transfer of capital to Montreal, and resigns as provincial secretary, 182; Gowan predicts his dismissal from office, 187. Mc Moves resolution for responsible government, which carries, 408. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Harrison, T. T. J. Mc His account of the Haldimand election, 487.

Harrison, William Henry (1773-1841). Ninth president of the United States. Index: Bk United States general, his Tippecanoe exploit, 174-176. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Harvey, Sir John (1778-1852). Entered the British army, and saw active service in Holland, France, at the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, India, and Egypt. In 1812 deputy adjutant-general of the army in Canada, and defeated the American generals Chandler and Winder at Stoney Creek. Took part in the battles of Lundy's Lane, Fort Erie, and Chrystler's Farm. In 1815 aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and fought at Waterloo. In 1837-1841[165] governor of New Brunswick; governor and commander-in-chief of Newfoundland, 1841-1846; and governor of Nova Scotia, 1846-1852. Buried at Halifax. Index: Md Governor of Nova Scotia, Grey's despatch on responsible government, 33; text of the despatch, 47-50. BL Earl Grey's despatch to, on responsible government in Nova Scotia, 269-272. H Appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 103; his broad views on responsible government, 112-113; his correspondence with Earl Grey as to proposed Intercolonial Railway, 124; his death, 143. W Succeeds Sir Archibald Campbell as lieutenant-governor, 47; assents to Civil List Bill, 47; on tenure of public office, 57, 113; his connection with the Aroostook War, 135. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Hannay, History of New Brunswick; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Hatheway, George L. T Chief commissioner of the Board of Works, New Brunswick, 86; deserts the government and runs as opposition candidate in York, 86; deserts Anti-Confederates, in 1866, 108.

Haultain, Frederick William Gordon (1857- ). Born in Woolwich, England. Educated at Montreal High School, Peterborough Collegiate Institute, and the University of Toronto. Called to the bar of Ontario, 1882; removed to the North-West Territories and settled at Fort McLeod, 1884. Elected to the North-West Council, 1887, and to the first Territorial Assembly, 1888. Member of the Advisory Council, 1888; Territorial premier, 1897; held office until the formation of the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1905. Bib.: Begg, History of the North-West; Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Haviland, T. H. (1822-1895). Born at Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Studied law and called to the bar of Prince Edward Island, 1846; elected to the Assembly for Georgetown the same year; member of the Legislative Council, 1870; colonial secretary in the provincial government, 1859-1862, 1866-1867, 1870-1872; solicitor-general, 1865; Speaker of the Assembly, 1863-1864; provincial secretary, 1873-1876; called to the Senate, 1873; lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island, 1879. Index: T Delegate from Prince Edward Island to Quebec Conference, 77. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.

Hawke. B His evidence on land grants in Upper Canada, 53-54.

Hay, Charles. Hd Imprisoned on charge of treason, 279.

Hay, Jehu. Hd Lieutenant-governor of Detroit, 158.

Hay, Robert. Mc Generosity of, 505.

Hayes Route. The main route of the fur traders, from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg and the interior. It was adopted at a very early date, the more obvious route by way of Nelson River having proved impracticable. The Hayes route runs up Hayes River to Oxford Lake, and thence by a series of small lakes and rivers over the height of land and down the Echimamish River to Little Playgreen Lake, and Lake Winnipeg. York Factory stands at the Hudson Bay end of the route, and Norway House at the entrance to Lake Winnipeg.

Hazen, John Douglas (1860- ). Born in Oromocto, New Brunswick. Educated at the University of New Brunswick; studied law and called to the bar of New Brunswick, 1883. Alderman of Fredericton and mayor for two years. Elected to the House of Commons for St. John City and County, 1891; but defeated, 1896. Elected to the New Brunswick Assembly for Sunbury, 1899; chosen leader of the opposition in the Assembly; premier and attorney-general, 1908. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Hazen, Moses. Dr Brings news of Arnold's attack on St. Johns, 34. Hd A rebel spy, 130; mentioned by Haldimand in despatch, 132-133.[166]

Hazen, Robert Leonard (1806-1874). Born in St. John, New Brunswick. Studied law and called to the bar, 1832; sat for St. John in New Brunswick Assembly, 1837-1848; in Legislative Council, 1848-1867; member of Executive Council without portfolio, 1844-1854, and again, 1856-1857; called to the Senate, 1867; judge of Vice-Admiralty Court of New Brunswick, 1846-1874. Index: W On responsible government, 63-64; appointed to Executive Council, New Brunswick, 72; resigns, 76; referred to in Wilmot's speech, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110. T Member of Gray-Wilmot ministry, 41. Bib.: Parl. Comp., 1873; Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Hazen's Rangers. WM In battle of the Plains, 257.

Head, Sir Edmund Walker (1805-1868). Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 1830-1837; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 1847; governor-general of Canada, 1854-1861. Afterwards appointed a civil service commissioner and elected governor of the Hudson's Bay Company. Index: Md Calls upon Taché to form ministry, 80; suggests Bytown (Ottawa) as capital, 85. E Succeeds Elgin as governor-general, Dec. 19, 1854, 203; Elgin's opinion of, 208; visits Elgin, 239. B Sends for George Brown to form ministry—relations with, 101-105, 108. R Requests report on separate school question from Ryerson, 234. W On reducing number of judges in New Brunswick, 129, 130; and Wilmot, 131. T Judicial appointments, 31; and Confederation question, 63. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Mackenzie, Hon. George Brown.

Head, Sir Francis Bond (1793-1875). Served in Royal Engineers at Waterloo; travelled in South America, 1825-1826; appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 1835-1837; made privy councillor, 1867. Index: Mc Governor of Upper Canada, states his position on responsible government, 22; Durham says he purposely invited rebellion, 23; his instructions on taking office, 263; makes public a confidential despatch, 280; arrives in Canada, 291; his appointment, 291; states his position, 293; appoints three executive councillors, 294; Council resigns, 294; his views of responsibility, 295; censured by committee of the House, 296; House adopts the report, 297; refuses supplies, 297; he replies to address of deputation, 298; deputation's reply, 300; appoints four new councillors, 300; schooled by Lord Glenelg, 301; joins Family Compact, 302; dissolves the House, 303; refuses assent to money bills, 303; interferes in elections, 304; insults Glenelg, 304; denounces Robert Baldwin, 305; quarrels with imperial commission of inquiry, 305; refuses to obey Lord Glenelg, 307; W. J. Rattray on, 307; his success in the elections, 308; unscrupulous influence in, 309; Lord Durham on, 309; some of his addresses, 313; charged with undue influence in, 313; sustained by partisan House, 314; refuses offer of troops, 353; invites revolt, 354, 355; prepares to escape, 364; sends flag of truce, 368; offers reward for Mackenzie's apprehension, 380; orders burning of property, 381; seeks Mackenzie's extradition, 415. Sy Recall of, 109. BL Comes as governor, 16, 32; his appointment, 35; his character, 36; his arrival in Toronto, 37; relations with the Reformers, 37; appoints Baldwin, Rolph, and Dunn to the Council, 38; their resignation, 41; quarrels with Reform party, 41-42; dissolves Assembly and throws his influence on Tory side in the elections, 41-42; wins the election, 42; his Tory Parliament, 62; attitude towards colonial self-government, 64; Draper a member of his Council, 77; compared to Bagot, 151. R His instructions, 112; his conciliatory promises not fulfilled, 113; end of his administration, 114; advances funds to Upper[167] Canada Academy, 142-143. E An unfortunate choice as governor, 1; and the Upper Canada Rebellion, 22. Bib.: Works: Narrative; The Emigrant; Journeys in the Pampas and Andes; Life of Bruce, the Traveller; Life of Burgoyne. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada and Rebellion of 1837; Dent, Can. Por. and Upper Canadian Rebellion; Lizars, Humours of '37; Fitz Gibbon, A Veteran of 1812; Robinson, Sir John Beverley Robinson; Ryerson, Story of my Life; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development; Durham, Report; Lord Glenelg's Despatches to Sir F.B. Head, London, 1839.

Hearne, Samuel (1745-1792). Came to Fort Prince of Wales on the Hudson's Bay Company's ship Prince Rupert. Under instructions from the Company, and after two abortive attempts, set forth in December, 1770, on his memorable journey to the mouth of the Coppermine River, which he reached in July of the following year. Returning by way of Great Slave Lake, arrived at Fort Prince of Wales in June, 1772. Two years later sent to the Saskatchewan, where he built Cumberland House. On his return in 1775, appointed governor of Fort Prince of Wales, and still in charge when the fort was captured by La Perouse in 1782. Brief accounts of his journey published after his return from the Coppermine, and some of his statements severely criticized by Alexander Dalrymple. The complete account of the expedition did not appear until three years after his death. Index: MS Sent inland by Hudson's Bay Company, 3; discovers Coppermine River and Great Slave Lake, 3, 31; builds Cumberland House, 4; magnitude of his explorations, 31; his guide Matonabee, 32. D His expedition to Coppermine River made on behalf of Hudson's Bay Company, 51; his discoveries known to Alexander Mackenzie, 53. Bib.: Works: Journey from Prince of Wales Fort in Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean, etc., 1769-1772 (Lond., 1795). New ed., edited by J. B. Tyrrell, Champlain Soc., 1910; French trans. by M. Lallemant in 2 vols. (Paris, 1799). Also, abridged in Mavor's collection of Voyages, xxiv, 1-66. Brief accounts of Hearne and his explorations will be found in Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Willson, Great Company; Laut, Pathfinders of the West and Conquest of the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Heath, General William (1737-1814). Dr Commissioner on American side for exchange of prisoners, 208. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Heathfield, George Augustus Eliott, first Baron (1717-1790). Defender of Gibraltar. Index: Hd His marriage, 316. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Heavysege, Charles (1816-1876). Born in Liverpool, England. Came to Canada, 1853. Settled in Montreal, and engaged in his trade of cabinet-making. Afterwards connected with the staff of the Witness. Author of a number of dramas, the most remarkable of which was Saul. Bib.: For his works, see James, Bibliography of Canadian Poetry. For biog., see Burpee, Charles Heavysege (R. S. C., 1901); Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

Hébert, Anne. Eldest daughter of Louis Hébert, Quebec; married to Stephen Jonquest in the autumn of 1617, Father Le Caron officiating. This was the first marriage in New France. Index: Ch Her marriage, 113; her death, 117.

Hébert, Guillaume. Ch Son of Louis, 146.

Hébert, Louis. Came from Paris to Acadia, 1604; mentioned there in 1610, and again in 1613-1614. Returned to France, and in 1617 came to Quebec, becoming the first permanent settler in New France. Died 1627. Index: F First regular settler at Quebec, 16. Ch Consents to accompany Champlain to Canada, 111, 112; a valuable member of the colony, 112; signs complaint of[168] the inhabitants, 136; his family, 146; previous life, 147; death of, 148; a native of Paris, 250; receives fief of Sault au Matelot, 251. Bib.: Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Régime; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Hébert, Guillemette. Ch Wife of Guillaume Couillard, 146.

Hébert, Madame. Ch Mass celebrated in her house on restoration of Quebec, 225.

Heceta, Bruno. Commanded Spanish expedition to North-West Coast, 1775. Index: D Discovers mouth of Columbia, 14, 15. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast.

Helmcken, John Sebastian. Born in England, 1832. Studied medicine and admitted a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, 1848. Appointed surgeon at Vancouver Island by Hudson's Bay Company; first magistrate appointed in the colony. As magistrate stationed at Fort Rupert, where the miners were very unruly. In 1856 elected for Esquimalt district to the first Legislature of the colony; took a very active part in its deliberations; and became Speaker. Member of Executive Council, 1864-1871. Opposed Confederation in 1870. Sent to Ottawa the same year as one of the delegates to negotiate terms of union. Index: D Speaker of first Legislature of Vancouver Island, 210. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Begg, History of British Columbia.

Henderson, Captain. Dr With crews of two war vessels assists in defence of Quebec, 112.

Henderson. WM Private of grenadiers, helps to carry Wolfe off the field, 200.

Hennepin, Louis. Born in Ath, Belgium, about 1640. Entered order of Récollets. Sailed for Quebec, 1675. Stationed at Fort Frontenac, 1676. Accompanied La Salle to the West, 1678. From Fort Crèvecœur (Peoria, Ill.), in 1680, descended the Illinois and explored the upper waters of the Mississippi. Captured by the Sioux and carried to their country. After eight months, rescued by Du Lhut (q.v.), passed the winter at Michilimackinac, and returned to Quebec, 1682. Apparently satisfied with his adventures in the wilderness, returned to Europe, and settled in Holland, where devoted himself to the preparation of a series of narratives of his explorations, real and imaginary. Died there about 1706. Bib.: Works: Description de la Louisiane, etc.; Nouvelle Découverte, etc.; Nouveau Voyage, etc. For biog., and bibliog. details of Hennepin's works, see Thwaites's edition of the New Discovery, 1903. See also Parkman, La Salle.

Henri. Ch Servant of Madame Hébert, murdered by Montagnais Indian, 164.

Henrietta of France, Queen of England. Ch Dowry of, 216.

Henry IV, King of France (1553-1610). Succeeded Henry III in 1589. Index: F Assassination of, 11. Ch Assassinated, 64. Bib.: Chambers, Biog. Dict.

Henry, Alexander, the Elder (1739-1824). One of the pioneer fur traders in north-western America. Born in New Jersey. Entered the fur trade as a young man, 1760, or perhaps earlier. His Travels and Adventures open in that year and describe his experiences in the West for the following sixteen years. Sailed for Europe in 1776, where he made the acquaintance of Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal Society, and had an opportunity of describing his adventures to Marie Antoinette. Afterwards settled in Montreal as a merchant. Index: MS Leaves Montreal for western fur country, 3. Bib.: Travels and Adventures in Canada and the Indian Territories, New York, 1809; new ed., with biog. and other notes, by James Bain, Toronto, 1901. See also Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.[169]

Henry, Alexander, the Younger. Nephew of preceding. Entered service of North West Company about 1792. His Journal, the original manuscript of which is in the Library of Parliament at Ottawa, and which was published in 1897, with introduction and elaborate notes by Elliott Coues, contains an account of his western travels and experiences, 1799 to 1814. Drowned near Fort George, at the mouth of the Columbia, May 22, 1814. Bib.: Works: New Light on the Early History of the Greater North-West; The Manuscript Journals of Alexander Henry and David Thompson, ed. by Elliott Coues, New York, 1897. See also Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Henry, John. Bk His mission to the New England states, 120; use made of his letters, 120; referred to in message of Madison to Congress, 186, 187; sells his letters to United States government, 187. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Henry, Patrick (1736-1799). American statesman. Index: Dr His rhetorical exaggerations, 197. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Henry, William Alexander (1816-1888). H Solicitor-general, Nova Scotia—becomes provincial secretary, 1856, 157; resigns from government, 164; delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 177. T Delegate from Nova Scotia to Charlottetown Conference, 73; and to Quebec Conference, 76. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Herald. Newspaper published at Montreal. Established 1808. Index: BL On debate on responsible government in Legislature, 1841, 94-95.

Herald. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index: BL Account of scene in Parliament, 1842, 126-127.

Herbin. WM Commands the Montreal militia with Prud'homme, 105.

Heriot, George (1766-1844). Born in Island of Jersey. Came to Canada, and appointed a clerk in the ordnance department at Quebec, 1799; deputy postmaster-general of British North America, 1800; and afterwards postmaster-general. Served in the War of 1812; second in command under De Salaberry at Chateauguay; major-general, 1841. Bib.: Works: History of Canada; Travels through the Canadas. For biog., see Cyc. Am. Biog.

Hermione. Bk British war vessel, mutiny of crew, 11.

Hermitage at Caën. L Laval passes three years at, 25.

Hersault, Mme. See Camaret, Marie.

Hertel, François. F Commands Three Rivers war party, 235; his old age, 235; leader in massacre of Salmon Falls, 251; joins De Portneuf in attack on Fort Loyal, 251. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Hertel, Jacques. Ch Interpreter, 144; arrives from France in 1613, 144.

Hertel de Rouville. Dr Appointed judge, 183.

Hervey, William (1732-1815). British soldier. Spent the eight years 1755-1763 in North America. Bib.: Journals of the Hon. William Hervey in North America and Europe from 1765 to 1814, with Order Books at Montreal, 1760-1763.

Hessians. Hd Established near Cataraqui, 265. Dr Applications from, for land grants, 218.

Hey, William. An English lawyer; succeeded William Gregory as chief-justice of Quebec, 1766. Went to England, 1773, in connection with the Quebec Act, and did not return to Canada until 1775. Left Canada finally the same year, having been elected to the British House of Commons for Sandwich, in 1774. Vacated his seat in 1776, and appointed a commissioner of customs. Died, 1797. Index: Dr Chief-justice, not favourable to Walker, 37, 39; called as witness in connection with the Quebec Act, 63; evidence of, before House of Commons, 68; makes strong appeal to British at Montreal, 88. Bib.: Morgan,[170] Cel. Can.; Lucas, History of Canada; Bradley, Making of Canada; Egerton and Grant, Canadian Constitutional Development; Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada.

Hickson, Sir Joseph (1830-1897). Born at Otterburn, England. After some years' practical experience on various English railways, came to Canada, 1862, as chief accountant of the Grand Trunk. Subsequently promoted to the office of secretary of the company; general manager, 1874. Between that year and 1890, when he retired, succeeded in bringing the Grand Trunk to the first rank among the railways of the continent.

Higginson, Captain. Private secretary to Sir Charles Metcalfe. Index: BL His interview with La Fontaine—discusses constitutional government, 172-173, 174, 175, 176.

Highlanders. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 259, 260.

Hill, G. S. W Member for Charlotte, in New Brunswick Assembly, nominates Wilmot for speakership, 66.

Hill, P. C. H Member of first Nova Scotia government after Confederation, 198.

Hincks, Sir Francis (1807-1885). E Appointed inspector-general by Sir Charles Bagot, 31; on Metcalfe, 38; returned in elections of 1848, 50; becomes inspector-general in La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 53; Ryerson's letter to, 90; his capacity for discreet, practical statesmanship, 93; his influence on railway construction, 99, 100; controversy with Howe, 101; his character and influence, 107; forms ministry, 107-108; makes concessions to leaders of Clear Grits, 112; inspector-general in Hincks-Morin ministry, 113; Brown's attitude to, 114; and the Grand Trunk, 115; and the Clergy Reserves, 119; attacked by Garneau, 123; bitterly attacked by Brown, 125; reorganizes government, 125-126; his government defeated, 127; relations with John Sandfield Macdonald, 128; on the appeal to the country in 1854, 133; result of the elections, 133-134; elected in two constituencies, 134; and the speakership in 1854, 135-136; resignation of ministry, 136; leader of the Liberals, 138; supports MacNab-Morin Liberal-Conservative government, 140, 141; visits London, 1852, 156; his views on Clergy Reserves, 163, 165, 166, 196; appointed governor of Barbados, 220; becomes governor of British Guiana, 220, 222; made Commander of the Bath, 222; his retirement from Imperial service, 1869, 222; receives knighthood, 222; returns to Canada, and becomes finance minister in Sir John Macdonald's ministry, 223; his final retirement from public life, 223; his character and his closing years, 223-224; writes his Reminiscences, 224; his death at Montreal, 1885, 224. Sy Publisher of Examiner, advocate of responsible government, 107; supports union of provinces as leading thereto, 212; his attitude on Clergy Reserves question, 247; supports useful legislation introduced by Sydenham, 296; finds Lower Canada Conservatives much more liberal than the "Liberals," 297; disapproves Baldwin's action, 298; a man of more political wisdom than Baldwin, 299; supports Local Government Bill, 323; partially adopts, as finance minister of the Dominion, Sydenham's idea of bank of issue, 330; Sydenham's high opinion of his financial abilities, 333; made inspector-general by Sir Charles Bagot, 333. B On Metcalfe's policy, 18-49; opposed by George Brown—Brown's letters to, 48-49, 54-55; protests against attitude of Derby government in England on Clergy Reserves, 59; his action in legislature, 59; and the University of Toronto Bill, 63; Brown acknowledges his services for responsible government, 67; warns George Brown that the logical conclusion of his course in Parliament was dissolution of the union, 70;[171] his ministry defeated in June, 1854, 77; his retirement—supports MacNab-Morin government, 77; his argument against representation by population, 84; and the fight for responsible government, 261; his brief and troubled reign, 262. BL Associated with Baldwin, 32; born in Cork, Dec. 14, 1807—came to Canada, 1830, 32; early years, 32; his marriage, 34; manager of the Bank of the People, 34; friendship for Baldwin, 34; commercial interests, 34-35; on Head's appointment, 36; secretary of Constitutional Reform Society, 42; took no part in Rebellion of 1837, 44; establishes the Examiner, 58; supports Durham, 58; meets La Fontaine and Morin in Lower Canada, 63; and enters into correspondence with them, 63; elected for Oxford, 69; his address to the electors, 69; his attitude in the Legislature of 1841, 85; explains reasons for supporting Cavillier for speakership—challenges government to a vote, 87; presses government for a statement of policy on question of responsible government, 91; supports Neilson's motion against Union Act, 96; his speech, 96-97; supports government's policy as to public works, 98-99; defends Municipal Government Bill, 102-103; charged with desertion of his party, 102; repudiates charge, 103; explains his position in the Examiner, 104; votes for Municipal Bill, 105; Bagot makes him inspector-general, 118-119; address to his constituents, 119-120; his appointment criticized, 120, 121, 130; moves postponement of debate, 131-132; remains in office in La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 133, 134; Constitutional Society of Orillia recommends his dismissal, 167; on La Fontaine, 170; takes charge of fiscal and commercial legislation in the Assembly, 178-179; contemporary account of him, 178-180; Gowan predicts his dismissal, 187; burnt in effigy at Toronto, 187; his measure for protection of agriculture against competition of United States, 189; supports Baldwin, 214; severs his connection with Examiner, 1842—returns to newspaper work—edits Times, Montreal—establishes Pilot, 217-218; challenged to duel, 218; his letters to London Morning Chronicle, 218, 219, 220; exposes Wakefield's fallacies, 219-220; referred to by George Brown, 224; on Metcalfe, 230; in political controversy, 1844, 238; beaten in Oxford, 253; remains out of Parliament until 1848, 253; protests against election of his opponent, 253; on "double majority," 259; Draper's plan discussed, 261, 262; on Elgin, 275-276; elected for Oxford during his absence in Ireland, 279; inspector-general, 1848, 284; charged with commercial and economic measures in the Legislature, 301; his transportation policy, 301-302; advocates reciprocity, 302; Customs Act, 302; defends Rebellion Losses Bill, 317-318; requests Elgin to assent to Tariff Bill, 321; his house attacked by mob, 324; his letter to the Times, 327-330; strengthens Canada's credit in London market, 331; his letters to Daily Mail, 332; reconstructs the Reform government, 335; on the Reform party, 336; his letters and views on the Clergy Reserves, 347-348; his later career in Canada, Barbados, and Guiana, 358-359; his death, Aug. 18, 1885, 359; his Reminiscences, 359. H Confers with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia representatives on Intercolonial Railway, 142; goes to England to consult Imperial government, 142; quarrels with Sir John Packington, 143; arranges for construction of Grand Trunk Railway, 143; represents British North America at railway celebration, Boston, 1851, 250. R Forms opposition party with Baldwin, La Fontaine, and others, 122; his University Bill, 159-161; his opinion of the Roman Catholic School Bill, 222; and separate schools, 224. C Urges Cartier to enter Cabinet, 22. Mc On Welland canal, 265; befriends Mackenzie, 481; publishes Examiner, 483; his Reminiscences, 483; his estimate of Mackenzie, 484; becomes prime minister, 487. Md Forms ministry with Morin, 1851, 47; finance minister—succeeds Rose, 136;[172] his political attitude, 136; defeated in election, 1872, 197; serves on Ontario Boundary Commission, 255. T Goes to England on Intercolonial mission, 26, 54; becomes minister of finance, 1869, 130; resigns, 133. Bib.: Works: Canada and its Financial Resources; Political History of Canada; Reminiscences of his Public Life. For biog., see Davin, The Irishman in Canada; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

Hind, Henry Youle. Born in Nottingham, England, 1823. Travelled in Mexico, 1846. Came to Canada, 1847, and appointed lecturer in chemistry and natural philosophy at the Toronto Normal School, Toronto. Five years later became professor of chemistry and geology in Trinity College. Geologist to the Red River exploring expedition, 1857; and had charge of the expedition of 1858 to explore the country between Red River and the Saskatchewan. In 1860 carried out an exploration of a portion of Labrador peninsula. In 1854 resigned his chair at Trinity, and undertook a preliminary geological survey of New Brunswick; and in subsequent years carried out similar work for the government of Nova Scotia. In 1876 engaged by the Newfoundland government to report on northern cod banks, but abandoned this work to assist the Canadian government in preparing their case for the Halifax Fisheries Commission. Index: R On staff of Toronto Normal School, 174. Bib.: Works: Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857, and the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Expedition of 1858; Sketch of the Overland Route to British Columbia; Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador Peninsula; Eighty Years' Progress of British North America (by Hind and others). For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can. and Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Hochelaga. An Iroquoian town situated, in 1535, on Montreal Island. The site is now covered by the city of Montreal. Cartier visited the town in the year mentioned, and describes it as encircled by a triple row of palisades, with galleries for the defenders. Within stood some fifty large oblong lodges, each housing several families. In 1603, when Champlain visited the place, nothing remained of the town, and Indians of a different stock occupied the island. Bib.: Cartier, Bref récit, etc.; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Fiske, New France and New England.

Hocquart, Gilles. Intendant of New France. Son of Jean-Hyacinthe Hocquart, chevalier, and seigneur d'Essenlis et de Muscourt. Held for a time the office of commissary of marine, and in 1729 obtained from the king a commission as commissary-general of New France. Arrived at Quebec in 1729; and in 1731 succeeded Dupuy as intendant. After nearly twenty years of service in New France, during which he devoted his energies unselfishly to the welfare of the colony, returned to France in 1748, and for some years filled the office of intendant at Brest. Appointed a councillor of state, 1753. Index: WM Receives Montcalm at Brest, 2. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle France (R. S. C., 1903); Parkman, Half Century of Conflict.

Hodgins, John George (1821- ). Born in Dublin. Came to Canada, 1833. Educated at Upper Canada Academy, Victoria College, and Toronto University. Appointed to department of education of Upper Canada, 1844; secretary of provincial board of education; 1846; deputy superintendent of education, 1855; deputy minister of education, 1876-1889; librarian and historiographer of the education department since 1889. Index: R Graduate of Victoria College, 144; Ryerson's right-hand man, 179, 202; his estimate of children attending school in 1845, 189; objections noted to School Act of 1870-1871, 205; his[173] history of separate schools in Upper Canada, 234; on Ryerson's last days, 295-296. Bib.: Works: Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada; Legislation and History of Separate Schools in Upper Canada. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Hodgson, Sir Robert (1798-1880). Born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Educated at Windsor, Nova Scotia, and called to the bar of Nova Scotia and of Prince Edward Island, 1819. Appointed judge of Probate and attorney-general for Prince Edward Island, 1828; president of the Legislative Council, 1840. Appointed chief-justice, 1852, and judge of the Court of Vice-Admiralty, 1853; resigned both offices to accept the lieutenant-governorship of Prince Edward Island, 1874. Held office until 1879. Died in Charlottetown. Bib.: Campbell, History of Prince Edward Island.

Holdernesse, Robert D'Arcy, fourth Earl of (1718-1778). WM Wolfe's letter to, 166. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Holland. S Surveyor-general, Upper Canada, 178.

Holland. Hd Revolution in places William of Orange at head of affairs, 7. Bk British expedition to, under Duke of York, 13-22.

Holland House. Dr Occupied by Montgomery, 123.

Holmes, B. E. One of leaders of the Liberal party in Lower Canada, 50. Index: BL At farewell banquet to La Fontaine, 1851, 354.

Holmes, Charles (1711-1761). Third in command under Sir Charles Saunders (q.v.) before Quebec, 1759; commander-in-chief in West Indies, 1760-1761. Index: WM In command of second British fleet, 75; commands ships above Quebec, 152; movements of his fleet up and down the river, 160, 163, 171. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Woods, Logs of the Conquest of Canada and The Fight for Canada; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Holton, Luther Hamilton (1817-1880). Entered public life, 1854, as one of the members for Montreal; elected to Legislative Council, 1862; resigned, 1863, and returned to the Assembly as member for Chateauguay, which he represented to the time of his death; accepted portfolio of commissioner of public works in the short-lived Brown-Dorion government, 1858; minister of finance in the Macdonald-Dorion administration, 1863-1864. Index: E Signs Annexation Manifesto, 81; associated with Parti Rouge, 108; adopts less radical views, 134. B Enters George Brown's ministry, 102; Brown's letter to, on Confederation, 131; on English views of Canadian politics, 143; opposed to coalition, 160; opposes Confederation scheme, 185; George Brown takes up question of reciprocity with, 192; Brown urges that he be sent to Washington on reciprocity mission, 192; opposed to Brown entering coalition ministry, 199, 200-203; George Brown writes of his determination to leave public life, 245-246. C Countenances annexation movement in 1849, 44-45. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Mackenzie, Hon. George Brown; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; Confederation Debates.

Holy Family. L Devotion to, encouraged by Laval, 86; commended by Leo XIII, 86.

Holy Scapulary. L Chapel dedicated to, in church at Quebec, 84.

Home Rule in Ireland. Md Resolutions on, in Canadian Parliament, 1882, 277.

Hope, Henry. Lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1785-1789. Index: Dr Lieutenant-governor and administrator, receives Carleton on his arrival at Quebec, 222; death of, 249. Bib.: Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada.[174]

Hopkins, Caleb. B A leader of the Clear Grits, 39. E One of the leaders of the Clear Grits, 110.

Hopson, Peregrine Thomas. Early entered the army and advanced rapidly. Commander-in-chief of Louisbourg, when the place was restored to the French, 1649. Came to Halifax and appointed a member of the Council. Governor of Nova Scotia, 1752; went to England, 1753. Raised to the rank of major general, 1757. Commanded an expedition against the French West India Islands, 1758; died before Guadaloupe, 1759. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Hornwork. WM A strong defence on left bank of St. Charles River, 207; panic among troops crowding into, 207.

Hospital Nuns. WM Take refuge in the General Hospital, 115.

Hosta, Captain d'. F Killed at Laprairie, 312.

Hôtel-Dieu Nuns. WM Take refuge in General Hospital, and render assistance there, 153; return to their convent, 237.

Hoüel, Louis, Sieur du Petit-Pré. Ch Consulted by Champlain as to obtaining missionaries for Canada, 83; assisted in forming Company of New France, 168; made director, 170.

House of Assembly. Hd British government prepared to grant, 174; Haldimand not favourable to, as matters stood, 195. Dr Of Lower Canada, agitation for, by English residents, 55, 60; opposition to by seigniors, 55; indifference of habitants, 55; Carleton's views on, 56; not provided for in Quebec Act, 64; meeting of, 269. W In New Brunswick, early character of, 6.

Houssart. L Devoted servant of Bishop Laval, 251; details furnished by, 251-253.

How, Edward. Member of the Council of Nova Scotia, 1744. Took part in the affair at Mines under Colonel Noble, 1747; severely wounded and taken prisoner, but afterwards exchanged. Confidential agent of the government in dealing with the Indians. Treacherously murdered by Indians, it is said, at the instigation of Le Loutre. Bib.: Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Howard, Joseph. Dr Accused in connection with Walker affair, 36; tried and acquitted, 38.

Howard, Lady Maria. Dr Carleton marries, 75; characteristics of, 77.

Howe, George Augustus, third Viscount (1724-1758). Came to Halifax, 1757, in command of 60th Regiment. Transferred to command of 55th same year, and promoted brigadier-general. Accompanied Abercromby to Lake George, 1758, and fell July 8, while leading his men in a skirmish at Fort Ticonderoga. See Abercromby; Ticonderoga. Index: Hd Killed at Ticonderoga, 18, 21. Bib.: Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, Fight for North America; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Dict. Nat. Biog.

Howe, John. H Father of Joseph Howe; a United Empire Loyalist, 1; his son's tribute to his memory, 1-2, 4; his marriages, 2; becomes king's printer and postmaster-general, 3; educates his son, 3; his character, 4; religious views, 279.

Howe, Joseph (1804-1873). H Born at Halifax, 1804, 1; his father, John Howe, a United Empire Loyalist, 1, 2; his Southampton speech, 1851, 1, 2; his character, 3; his education, 3; a voracious reader, 3; tributes to his father, 2, 4; learns trade of printer, 4; early poems, 5; establishes the Acadian, 6; buys Nova Scotian, 6; extends its influence, 7; his Rambles, 8; his marriage, 8; The Club, 9; friendship for Haliburton, 10; political writings, 10,11; develops Liberal principles, 19, 20; attacks Halifax magistrates[175] in his paper, 20; sued for libel, 1835, 21; pleads his own case, 22-25; his address to jury, 25-28; wins case, 28; elected to represent Halifax in Legislature, 1836, 29; his principles of government, 29-31; physical and mental characteristics, 31-33; his moral courage, 33; in Legislature, 1837, 36-44; debate on the resolutions, 41; moves address to crown, praying for responsible government, 45; his speech in Legislature, 1838, 47; advocates constitutional reform, but opposed to rebellion, 50, 51; his patriotic action in Maine boundary dispute, 52, 53; letters to Lord John Russell, 54, 55; his political principles, 59; moves want of confidence in Executive Council, 62; moves address to queen praying for recall of Sir Colin Campbell, 66; meets Poulett Thompson, 68; invited to a seat in the Council, 69; defends his action in accepting office, 72-73; re-elected for Halifax, 73; becomes Speaker of the House, 74; appointed collector of customs at Halifax, 74; resigns speakership, 75; question of ministerial responsibility, 75-76; his quarrel with the Baptists, 77-78; advocates compulsory education, 79-80; and a central, undenominational college, 82; the election of 1843, 84-85; resigns from the Cabinet, 86-87; attacks Lord Falkland through the newspapers, 90; assumes editorial management of the Nova Scotian and Morning Chronicle, 90; his first editorial, 91; described by Annand, 92; he lampoons Falkland in verse, 93; political tour of the province, 94; his speech at Cornwallis, 95-96; complimentary addresses, 96-97; speeches in the Legislature, 1845, 97-98; attacks Falkland in Legislature, 100-101; justifies his action in letter to his constituents, 101-102; again offered seat in the Council, 103; declines the offer, 104; moves his family from Halifax to Musquodoboit, 104-105; wins the election of 1847, 106-107; his character, 109; becomes provincial secretary in Uniacke government, 111; secures responsible government for Nova Scotia, 113; his reply to the manifesto of the British American League, 114-115; advocates railway from Halifax to Windsor, in 1835, 117; 120-121; favourable to government ownership of railways, 120, 123; sails for England to explain Intercolonial Railway project to the government, 125; his letters on the subject to Earl Grey, 125-126; his Southampton speech, 1851, 127-128; obtains Imperial guarantee of railway, 130-132; secures co-operation of New Brunswick and Canada, 134-138; predicts transcontinental railway, 135; given public dinners at Toronto and Montreal, 138; elected for Cumberland County, 1851, 139-141; brings down railway measures, 141; Intercolonial scheme blocked, 141-143; reverts to his original policy of building railways in Nova Scotia as a government work, 143; raises a provincial loan in England, 144; railway measures passed by Legislature, 145; becomes chief commissioner of railways, 146; visits United States to secure recruits for British army, 151-155; defeated by Tupper in Cumberland, 1855, 156; returned by acclamation for Hants County, 1856, 157-158; his open letter to Gladstone, 159; attacks Irish Roman Catholics, 160-162; results in defeat of government, 163-167; Liberals returned to power in 1859, 168; and Howe becomes premier, 169; appointed fishery commissioner for carrying out provisions of Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, 170; defeated, with his party, in election of 1863, 171; opposes Confederation, 173; an Imperial federationist, 174; declines to take part in Charlottetown Conference, 1864, 177; offered editorship of New York Albion, 182-183; his articles against Confederation, 186, 189; outlines grounds of his opposition, 190-191; continues the fight in London, 192; correspondence with W.J. Stairs, 192-197; works up Anti-Confederation sentiment in Nova Scotia, 199; his Bridgetown meeting, 200-202; sweeps the province in both Dominion and Provincial elections, 202; fight for repeal of the union, 203; meets Tupper in[176] London, 205; hesitates as to further agitation for repeal, 207-210; rebukes Acadian Recorder for suggesting violence to Sir John Macdonald, 210-212; meets Macdonald at Halifax, 213; correspondence with Macdonald, 215-216; interview with Annand, 217-218; refuses overtures of repealers, 219-223; conference at Portland with A.W. McLellan, and Sir John Rose, 223-224; enters Dominion Cabinet, 1868, 225; re-elected in Hants, 226; visits Winnipeg, 1869, 227; correspondence in relation to Red River Rebellion, 227; his character as a statesman contrasted with that of Sir John Macdonald, 228-229; becomes lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1873, 229; visits England and the continent, 1838, 231; advocates ocean steamship service, 232-235; challenged by Dr. Almon, 236; and by John C. Haliburton, 236; justifies acceptance of the challenge in letter to his sister, 237-241; the duel, 241-242; letters to his wife and to the people of Nova Scotia, 242-244; Sir Rupert D. George's challenge, 244; his practical interest in the Micmacs, 245; opposes prohibition, 248-250; his speech at Boston, 1851, 250; his tribute to Edward Everett in 1857, 251; his Detroit speech of 1865 on trade relations, 252-254; acts as member of Prince Edward Island Land Grants Commission, 254-255; as a man of letters, 257-270; his poems, 260-268; oration at Shakespeare tercentenary, 264; his friendship for Haliburton, 267; his social qualities, 271; secret of his popularity, 272-274; his influence upon public men and public life, 277-278; his religious views, 279-280; his family, 282; as governor of Nova Scotia, 283-284; his death, 284; funeral, 285-286; estimate of his public work, 287-290; opposed to Pacific Railway policy in 1872, 299-300. E A consistent advocate of British connection, 22; on parliamentary government, 51, 90; the father of responsible government in the Maritime Provinces, 92; a constitutional agitator, 92; accuses Hincks of breach of faith in Intercolonial Railway scheme, 101; on Imperial honours and offices for distinguished colonials, 221; becomes lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 221; a constructive statesman, 236. B In Dominion government—relations with Sir John Macdonald, 203. Sy Advocates responsible government, 107, 257; approves of Sydenham's propositions, 261; editor of Nova Scotian, 110. T Goes to England in Intercolonial matter, 55; second mission to England, 57; advocates Confederation, 62, 63; discusses tariff with Tilley, 70, 71; quoted for and against Confederation, 117. Bib.: Works: Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe, ed. by Chisholm; Poems and Essays. For biog., see Fenety, Life and Times of Joseph Howe; Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia; Dent, Can. Por.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Howe, William, Viscount (1729-1814). Brother of George Augustus, Viscount Howe (q.v.), and Admiral Lord Howe. Commanded light infantry under Wolfe at Quebec, 1759. Succeeded Gage as commander-in-chief in America, 1775. Commanded forces at Bunker Hill. Defeated Washington at White Plains, 1776, and at Brandywine, 1777. Recalled, 1778. Became governor of Berwick, and later of Plymouth. Index: Hd Replaces Gage as commander-in-chief, 110; his estimate of Loyalists, 268. Dr Orders reinforcements to Quebec, 92; abandons Boston and occupies New York, 160; his weak conduct of campaign, 160; Germain's neglect to inform him of his plan of campaign, 172. WM Calls for volunteers for first landing at Wolfe's Cove, 176; captures posts at Samos and Sillery, 183. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Rhodes, History of the United States.

Howland, Sir William Pearce (1811-1907). Born at Paulings, New York. Came to Canada in 1830. Represented West York in the Legislature, 1857-[177]1868. Member of Macdonald-Sicotte ministry, 1862, as minister of finance; receiver-general, 1863-1864; postmaster-general, 1864-1866; minister of finance, 1866-1867. Minister of inland revenue in first Dominion Cabinet, 1867. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1868; retired, 1873; knighted, 1879. Index: Md Minister of inland revenue in first Dominion Cabinet, 134; defends his political attitude, 137; becomes lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 138; heads syndicate offering to build Canadian Pacific Railway, 237. B Presents address to Elgin, 36; his connection with reciprocity negotiations in 1865, 193-196; defends his action in remaining in coalition ministry after Confederation, 202, 209; becomes lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 202. T Invited to join first Dominion ministry, 128; minister of inland revenue, 129. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men; Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada.

Howe's Pass. See Howse Pass.

Howse Pass. In Rocky Mountains; source of North Saskatchewan River. Discovered by Duncan McGillivray, 1800. Named after Joseph Howse, of the North West Company. Index: D Its discovery, 58.

Hubert, Jean François. Bishop of Quebec, 1788-1797. Index: Dr Bishop of Quebec, his views on education, 227, 228; recognizes reasonableness of not permitting priests to be brought from France, 257.

Hubou, Guillaume. Ch Early settler, remains in Quebec during English occupation, 196, 208.

Huddy, Captain Joshua. Dr Hanging of, 198.

Hudson, Henry. Made four notable voyages: the first, in 1607, for the Muscovy Company, in search of a north-eastern passage to China; the second, in 1608, for the same Company, and in search of the same passage; the third, in 1609, at the expense of the Dutch East India Company, begun, like the two former, in search of a north-eastern passage, but changed to a quest of a north-western passage; the fourth, in 1610, in search of a north-western passage, the expense borne by three English gentlemen. In his first voyage, explored the coast of Spitzbergen; in the second, part of Nova Zembla; in the third, the Hudson River; and in the last, Hudson Strait and part of the bay. Wintered, 1610-1611, at the foot of James Bay, and on the return voyage was set adrift with eight companions in a small boat, and never again heard of. Bib.: Asher, Henry Hudson, the Navigator; Read, Historical Enquiry concerning Henry Hudson; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West. See also bibliog. list in Asher.

Hudson Bay. Explored by Henry Hudson, 1610, and named after him. Explored by Sir Thomas Button, 1612; Jens Munk, 1619; Foxe and James. 1631. In 1668 the first trading-ship of the Hudson's Bay Company entered the bay, and their first fort was built at the mouth of Rupert River. Index: F English claim to, disputed by France, 204; La Barre instructed to check English encroachments in, 205; expedition under De Troyes captures English forts, 205; Iberville's exploits in, 342-350; English possessions in, restored by peace of Ryswick, 349. L Expedition against English forts in, 204; later exploits of Iberville in, 233. Bib.: Asher, Henry Hudson, the Navigator; Gosch, Expedition of Jens Munk; Christy, Voyages of Foxe and James; Coats, Geography of Hudson's Bay; Robson, Account of Six Years' Residence in Hudson's Bay; Dobbs, Account of Countries Adjoining Hudson's Bay; Gordon, Report on Hudson's Bay Expedition; Wakeham, Second Hudson Bay Expedition; Low, Expedition to Hudson Bay; Berrier, Report on Expedition to Arctic Islands; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. [178]See also General Indexes to Reports of Geol. Survey; Henry Hudson; Hudson's Bay Company.

Hudson's Bay Company. Organized by a number of English gentlemen, who sent out a trading expedition to Hudson Bay, in the Nonsuch, in 1668. This initial venture proved so successful that two other ships were sent out in 1670; and the same year King Charles granted a charter incorporating them as "The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay." For many years the operations of the Company were confined to the shores of Hudson Bay, but the pressure of competition eventually forced them inland, and at the height of their power they had established trading-posts from Labrador to the Pacific, and from California almost to the Arctic. In 1821, the rival North West Company (q.v.) was absorbed; and in 1869 the company surrendered to Canada its territorial rights in British North America. Index: F 203; trading done and posts established by, 204; redress claimed by, for losses inflicted by the French, 343. Dr Its territory not included in Canada, 7. B Deputation of Red River settlers sent to England to complain of misgovernment by, 212; Gladstone admits charter of Company not valid, 212; Globe on company's misgovernment of North-West Territories, 213-214; attacked in series of letters in the Globe, signed "Huron," 215-216; Toronto Board of Trade on, 216; George Brown on, 219; Canada takes over North-West Territories, and compensates Company therefor, 220-221. MS Early policy of, 1; attitude of natives to, 2; opposition of Montreal traders (afterwards North West Company), 2, 3; sends Hearne inland, 3; averse to conflict with North West Company, 5; builds posts in Assiniboine and Red River country, 5, 6; absorbs North West Company, 8; policy towards natives, 51; sends George Clarke to explore, 56; his incompetence, 56; then sends Philip Turner, 1791, 56; legal basis of its title, 143-145; Selkirk purchases tract of land in Red River valley, 146; Parliamentary Report of 1857, 212; union of the Companies, 213-214; takes over management of Selkirk colony, 222; establishes Council of Assiniboia, 223; notable leaders after the union of the Companies, 220-223; its influence on side of government, in Rebellion of 1837, 242; its license to trade renewed, 271; the Report of 1857, 271; opposition to further renewal, 271; evidence taken by committee, 272-278; committee's report, 279; defended by Sir George Simpson before Parliamentary committee, 272-278. D Influence upon development of Pacific coast, 4; operations typical of British colonial policy, 11; established in the interior, 12; conserves British interests in Western America, 17, 18; charged with neglecting to search for route to Pacific, 51; absorbs North West Company, 1821, 73, 93; birth of, 73; provisions of its charter, 73-74; its trade and explorations, 74; its organization, 75-76; its Western department, 76-77; trade routes, 77-78; its farms on Puget Sound, etc., 78; grist mills and other enterprises, 78; supplies Russians with flour, etc., 78; opens coal mines on Vancouver Island, 78; influence of these industries on settlement, 79; treatment of Indians, 79-81; trading-posts, 82; brigades and "York boats," 82; famous officers of, 83-86; ambitious designs on Pacific coast and beyond, 114; attempt to establish post on Stikine River, 119-120; permission obtained from Russians to build post on Taku River, 121; operations on Liard and Yukon, 123-125; invades California before 1830, 126; builds post at junction of Sacramento and Jesus Maria rivers, 126; establishes post on San Francisco Bay, 127; sells post and retires from San Francisco Bay, 127; meets competition of American traders and companies, 134-136; attitude towards Oregon settlers, 143-144; license to trade of 1821 renewed in 1838, 191; its provisions, 192;[179] acquires Vancouver Island, 194; attitude towards settlement there, 194-195; quarrels with settlers, 198-199; Report of Committee, 1857, 201-202; license to trade in British Columbia revoked, 1858, 229; relations towards British Columbia government, 1858, 233-234; Douglas's relation towards, 263; defends its policy, 264-265; officers of Company at Victoria, 265; influence with natives, 266-267; builds first Protestant church at Victoria, 1855, 269. C Cartier and MacDougall sent to England by Canadian government in 1869 to negotiate purchase of Company's territories in North-West, 68; Company asks exorbitant price, 68; persuaded by Lord Grey to accept £300,000, 68. Bk Its voyageurs assist in capture of Michilimackinac, 210. Md Its claims investigated, 83; terms upon which it agreed to transfer to the crown its rights to North-West Territories, 156; protest against unauthorized proceedings in Red River Settlement, 157. See North-West Company; X Y Company; Fur Trade; Selkirk. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Willson, Great Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Romantic History of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; Ross, Red River Settlement; Hargrave, Red River; Begg, History of the North-West.

Huet, Paul. Ch Récollet missionary, 87; sails for Canada as assistant commissary, 112; accompanies Champlain to France, 116; returns to Canada, 116; goes to Three Rivers, 149.

Huguenots. Ch Had larger share of trade, 110; proposal to exclude, 110; disagreements with Récollet missionaries, 150; their psalm-singing on board ship objected to, 156; fanaticism of, 224; their doubtful loyalty, 254; not permitted to settle in Canada, 255.

Hugues. L Priest, comes to Canada, 41.

Hull, William (1753-1825). Born in Derby, Conn. Educated at Yale University, and called to the bar, 1775. Served with distinction during the Revolutionary War; major-general of militia in Massachusetts and a member of the federal Senate; appointed governor of Michigan, 1805; commander of the north-western army of the United States, 1812. Surrendered Detroit to General Brock, 1812; tried by court-martial, and sentenced to be shot; sentence commuted. Resided at Newton, Mass., until his death. Index: Bk Marches north, 203; crosses Detroit River and occupies Sandwich, 208, 213; his proclamation to the people of Canada, 213, 217, 235; his baggage and stores captured, 218; his supplies under Major Van Horne captured, 237; re-crosses river to Detroit, 238; summoned to surrender, and refuses, 251; surrenders with his whole army, 255; sent to Montreal as prisoner of war, 261, 265; released on parole, 283; makes bad impression on English officers, 283; court-martialled, sentenced to death, but sentence remitted, 283, 284. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Campbell, Life and Services of General William Hull; Cruikshank, General Hull's Invasion of Canada in 1812 (R. S. C., 1907-1908).

Humbert. W Candidate in St. John County, opposes responsible government, 64.

Hume, Joseph (1777-1855). Born at Montrose, Scotland. Studied medicine; entered the service of the East India Company, 1797; returned to England, 1808. Entered Parliament, 1812, but on account of his independent principles compelled to resign his seat. Again elected, 1818, and continued a member of the House of Commons until his death. A strong Radical in his opinions and effected many useful reforms. Index: BL Correspondence with Mackenzie and Papineau, 229. Mc Lays Mackenzie's petition before the House, 222; presents case against Upper Canadian officials, 231; suggests independence[180] of Canada, 250; his "baneful domination" letter, 262-263; thanked by Mackenzie, 289; predicts civil war, 326; letter to Mackenzie, on the Rebellion, and question of amnesty, 475-479; urges amnesty for Mackenzie, 480. Sy An associate of Sydenham's, 13; proposes reduction of corn duties, 39; his speech on union resolutions in House of Commons, 122. B Attacks Metcalfe's policy, 23. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Humphreys, Captain. Bk Captain of Leopard, fires on Chesapeake, 83.

Hundred Associates. See Company of New France.

Hundredth Regiment. Bk Quartered in Quebec and Montreal, 74; disaster to, by shipwreck, 74.

"Hungry Year." S Year 1787, so called from failure of harvest, 65, 69.

Hunt, Thomas Sterry (1826-1892). Born in Norwich, Conn. Came to Canada, 1847, at the invitation of Sir William E. Logan, to accept the position of chemist and mineralogist to the Geological Survey, which he held until 1872. Also occupied the chair of chemistry in Laval University, 1856-1862; and in McGill University, 1862-1868. In 1872 professor of geology in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Author of several scientific works, and a large number of papers contributed to learned societies and scientific periodicals. Died in New York. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Hunter, Peter (1746-1805). Bk Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada and commander of forces in British North America, 45; calls attention of home government to lack of proper accommodation for provincial government and Legislature, 50; a Scotsman, previously governor of Barbados, 51; death of, 69. Bib.: Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada; Rattray, The Scot in British North America.

Hunter. Bk British sloop, her boats capture United States schooner Cayahoga, with stores of General Hull, 218.

Hunter, Captain of. WM Obtains information as to movements of French provision boats, 172.

Hunters' Lodges. Mc Convention of, 440; attack on Prescott, 442.

Hunting Permits. F Issue of, sanctioned, 125; number to be issued annually limited, 128; issue of, becomes a form of patronage, 129.

Huntington, Herbert. H Appointed to Executive Council, Nova Scotia, 47; sent as delegate to England, to urge concession of responsible government, 51, 56; candidate for speakership, 1843, 75; advocates non-sectarian education, 82; member of Uniacke government, 110; finance minister, 112; acts as Joseph Howe's second in duel, 236. Bib.: Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Huntington, Lucius Seth (1827-1886). Born at Compton, Quebec. Studied law, and engaged in journalism, in the Eastern Townships. Elected to the Legislature for Shefford, 1861; solicitor-general, 1863-1864. Advocated independence of Canada. Became president of the Council, in the Mackenzie government, 1874-1875; and postmaster-general, 1875-1878. Defeated for Shefford, 1882, and retired from public life. Died in New York. Index: C Brings charges against government in connection with Pacific Scandal, 53. Md Prefers his charges in the House of Commons, 201-203. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Buckingham and Ross, Alexander Mackenzie; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party.

Huot, P. G. C One of the leaders of the Quebec Liberals, 24.

Huron Indians. Name applied by the French to a confederacy of four Iroquoian tribes. When French missionaries and explorers first went among them,[181] they occupied the country about Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay. They had been at enmity with the Iroquois for many years, and had repeatedly ravaged their country. Finally the Iroquois determined to make an end of the Hurons. They invaded their country in force in 1648, and in 1650 had destroyed all their villages, killed most of the inhabitants, and driven the remnant far to the westward. A few of the Hurons escaped to Quebec, and settled at the mission of Lorette. In the seventeenth century their population was estimated at from 20,000 to 35,000. In 1905 there remained a total of 832, in Canada and the United States. Index: F Destruction of, by Iroquois, 26, 35; join Frontenac's expedition to Cataraqui, 79; dread being abandoned to Iroquois, 222. L Extermination of, by the Iroquois, 39; devotion displayed by a band of, 64; desert Dollard at Long Sault, 70; burnt by their enemies, 72. Ch Champlain visits country of, 88; their cultivation of the soil, 89; their language very widely spoken, 90; their mode of life, 94; customs and beliefs, 95-100. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians; Parkman, Old Régime.

Huron, Lake. Area 23,200 square miles. Discovered by Le Caron, 1615, and first seen by Champlain the same year. The route of missionaries, explorers, and fur traders lay along the north shore of the lake, or the south shore of Manitoulin Island, to Michilimackinac and Sault Ste. Marie, at the western end.

Huskisson, William (1770-1830). British statesman. Index: Sy Criticizes British commercial policy, 12; president of Board of Trade, 15; colonial secretary, 16; resigns, 16; commends Poulett Thomson's speech on Navigation Acts, 17; his proposals in regard to silk industry, 18; death of, 25. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Hutcheson, Major. Hd Haldimand's secretary, 108, 110, 112; in charge of Louis Haldimand, at Boston, 294.

Hutchinson, Richard. T Of Miramichi, member of Smith government, New Brunswick, represents lumber interests, 91, 92.

Hutchinson, Thomas (1711-1780). Hd Governor of Massachusetts, quoted, 84. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d' (1661-1706). Third son of Charles Le Moyne, Sieur de Longueuil. Entered the French navy, returning to Canada in 1683. Three years later accompanied De Troyes in the expedition against the English on Hudson Bay, and took part in the capture of Moose Factory, Fort Rupert, and Albany. Returned to Quebec in 1687; and the following year was again on the bay. In 1689 captured the Hampshire, and brought her to Quebec with her cargo of furs. In 1690 took part in the raid on Schenectady; and the same year captured Fort Severn on Hudson Bay. In 1694 sailed to the bay with a French fleet, and captured Fort Nelson. Two years later captured Pemaquid; and, sailing to Newfoundland, captured St. John's and raided the villages along the coast. In 1697 again sailed to Hudson Bay, defeated a superior fleet, and recaptured Fort Nelson. The following year sailed from Brest in command of an expedition to discover the mouth of the Mississippi and plant a colony there, in both of which he was successful. The remaining years of his life spent in building up the colony of Louisiana. Index: F Accompanies expedition to Hudson Bay, 206; joins war party against Schenectady, 235; arrives from Hudson Bay with two captured vessels, 325; takes Fort Pemaquid, 331; exploits in Hudson Bay, 342-350; sails for France, and returns with two French ships, 343; captures Fort Nelson, 345; sails for[182] France, 346; attacks English settlements in Newfoundland, 346; takes St. John's, 347; in his ship Pelican successfully engages three English vessels, 349; sails for France, 349. L Commands expedition against English in Hudson Bay, 204; his exploits in Newfoundland and Hudson Bay, 232; subsequent services and death of, 233. Bib.: Reed, First Great Canadian; Parkman, Half Century of Conflict; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Régime; Desmazures, Histoire du Chevalier d'Iberville; Gayarre, History of Louisiana; Margry, Découvertes des Français; Wallace, Louisiana under the French; Martin, History of Louisiana; Bacqueville de la Potherie, Histoire de l'Amérique Septentrionale; Jerémie, Relation du Detroit et de la Baye d'Hudson (Bernard, Recueil de Voiages au Nord). See also bibliography at the end of Reed's work.

Ihonatiria. Ch Jesuit mission to Hurons founded at, 228.

Île à la Crosse. Lake and trading-post. The lake is on the upper waters of the Churchill River, in about long. 108°. Its name is derived from the Indian game of lacrosse, which was very popular there. The first trading-post was built on a peninsula on the western side of the lake by Thomas Frobisher in 1776. Other forts were built there later by the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, the lake being a strategic point in the western fur trade.

Île-aux-Coudres. On north shore of the St. Lawrence, above Murray Bay. Index: WM Arrival of British advance squadron at, 83; camp established on, 89; capture by Canadians of two British officers on, 89.

Île-aux-Noix. WM Fortified post on Lake Champlain frontier, 146, 158, 233.

Île Jésus. At the junction of the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence. Index: L Seigniory of Beaupré exchanged by Laval for, 58; obtained by Laval in exchange for Island of Orleans, 138.

Île Percé. L Récollet mission at, 111.

Île Royale. A large island in Lake Superior, United States territory. Mentioned in Carver's Travels and other early narratives.

Illinois Indians. Of Algonquian stock. First mentioned in the Jesuit Relation of 1660 as living south-west of Green Bay. They ranged throughout the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi, and down the west bank of that river as far as the Des Moines; and have been described by Allouez, Marquette, Hennepin, Rasles, and other early French explorers. Harassed on one side by the Sioux and Foxes, and on the other by the Iroquois, their numbers were reduced from six or eight thousand, at the end of the seventeenth century, to less than two thousand about 1750. The murder of Pontiac by one of their warriors brought upon them a war of extermination. To-day only a handful remain, in Oklahoma. Index: F Allies of the French against the Iroquois, 144. L La Salle forms alliance with, 148. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Immaculate Conception. L Church at Quebec placed under patronage of, 85. Ch Church of Notre Dame de la Recouvrance consecrated under name of, 240; feast of, observed by people of Quebec, 240.

Immigration. Mc To colonies in 1820, state of, 88. See also Irish Immigrants.

Imperial Conference. Held in London, 1887. Canada was represented by Sir Alexander Campbell and Sandford Fleming. Among the questions discussed were those of inter-Imperial defence and trade, the Pacific cable, etc. Another conference was held in Ottawa in 1894 (see Colonial Conference, 1894); and another in London in June, 1896, Canada being represented by Sir Mac[183]kenzie Bowell and Sandford Fleming. At an adjourned meeting in October, 1896, Sir Donald Smith and Hon. A.G. Jones represented the Dominion, Mr. Fleming being present in an advisory capacity. On the occasion of Queen Victoria's diamond jubilee, 1897, another conference was held in London, Joseph Chamberlain presiding, and the self-governing colonies being represented by their premiers. Again, in 1902, the colonial premiers met in London, under the presidency of Joseph Chamberlain. The London Conference of 1907, presided over by Lord Elgin, discussed various Imperial questions, but was chiefly memorable because of the decision to hold similar meetings every four years, and to provide a permanent bureau at London devoted specifically to the interests of the Empire.

Imperial Federation. Advocated by Thomas Pownall, governor of Massachusetts Bay, in 1764. He proposed a scheme by which "Great Britain may be no more considered as the Kingdom of this Isle alone, with many appendages of provinces, colonies, settlements, and other extraneous parts, but as a grand marine dominion, consisting of our possessions in the Atlantic and in America united into one Empire." Subsequently proposed by Joseph Howe, in 1855, and again in 1863; also by Thomas Chandler Haliburton and other Canadian statesmen and writers. Index: B Elgin's conception of, 33; advocated by Edward Blake, 240. H Joseph Howe a pioneer in the movement for, 174. Bib.: Denison, Struggle for Imperial Unity; Macphail, Essays in Politics; Brassey, Imperial Federation and Colonization; Ewart, Kingdom of Canada, Imperial Federation, etc.; Parkin, Imperial Federation; Young, A Pioneer of Imperial Federation in Canada; Milner, Speeches in Canada; The Empire and the Century; Argyll, Imperial Federation.

Imperial Federation League. Formed in Canada at a meeting in Montreal, in May, 1885. A conference to the same end had been held in London, in July, 1884. The league in Canada changed its name, in 1896, to the British Empire League in Canada, at the suggestion of Sir Charles Tupper. See Denison.

Incarnation, Marie de L'. See Marie de L'Incarnation.

Inches, Dr. T Attends Sir Leonard Tilley in his last illness, 145.

Independence. B George Brown writes Macdonald of widespread sentiment in England in 1864 in favour of British American colonies securing complete autonomy, 167; and the Canada First party, 236, 237, 238, 239; advocated by Goldwin Smith, 238, 239. P Advocated by Papineau, 167. Mc Declaration of, July, 1837, its history, 330; work of Rolph and O'Grady, 330; object of Association of Canadian Refugees, 449.

Indians. Ch Superstitions of, 10, 12; council held to consider best policy to adopt in dealing with them, 108-111; murders committed by, 115; their great esteem for Champlain, 159; difficulty of educating their children, 233. S Their general friendliness to Upper Canada settlers, 62; their good conduct rewarded, 62; lands allotted to on Grand River, 74; schools and churches provided for, 74; Simcoe's estimate of, 75; engagements made with, faithfully kept, 76; their lands encroached upon by Americans, 119; their defeat of expedition under St. Clair, 121; great council of, 122, 124; failure of negotiations with American commissioners, 123-125. WM Generally friendly to France, 17; appearance of, on field of battle, 31; swell army of Montcalm at Fort Carillon, 38; their habits in camp, 39; Christian Indians different from the pagans, 39; attack British boats, 40; general meeting of, called by Montcalm, 40-42; repulse British force on left bank of Montmorency, 129; scalp the wounded after battle, 142; paid well for prisoners, but less amount for[184] scalps, 150; fly from battlefield, 202; form part of Lévis's army, 245; in battle of Ste. Foy, 265. Hd Their lands secured by treaty, 12; allies of the French, 13, 16, 21; help Pouchot at Niagara, 25; Sir William Johnson's following of, 28, 29; irregular traffic with, prohibited, 32, 54; fears of an uprising among, 55; impressed by enlistment of French-Canadians under British flag, 57; in Florida, 66, 71, 73; Haldimand's treatment of, 91-93, 131, 145, 146, 147, 150, 153, 157, 258-259, 266, 347; uncertain allies, 126, 137, 170, 260; rebels try to gain for France, 127-128, 134, 136, 279; indignant at terms of peace between Britain and colonies, 256-257; American cruelty towards, 307. F Menacing attitude of, 17; defrauded by traders, 18, 154; not readily receptive of Christian doctrine, 167. Dr Those with Burgoyne worse than useless, 178; ignored in treaty of peace between Britain and American colonies, 231; their lands invaded by frontiersmen, 233; attacked by American troops, 234; trouble with western tribes, 249, 262, 276. L Violent effects of intoxicating liquor upon, 36, 37; three of the nations sue for peace, 53; conversion of, very precarious, 62; difficult to civilize them, 63, 126; sincere devotion of many, 64. See Abnaki; Algonquian; Cree; Creek; Delaware; Déné; Etchemin; Huron; Illinois; Iroquois; Micmac; Ottawa; Tête de Boule. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians; Brinton, The American Race; Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States; Catlin, Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians; Drake, Aboriginal Races of North America; Lafitau, Mœurs des Sauvages Amériquains; Maclean, Canadian Savage Folk; Morgan, Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines; Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes of the United States.

Indian Department. S In Upper Canada, independent of the governor, 126-127.

Indian Posts in West. Dr Temporary retention of, by Great Britain, 231.

Inflexible. Dr Largest vessel of flotilla on Lake Champlain, 154.

Inglis, Charles (1734-1816). Born in Ireland. Emigrated to America; taught school in Pennsylvania for a time, and then took holy orders. In 1764 became assistant to Dr. Auchmuty, rector of Trinity Church, New York, and in 1777 succeeded him as rector. His sympathies being with the mother country, removed to Nova Scotia after the Revolution, and thence to England. First bishop of Nova Scotia, with jurisdiction over practically all British North America, 1787. One of the notable events of his episcopate was his establishment of King's College, Windsor. In 1793 his huge diocese divided by the creation of the diocese of Quebec, of which Jacob Mountain (q.v.) became first bishop. Index: Dr Appointed bishop of Nova Scotia with jurisdiction over Quebec, 241. Bib.: Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland.

Inglis, John. MS Opposes sale by Hudson's Bay Company of land in Red River valley to Selkirk, 146.

Ingraham, Captain. D Explores coast of Queen Charlotte Islands in 1791, 25; describes geography and natural history of the islands and language, manners, and customs of the natives, 25.

Innocent XI, Pope (1611-1689). Benedetto Odescalchi; elected pope, 1676. Index: L Misunderstanding with Louis XIV, 20.

Institut Canadien. A literary and scientific society, founded at Montreal in 1844, and incorporated in 1852. It included among its early members most of the leaders of the more progressive and independent element in Quebec political life, among them A. A. Dorion, Eric Dorion, Joseph Doutre, Rodolphe Laflamme, and Wilfrid Laurier. The success of the parent society led to the[185] founding of similar Instituts throughout the province. Although popular among the laity, these societies encountered the determined opposition of the Roman Catholic Church, led by Bishop Bourget of Montreal. The outside societies yielded to clerical pressure, but the Montreal Institut stood upon its rights. The fight went on for many years, but finally most of the Roman Catholic members dropped out, and the books and papers were transferred to the Fraser Institute. Bib.: Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party.

Intendant. An office created originally by Richelieu, in France, and transferred to New France. The first intendant of Canada was Robert, appointed in 1663, who was succeeded two years later by the ablest occupant of the office, Jean Talon. The intendant was charged with the supervision of practically all the civil affairs of the colony, including the administration of justice, but his most important function, from the point of view of the court, was to act as a virtual spy upon the acts of the governor. Inevitably, harmony was impossible between these two officials, and the history of New France is punctuated with their perpetual quarrels. Index: F Jean Talon appointed as, 51; office revived, 105; Jacques Duchesneau appointed, 108; Jacques de Meulles, 171; Jean Bochart de Champigny, 207. See also under names of individual intendants. Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle France (R. S. C., 1903); Parkman, Old Régime; Munro, The Office of Intendant in New France in The American Historical Review, October, 1906.

Intendant's Palace. Bk In Quebec, completely destroyed in siege of 1775, 90.

Intemperance. S A prevailing vice in Upper Canada, 71, 72. See Liquor question; Brandy question.

Intercolonial Railway. Surveys proposed by the government of Canada in 1863. Three engineers were to be appointed, one by the Imperial government, one by Canada, and one by the Maritime Provinces. They all nominated the same man, Sandford Fleming, by whom the surveys were accordingly carried out. The railway was made a condition of the union of the Maritime Provinces with Canada, and the work of construction was pushed forward, the line being formally opened July 1, 1876. In 1871 the Prince Edward Island Railway was begun, and in 1873 it became a portion of the Intercolonial system. Other extensions and branches were built or acquired, the line finally running from Sydney and Halifax to Montreal. Index: Md Negotiations for, begun, 45, 117; arranged for, by British North America Act, 151; difficulty in selecting route, 152,153; northern route finally adopted, 153. E Project to combine with Grand Trunk, 100; history of negotiations after failure of larger scheme, 100-101. H Recommended in Durham's Report, 118; company formed in London, 118-119; "Robinson Line" surveyed, 119; Joseph Howe's connection with (see under Howe); new route proposed, 141-143; Imperial guarantee refused, 143. BL Brought under consideration, 1849, 287; Hincks on, 332. B Members of British government in 1862 favourable to, except Gladstone, 143; George Brown a convert to the scheme, 166; opposed by Dorion, 175. C Cartier advocates roundabout route, for military and political reasons, 49-50; Major Robinson's report, 49. T Proposal to build through St. John Valley, 26; delegates consult British government, 26; arrangements made with Jackson. 27; British government refuses to guarantee interest, 45; St. John to Shediac line, 46-47; history of, 53-58, 90, 111-112, 116, 119, 122. Bib.: Fleming, The Intercolonial; Fleming, Historical Sketch of the Intercolonial Railway in Canada: An Ency., vol. 2.

Interpreters. Ch Brûle, Marsolet, et al., 144.[186]

Irish Immigrants. E Measures for their relief, 1847-1848, 46-47; bring plague to Canada, 47-48; prominent victims, 48; Elgin persuades British government to reimburse Canada for expenses incurred in relief work. 48-49.

Iroquet. Algonquian chief. Index: Ch Urges Champlain to attack the Iroquois, 48; his son meets Champlain, 51; a leader of the Hurons, 69; chief of the Petite Nation—captures small party of Iroquois, 102; adopts an Iroquois prisoner as his son, 104. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime.

Iroquois. A confederation of tribes, at first five, the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca, to which the Tuscarora was added after 1726, as well as the remnants of many other tribes. They were known to the English colonists as the Five Nations, and later as the Six Nations. They called themselves Oñgwanonsioñni, "we are of the extended lodge." When they first came into contact with Europeans, they occupied the country between Lake Champlain and the Genesee River, and this remained their home territory, but they ranged far and wide, carrying their conquering raids eastwards to the Kennebec, westwards to Lake Michigan, north to the Hudson Bay watershed, and south to the Tennessee. They numbered about 16,000 in 1677, and after dropping to 10,000 in the next century, they returned to their original strength at the opening of the twentieth century. About two-thirds are on reservations in Canada; the remainder in New York. Index: F Champlain joins Hurons and Algonquians in attacking, 9, 10, 14; nearly exterminate Hurons, 26, 35; demand establishment of French colony in their country, 40; their confederacy, of what tribes composed, 41; attack remnant of Hurons on Island of Orleans, 41; checked at Long Sault on the Ottawa by heroism of Dollard and his companions, 44; Governor Courcelles marches against, 52; similar expedition led by Tracy, 53; invited by Frontenac to conference, 79; consent to make a peace including Indian allies of French, 82; under La Barre's administration, seize canoes of French traders, 181; La Barre's expedition against, 183; Denonville's, 207-214; capture of a number of peaceful Iroquois for king's galleys, 215; reprisals, 218, 219; massacre of Lachine, 224; send envoys to meet Frontenac, 238; native eloquence, 239; worsted in skirmish on Ottawa River, 243; Mohawk opinion of Schenectady massacre, 248; ill-treat embassy from Frontenac, 262; renew their attacks, 307; party of, destroyed at Repentigny, 308; three prisoners burnt alive, 309; another party surprised and destroyed, 319; expedition against (Mohawks), 321; peace negotiations, 337; Onondaga orator, Teganissorens (Decanisora), 338; Frontenac's campaign against, 350. Ch Champlain assists his Indian allies against, 49; originally settled on the St. Lawrence, 50; form great confederation of five tribes, 50; attacked by Montaignais, assisted by Champlain, near mouth of Richelieu River, 62; again, by Hurons, assisted by Champlain, on the Oswego River, 102; make an attack near Quebec, 139; embassy sent to, 163. Hd Destroy mission at Three Rivers, 43; in general alliance with British, 148; country of, pillaged by Butler's Rangers, 151. WM Traditional foes of the French, 16. L Destroy Huron mission, 5; converted settlements of, 9; their extermination of the Hurons, 39; heroic resistance offered to, at the Long Sault, 72; depredations committed by, 191; La Barre's expedition against, 193; threatening attitude of, 213; Denonville's expedition against, 215; negotiations with, 216; descend on Lachine, 225; ravage surrounding country, 227; Frontenac marches against, 233. Bk Their lands encroached upon by Americans, 149; attacked by United States troops at Tippecanoe, 174-176; their bitter sense of wrong, 177; obtain grant of land on the Grand River, 189;[187] effect on, of Hull's advance into Canada, 214; greatly impressed by the capture of Detroit, 263. See Senecas; Mohawks; Onondagas; Cayugas; Oneidas. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians; Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes; Morgan, League of the Iroquois; Colden, History of the Five Nations; McKenzie, The Six Nations Indians in Canada; Hale, Iroquois Book of Rites; Parkman, Old Régime, Jesuits in North America, Frontenac, and Half Century of Conflict; Fiske, New France and New England.

Irving, Jacob Æmilius (1797-1856). Born at Charleston, South Carolina. Entered the army at an early age; severely wounded at Waterloo; presented with freedom of Liverpool for gallant conduct during the French war. Came to Canada, 1834; served during the Rebellion of 1837; appointed first warden for the district of Simcoe; appointed to the Legislative Council of Canada, 1843. Index: BL Appointed to Legislative Council, Upper Canada, 177. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Irving, Paulus Æmilius (1714-1796). Served under Wolfe at Quebec; administered government of Canada, 1765; appointed lieutenant-governor of Guernsey, 1771; and afterwards governor of Upnor Castle, Kent. Index: Dr Becomes administrator, 23; protests, as member of Council, against position taken by Carleton, 34; dismissed from Council, 39. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Isbister, Alexander K. (1820-1883). Born in the territories of the Hudson's Bay Company; employed by the Company, 1838-1840, in the Mackenzie River district. Went to England, about 1841; educated there, and practised law in London. A half-breed himself, he ably pressed the cause of the Indians and half-breeds upon the attention of the British government. Also gave evidence before the parliamentary Committee of 1857. For some years master of the Stationers' School in England and Dean of the College of Preceptors. Left a large sum of money to found scholarships in connection with the University of Manitoba. Index: B A native of the North-West Territories—his good work on behalf of the Red River Settlement, 212; Brown's high opinion of, 212; suggests annexation by Canada of western territory, 213. Bib.: Report on Hudson's Bay Company, 1857; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Isis. Dr British war vessel, arrival of, 137.

Isle aux Noix. On the Richelieu River. Index: Hd Fortifications of, 125, 133; Sherwood and Ira Allen in conference at, 204; refugees transported to, 250.

Jack, William Brydone (1819-1886). Born in Scotland. Educated at St. Andrews University. Came to New Brunswick as professor of mathematics at King's College, 1840. When King's College received its charter as University of New Brunswick in 1861, appointed president. Retired from office, 1885.

Jackson. T British Member of Parliament, and capitalist, his company offers to build railways in New Brunswick, 26; visits the province, 27; agreement with government, 27.

Jackson, Francis James (1770-1814). British diplomatist. Index: Bk Succeeds W. Erskine as British minister at Washington, 122. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Jackson, Sir Richard Downes. Served in Peninsular campaign; commander-in-chief of forces in Canada. Administrator, 1841-1842. Died at Montreal. Index: BL Carries on government after Sydenham's death, 113. Sy Commander of forces, appointed administrator for Lower Canada, 194. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.[188]

Jacob, Dr., of Salisbury. Sy Maternal grandfather of Sydenham, 4.

Jacques. Ch English vessel seized by French, 221.

Jacques Cartier River. A tributary of the St. Lawrence, north shore, above Quebec. Index: WM Retreat of French army to, 212, 216, 217; retreat described as disorderly flight, 217.

James Bay. Southern extension of Hudson Bay, discovered in 1610, by Henry Hudson who wintered there, 1610-1611, with the Discovery. The bay was named after Captain Thomas James of Bristol, who explored the west coast in 1631.

Jameson, Anna Brownell (1794-1860). Author. Married Robert Jameson, afterwards vice-chancellor of the Court of Equity of Upper Canada. Index: E On Upper Canadian schoolmasters, 87; compares conditions on both sides of boundary, to the detriment of Canada, 191-192. Bib.: Works: Diary of an Ennuyée; Characteristics of Women; Visits and Sketches; Essays; Sacred and Legendary Art; Legends of the Madonna; History of Our Lord; Early Italian Painters; Sketches in Canada; Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada. For biog., see Dent, Can. Por.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Read, Lives of the Judges.

Jameson, Robert Simpson. A member of the English bar. Reporter in Lord Eldon's Court, 1824. Married Anna Brownell Murphy, 1826. Judge in the Island of Dominica, 1829; retired, 1833, and returned to England. Appointed attorney-general of Upper Canada by the Imperial government, 1833, and took up his residence at York. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1833. Member of the Assembly, 1835-1837. Appointed vice-chancellor of the Court of Equity. Died in Toronto, 1854. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges.

Jamet, Father Denis. Ch Récollet missionary and commissary of the order in Canada, 85; returns to France, where he remains, 111, 112.

Jarvis, F. S. Sy Gentleman usher of black rod, 334.

Jarvis, William. S Recommended by Simcoe as clerk of Council, 46; provincial secretary, 79, 178.

Jarvis, W. B. Mc Loyalists retreat under, 373.

Jay, John (1745-1829). American statesman and jurist. Index: Dr Negotiates treaty with Great Britain, 283, 286. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Jay's Treaty. Between Great Britain and the United States; negotiated Nov. 19, 1794. Provided for the evacuation by Great Britain of the western posts; the settlement by commission of pecuniary claims between the two countries; the appointment of a joint commission to determine the identity of the St. Croix River; and closer commercial relations. Negotiated by John Jay on behalf of the United States, and Lord Grenville representing Great Britain. Index: S Between Britain and the United States, 142. Dr Copies of, circulated in Canada, 290; ratified, 291. Bib.: Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions.

Jefferson, Thomas (1743-1826). Third president of the United States. Index: Dr His hostility to Great Britain, 273, 274, 281; his defeat for the presidency, in 1797, 298. Bk Purchases Louisiana from France, 41, 42; his embargo on United States ships trading to British ports, 85, 108; withdraws embargo, 114; confident of easy conquest of Canada, 259, 285. D His influence in determining policy of United States as to the Pacific coast, 64-66; sends Lewis and Clark overland to Pacific, 66. Bib.: His Works, ed. by Henry A. Washington, were published by order of Congress, in 9 vols., 1853. See also Randolph, Memoirs, Correspondence and Miscellanies of Jefferson. For biog., see Randall, Life of Jefferson; Tucker, Life of Thomas Jefferson; Parton, Life of Thomas Jefferson; Cyc. Am. Biog.[189]

Jemseg. On Jemseg Creek, Queen's County, New Brunswick. Index: F For a time headquarters in Acadia, 270.

Jenkins, William. T Teacher in Gagetown Grammar School, New Brunswick, 5; conducts large school in Quebec, 6; visited by Sir Leonard Tilley in 1858, 6; dies in 1863, 6.

Jersey Volunteers. Dr Loyalists, 202.

Jervis, John. See St. Vincent.

Jesuits' Estates Act. Passed by the Mercier government in Quebec, 1888. Following the suppression of the Society of Jesus by the pope, in 1773, the property of the order in Canada became vested in the crown, and was set apart for purposes of education in the province of Quebec. By the British North America Act, it was vested in the provincial government. The Mercier Act authorized payment of $400,000 as compensation to the Jesuits for the lands confiscated by the crown. An agitation in Ontario for disallowance of the Act, was followed by a formal motion in the Dominion House, by Colonel O'Brien, but only thirteen members voted for disallowance. Index: Md Origin, 286; claimed by Society of Jesus, 286; Act passed by Quebec Legislature authorizing payment for lands Jesuits held before the conquest, 286, 287; motion favouring federal disallowance, proposed, 288, 289; motion defeated, 289; agitation ends by formation of Equal Rights Association and later by the Protestant Protective Association, 289. Dr Proposal to apply revenues of, to educational purposes, 230; General Amherst's claim to, 230. BL Revenue from, 18. Bk Appropriation of property a grievance with French-Canadians, 77. Bib.: Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; Grant and Hamilton, Principal Grant; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

Jesuit Missions. L Zeal of the missionaries compared with that of the Apostles, 61; among the Iroquois, 64-67; wide extension of, 103; to the Algonquians, destroyed by drunkenness, 175. F Pure lives of missionaries produces good effect, 168. See under names of individual missionaries. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America. See also Jesuits.

Jesuit Relations. The Relations were published in Paris, by the provincial of the order, in small annual volumes. The original narratives were written in Canada, or in one or other of the remote mission fields, by the devoted missionaries, and are invaluable as a record of the condition and character of the various Indian tribes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Index: Ch Promoted immigration to Canada, 250; describe religious condition of the colony, 256-258; also last days of Champlain, 262, 263. F Parkman on, 30; Rochemonteix on, 30; Marie de l'Incarnation on, 30; their influence in securing support for the missions, 30-31. Bib.: Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, 1610-1791, ed. by Thwaites, Cleveland, 1896-1901, 73 vols.; Relations des Jesuites, Quebec, 1858, 3 vols.

Jesuits. The first missionaries of the order, Lalemant, Masse, and Brébeuf, arrived in Canada in 1625. Work among the Algonquians began that year; and among the Hurons in 1626. The mission to the Iroquois dates from 1642. With the Iroquois mission are particularly associated the names of Jogues, Le Moyne, Ragueneau, Frémin, and De Carheil; and with the mission to the Hurons, those of Brébeuf, Lalemant, Chabanel, Garnier, and Chaumonot. See also under names of individual missionaries. Index: Hd Their mission at Three Rivers, 43; an unworthy member of the order, 48-49; suspected of sympathy with rebels, 130, 181; engage in the ginseng trade, 148; vestibule of their church turned into theatre, 306-307. F Arrival of, 17; return after restoration of[190] Canada to France, 25; Frontenac's attitude towards, 113; their missions, 166. L Their devotion to the cause of missions, 4, 5; recommend Laval as vicar apostolic, 26; re-establish mission in Iroquois country, 73; place church at Quebec under patronage of Immaculate Conception, and St. Louis, 85; works of piety instituted by, 86. Dr Expelled from France, controversy respecting their property in Canada, 23; petition the king for restoration of their property, 35. Ch Récollets decide to ask assistance of, 150; not favoured by the traders, 152; arrival of, at Quebec, 153; their convent robbed by English, 196; embark for Tadousac on board Kirke's ship, 196; sail for France, 206; take charge of Quebec mission on restoration of the country to France, 225; establish their convent of Notre Dame des Anges, 227; their convent at Quebec, 228, 229; give banquet to Emery de Caën, temporary governor, 228; found missions at Three Rivers and in Huron country, 228; also at Miscou and Cape Breton, 229. D As factors in spread of civilization in America, 2-3. Bib.: Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, ed. by Thwaites; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Rochemonteix, Les Jésuites et la Nouvelle France; Kip, Early Jesuit Missions; Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America.

Jetté, Sir Louis (1836- ). Studied law, and called to the bar, 1857. Practised in Montreal. Entered public life in 1872 as member for Montreal East, defeating Sir Georges E. Cartier. Appointed puisne judge of Supreme Court of Quebec, 1878; and the same year became professor of civil law in Laval University; later dean of the faculty. Member of the commission for revision of the civil code of Quebec, 1887; and of the Alaskan Boundary Commission. Appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1898, and for a second term in 1903. Chief-justice of the Superior Court of Quebec, 1909. Index: C One of the founders of Le Parti National, and its organ Le National, 29-30; defeats Cartier in Montreal East, 84. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Jews. Bk Resolution of Lower Canada Assembly excluding, 104; further discussion of question, 116.

Joannes. WM Town mayor of Quebec, strikes insubordinate officers, 230; protests against order to propose capitulation, 230, 231; goes to British camp with articles of capitulation, 231, 232.

Jogues, Isaac (1607-1646). Born at Orleans, France. Entered the Society of Jesus, and sailed for Canada in 1636. Set out almost immediately for the Huron mission. From there sent to the Tobacco nation; and in 1641 visited the Chippewas at Sault Ste. Marie, and stood upon the shores of Lake Superior. Went to Quebec the following year, and on the return journey captured by a party of Mohawks and carried off to the Iroquois country. After being repeatedly tortured, escaped at Fort Orange, with the help of the Dutch governor, and sailed for France, arriving at Rennes in 1643. After an interview with the queen regent, Anne of Austria, returned to Canada the following year, and sent as an ambassador to the Mohawks, 1646. Concluded a treaty of peace, and returned to Quebec. Sept. 27 of the same year, again set out for the Iroquois country, this time as a missionary. The attitude of the Indians had changed, and on Oct. 18 he was tomahawked as he entered one of the lodges at Tionnontoguen. Index: Ch Professor in college of Rouen, 207. L Sufferings and death of, 5, 62. Bib.: Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Martin, Isaac Jogues; Withrow, Adventures of Isaac Jogues (R. S. C., 1885).

John and Thomas. F Vice-admiral's ship in Phipps's squadron, 281.

Johnson, Guy (1740-1788). Deputy to Sir William Johnson, as superin[191]tendent of Indian affairs, and succeeded latter in office after his death. Served under Amherst against the French, in 1759. At the opening of the Revolutionary War, abandoned his home in Amsterdam, New York, and brought his family to Montreal, and later went to England. Returned in 1776, and served in New York. Also with Brant in the Mohawk Valley, two years later. His estates confiscated by the New York Assembly, 1779. Index: Hd His letter to Lord George Germaine, 155; removed from his position of Indian agent, 156. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Johnson, John. T Returned for St. John, 25.

Johnson, John M. (1818-1868). T Solicitor-general, New Brunswick, 32-33; member of Fisher ministry, postmaster-general, 43; attorney-general, delegate to Quebec Conference, 77; elected for Northumberland as Confederation candidate, 107; goes to England as Confederation delegate, 120; his views on County Courts, 125. Bib.: Hannay, History of New Brunswick.

Johnson, Sir John (1742-1830). Son of Sir William Johnson (q.v.). Appointed major-general of militia, 1774. Fled to Canada, 1776, and served under St. Leger against Arnold the following year. After the close of the Revolutionary War, became superintendent-general of Indian affairs in British North America. Index: Dr Commissioned to raise regiment, 151; advises Dorchester in regard to Upper Canada, 258; his claims to be first governor of that province, 259; Indian agent in Upper Canada, 302. S Disappointed at not being made governor of Upper Canada, 99; head of Indian department, 127. Hd Made Indian agent, 156; raises King's Royal Regiment of New York, 156; Haldimand's instructions to, in regard to smallpox, 231; his consent necessary to marriage, 237; Haldimand stands sponsor to child of, 296; MacLean's opinion of, 308. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; Myers, The Tories or Loyalists in America.

Johnson, Sir William (1715-1774). Born in Ireland. Came to America, in 1738, to take charge of the estates of his uncle, Sir Peter Warren. Appointed Indian agent in 1744, and obtained unrivalled influence over the Six Nations. In 1755 became superintendent of the affairs of the Six Nations. The same year made major-general and commander-in-chief of the expedition against the French. Defeated Dieskau at Lake George, and received the thanks of Parliament, a baronetcy, and a vote of £5000. Served with Abercrombie in 1758, and in 1759 captured Niagara from the French. Accompanied Amherst to Montreal in 1760. Mainly instrumental in settling and developing the Mohawk Valley. Index: Dr Quiets discontent of Six Nations, 5, 6. Hd Takes possession of Fort Niagara, 26; takes precedence of Haldimand, 27; his influence with Six Nations Indians, 27; his Indians not allowed to attack La Galette, 28; retires for the winter, 29; leaves Oswego for Montreal, under Amherst, 35; his opinion on enlistment of Canadian corps, 57; takes Niagara, 121; his Indian widow, 154; death of, 155; Indians' opinion of, 157; leave granted to, to hold western posts for England, 257. WM Captures Fort Niagara, 146. Bib.: Language, Customs, and Manners of the Six Nations (Phil. Soc. of Phila. Trans., 1772); Correspondence (Doc. Hist. N. Y.); Reid, Story of Old Fort Johnson. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Stone, Life of Sir William Johnson; Buell, Sir William Johnson; Bradley, The Fight with France; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe and Conspiracy of Pontiac; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Johnson-Clarendon Treaty. Md Attempt to settle Alabama question by, 167; United States Senate refuses to ratify treaty, 167. Bib.: Hertslet, Treaties and Conventions.[192]

Johnston, Hugh. W Appointed to Executive Council, New Brunswick, 1843, 72; resigns, 1845, 76; retires, 1848, 116.

Johnston, Sir W. C Chief-justice of Quebec, 119; his views on French-Canadian cooking, 119.

Johnstone, Chevalier. WM Aide-de-camp to Lévis, 139; his redoubt evacuated, 140; with Montcalm on night preceding battle, 175; his opinion of Bougainville, 177; on brave rally of Canadians, 203; on demoralization of French troops, 207; on Vaudreuil and proposed capitulation, 209; on the flight to Jacques Cartier, 217; on battle of Ste. Foy, 261, 263, 264. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec.

Johnstone, James William (1793-1873). Born in Jamaica. Came to Nova Scotia, studied law in Annapolis, and practised in Kentville and Halifax. Appointed solicitor-general and a member of the governor's Council, and became the recognized leader of the Conservative party in Nova Scotia. Resigned his seat in the Council in 1843 to contest Annapolis for the Assembly, and represented the county until 1864, when appointed judge in Equity. On the death of Howe in 1873 made lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. Died in England the same year. Index: H Appointed solicitor-general, 1834, 57; becomes member of Executive and Legislative Councils, 1838, 57; leader of party opposed to responsible government, 58; his birth, ancestry, and character, 58; Sir Colin Campbell's chief adviser, 71; obnoxious to the Liberals, 71; opposes Howe's views as to responsibility of ministers to the Assembly, 75; makes public declaration as to dual responsibility of ministers, to the governor and the Legislature, 76; joins the Baptists, 77-78; defends denominational schools, 83; the election of 1843, 85-86; W. B. Almon called to Executive and Legislative Councils, 86-87; secures majority in new Legislature, 87; contest with Howe, 89-90; makes speech against Howe, 98; carries measure for simultaneous polling, 104; resigns with his government, 1848, 107; member of Railway Convention at Portland, 1850, 121; opposes government railways, 144; moves vote of want of confidence, 165, 167; forms new government, 167; his party defeated in elections of 1859, 168; the chief-justiceship, 168; leader of the opposition, 171; becomes attorney-general in 1863, and judge in Equity, 1864, 172; favours Confederation, 174; introduces bill prohibiting sale of intoxicants to Indians, 247-248. T Advocates Confederation in Nova Scotia Assembly, in 1854, 62. Bib.: Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia; Rattray, The Scot in British North America; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Johnstone's Redoubt. WM French position on Beauport shore, 133, 136, 140.

Joint High Commission, British-American, 1898-1899. Met in Quebec, Aug. 23, 1898, and again in Washington, Nov. 10. The meetings continued until Feb. 20, 1899, ending in a disagreement. Canada was represented by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Sir Richard Cartwright, Sir Louis Davies, and John Charlton; the United States by Gen. J. W. Foster, Hon. George Gray, Hon. C.W. Fairbanks, Hon. John A. Kasson, Hon. N. Dingley, and T. Jefferson Coolidge; and Newfoundland by Sir J. S. Winter and Hon. A. B. Morine. Lord Herschell acted as chairman. Among the questions discussed were reciprocity, the Atlantic fisheries, the Alaskan boundary, the seal fisheries, war vessels on the Great Lakes, the bonding privilege, alien labour laws, and mining rights. Bib.: Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party.

Jolliet, Louis (1645-1700). Born at Quebec; son of a wagon-maker in the employ of the Company of New France. Educated by the Jesuits, and took[193] minor orders, but renounced his clerical vocation to engage in the fur trade. Sent by Talon to discover copper-mines on Lake Superior, and met La Salle on his return journey, 1669, near the site of the city of Hamilton. In 1673 set out with Jacques Marquette (q.v.) to discover the Mississippi. Leaving Michilimackinac on May 17, they coasted the north shore of Lake Michigan, to the foot of Green Bay, ascended Fox River to Lake Winnebago, and descended the Wisconsin to the Mississippi, which they reached a month after leaving Michilimackinac. Descended the great river, passing the mouths of the Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Arkansas, and turned back from a village of the Arkansas Indians on July 17; returning to Lake Michigan by way of the Illinois. Jolliet was unfortunate enough to lose the records of his journey at the foot of the Lachine rapids, almost within sight of Montreal. Made a journey to Hudson Bay in 1679; and the following year received a grant of the Island of Anticosti, where he settled with his family. In 1694 explored the coast of Labrador. On his return made royal pilot for the St. Lawrence, and hydrographer of the colony. Index: F Discoverer of Mississippi, 155. WM Descends Mississippi, 19. L Follows course of Mississippi, 11; abandons priestly career and becomes explorer, 59; his exploration of Mississippi, 146; his burial, 147. Bib.: Parkman, La Salle; Faillon, Colonie Française en Canada; Margry, Découvertes et Établissements des Français; Gagnon, Louis Jolliet. See also Marquette.

Jolliet, Zachary. F His December journey from Michilimackinac to Quebec, 240.

Joly de Lotbinière, Sir Henri Gustave (1829-1908). Studied law and called to the bar, 1855. Elected to Assembly for Lotbinière, 1861. Took a prominent part in opposition to Confederation. In 1867 elected for both Dominion and Quebec Houses, and sat in both up to 1874. Led opposition in Assembly until 1878, when he was called upon to form a ministry. His government defeated in 1879, and in 1885 dropped out of public life for a time. Returned for Portneuf in 1896, and became controller of inland revenue; the following year called to the Cabinet as minister of inland revenue. Appointed lieutenant-governor of British Columbia, 1900. Index: Md Liberal leader in Quebec, sustained in provincial election by majority of one, 249; his connection with the Letellier case, 249. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Jones, Alfred Gilpin (1824-1906). Born at Weymouth, Nova Scotia, of United Empire Loyalist stock. Built up great shipping industry at Halifax. Entered public life as an opponent of Confederation. Represented Halifax in Dominion House 1867-1872, 1874-1878. Became minister of militia, 1878. Defeated in general election of that year, and again in 1881; elected in 1887, but defeated in 1891. Lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia 1900-1906. Index: H Asked by Howe to attend conference with Sir John Rose, on financial situation, 223; his reasons for declining, 224; leader of Anti-Confederate party in Nova Scotia, 224. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Jones, John Paul (1747-1792). Born in Scotland; son of John Paul, of Arbigland; assumed name of Jones. Entered American navy, 1775. Captured the Serapis, 1779. Entered Russian naval service, 1788, with rank of rear-admiral. Died in Paris. Index: Hd Mentioned in Haldimand's correspondence, 245. Bib.: Sherbourne, Life of Paul Jones; Mackenzie, Life of Paul Jones; Hamilton, Life of Paul Jones; Cyc. Am. Biog.[194]

Jones, Jonas (1791-1848). Educated at Cornwall under John Strachan. Served as an officer of militia during the War of 1812-1814, attaining the rank of colonel. Called to the bar of Upper Canada, 1815. Elected to the Assembly for Leeds and Grenville, 1821, 1825, and again in 1832. A strong supporter of the union of Upper and Lower Canada. Appointed a puisne judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, 1837. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges.

Jones, Peter. R His visit to England in 1831, 90.

Jonquest, Étienne. Ch Marries Anne Hébert, 113; death of, 117.

Jordan, John. W Member for St. John in New Brunswick Assembly, 105; referred to in Wilmot's speech, 105. T Defeated in St. John County in 1850, 11.

Joseph, Saint. L Chapel dedicated to, in church at Quebec, 84; patron saint of Canada, 87. Ch Jesuit mission in Huron country, 93; French colony placed under patronage of, 150.

Jotard. Hd Editor of Mesplet's publications, 277.

Journal de Québec. C Cauchon writes for, 24; praises Cartier in, 88.

Journal Tenu à l'Armée. WM Quoted, 169; severe criticism of Montcalm, 205; Canadians praised, 196; quoted as to loss on French side, 205.

Juan de Fuca. D His real name Apostolos Velerianos, 9; expedition to North-West Coast, 9; authenticity of his Voyage, 9, 19; his name rescued from oblivion, 23. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.

Juan de Fuca Strait. Between Vancouver Island and United States mainland. Index: D Its discovery, 9, 14, 19; rediscovered by Kendrick, 25. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.

Jubilee. Ch Granted by pope, celebrated in Quebec, 1618, 114.

Juchereau, Jean. Ch A settler from La Ferté Vidame, in Thimerais, 252.

Juchereau, Mère. F Reports repulse of some of Phipps's men at Rivière Ouelle, 291; on flag incident, 296; on divine protection of Quebec, 301. L On Laval's patience in trial, 240.

Juchereau de St. Denis. F Wounded in skirmish on Beauport flats, 294.

Judah, Henry Hague (1808-1883). Born in London, England. Came to Canada, and called to the bar, 1829. Represented Champlain in the Assembly, 1843-1844. Appointed one of the Commissioners under the Act abolishing the Seigniorial Tenure, 1854. Index: E Commissioner under Federal Tenure law, 186.

Judges. Bk Bill for exclusion of, passed by Lower Canada Assembly, but thrown out by Council, 104; further discussion of question, 116; instructions from Great Britain regarding, 117, 126; Act of Exclusion passed, 145.

Judicature. E Measures relating to, passed by second La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 86-87; S Act for establishing Superior Court for Upper Canada passed, 92; amended, 94. Sy Bill passed by Special Council, 255. BL Revisions of system, 286, 300-301; terms of the Act, 292, 302-303, 339.

Jurisdiction, Question of. L In New France, 163.

Justices of the Peace. See Magistrates.

Kaministiquia, or Kaministikwia, Fort. At mouth of river of same name, north-west shore of Lake Superior. Built by Zacharie Robutel de La Noüe, in 1717. La Vérendrye wintered there in 1731, while making preparations for his western explorations. The site abandoned in favour of Grand Portage, which became for many years, under both French and British rule, the jumping-off place for the western fur country. Fort William was afterwards built on or near the site of the old French fort.[195]

Kane, Paul (1810-1871). Born in Toronto. Received his first training under Drury, the drawing-master at Upper Canada College. Spent the years 1836-1840 in the United States; and then sailed for Europe, where he studied art in Italy and throughout the continent. Returned to Toronto in 1845, and shortly after set out on a tour of the western territories of the Hudson's Bay Company. Visited many of the tribes, from Lake Superior to the Pacific, and brought back with him in 1848 several hundred sketches, from which he painted a series of oil pictures of Indian life and western scenery. Some years after, published a narrative of this journey, illustrated from his own sketches. Bib.: Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Cyc. Am. Biog.; MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

Kaye, John W. BL Quoted on Metcalfe, 156, 158; on La Fontaine and Baldwin, 169-171; on Metcalfe, 176, 186, 236, 237. B Defends Metcalfe's attitude towards political parties in Canada, 24. Bib.: Works: Life and Correspondence of Lord Metcalfe; Administration of East India Company; Lives of Indian Officers; Life of Sir John Malcolm.

Keefer, Thomas Coltrin (1821- ). Born at Thorold, Ontario. Engaged in the enlargement of the Welland Canal, 1841-1845, and then transferred to the Ottawa River works, 1845-1849. Made a survey of the St. Lawrence rapids, 1850; and prepared the report and plans which resulted in the building of the Victoria bridge at Montreal. Instrumental in securing the deepening of the St. Lawrence channel and the adoption of the standard gauge on Canadian railways. Served as Canadian commissioner at the London exhibitions of 1851 and 1862, and the Paris exhibition of 1878, and also on the International Deep Waterways Commission. Author of a number of articles and papers on engineering and public questions. Bib.: Works: Philosophy of Railways; Canals of Canada; Report on Victoria Bridge; Canadian Waterways. See also in Bourinot's bibliography (R. S. C., 1894). For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.

Kempt, Sir James (1764-1854). Commanded brigade in Peninsula, 1812; and division at Waterloo, 1815; governor of Nova Scotia, 1820-1828; and governor of Canada, 1828-1830. Made a privy-councillor, 1830; master-general of ordnance, 1834-1838; general, 1841. Index: BL His efforts at conciliation, 20. P Succeeds Lord Dalhousie as governor, 70; his attitude towards Canadians, 70; his report, 1829, on the political situation in Lower Canada, 71. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Christie, History of Lower Canada.

Kendrick, Captain John. American seaman. Trading on North-West Coast, 1787-1793. Killed in Sandwich Islands, 1793. Index: D Voyage to North-West Coast in 1787, 23; at Nootka, 24; credited with rediscovery of strait of Juan de Fuca, 25.

Kennebec River. A river of the state of Maine, rising in Moosehead Lake; about 200 miles long. Index: Dr Arnold's march up, 107.

Kennedy, Captain. B Agitates through newspapers and Toronto Board of Trade importance of acquiring and settling North-West Territories, 216; writes Lord Elgin on same subject, 216.

Kennedy, Sir Arthur Edward (1810-1883). Governor of Vancouver Island, 1863-1867. Subsequently governor of Queensland. Died in Brisbane.

Kennedy, William Nassau (1839-1885). Born at Darlington, Ontario. Served as a lieutenant in the Ontario Rifles with the Red River Expedition, 1870. Settled in Winnipeg, and appointed registrar of deeds, 1872. A member of the North-West Council, 1873; mayor of Winnipeg, 1875-1876. Organized[196] the Winnipeg Field Battery and subsequently colonel of the 90th Rifles. Accompanied the Canadian Voyageurs to Egypt, as paymaster of the contingent, 1885. Served through the campaign, but died at London on his way home to Canada.

Kennedy's Regiment. WM On British right, 189.

Kenny, Sir Edward (1800-1891). Born in Kerry County, Ireland. Emigrated to Nova Scotia. Summoned to the Senate at Confederation. Became receiver-general in federal ministry, 1867-1869; president of the Privy Council, 1869-1870. For a time acting lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. Vacated his seat in the Senate, 1876. Index: Md Receiver-general in first Dominion Cabinet, 134; represents Irish Roman Catholics, 135. T receiver-general in first Dominion Cabinet, 129. H Member of first Dominion Cabinet, 198.

Kent and Strathern, Edward Augustus, Duke of (1767-1820). Fourth son of George III and father of Queen Victoria. Sent to Canada, 1791; served in West Indies, 1794; returned to Canada, 1796; commander-in-chief of forces in British North America, 1799-1800; governor of Gibraltar, 1802-1803; field-marshal, 1805. Index: S Commands 7th Fusiliers in garrison at Quebec, 47; visits Simcoe at Navy Hall, 183; visits Niagara Falls, 183; is entertained by Robert Hamilton at Queenston, 184. Dr Arrival of, 270; popularity of, 275; service at Halifax, 276. MS Stationed in Canada, 98; his friendship for Alexander Mackenzie, 98. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Kent Lodge. Near Quebec. Index: Hd Formerly Montmorency House, Haldimand's summer residence, 345.

Kentucky. Dr Movements on foot in, for separation from other American states, 247, 249.

Kerr. T Elected as Confederation candidate for Northumberland, N. B., 107; moves the address in New Brunswick Assembly, 115.

Kerr, D. S. W Council for Doak and Hill in libel case, 75.

Kerr, W. J. Mc Attempts Mackenzie's assassination, 218; tried and convicted, 220.

Ketchum, Jesse. Mc Elected to the Assembly, 150; delivers rejoinder to governor, 300.

Kicking Horse Pass. Through Rocky Mountains, north of lat. 51°, length 104 miles, and elevation at watershed 5300 feet. This pass is followed by the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It was explored and named by Dr. Hector, of the Palliser expedition, in 1858.

Killaly, H. H. Represented town of London in first Parliament after the union of 1841; chairman of the board of public works, 1841-1844, and 1844-1846. Index: Sy Made president of board of works for united province, 333. BL Commissioner of public works, 1841, 76; a moderate Liberal, 78; remains in office under La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 133, 134. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Killian, Doran. T Recruits Fenian army in New York, 105; his force arrives at Eastport, 105.

King, Dr. Mc Aids Mackenzie's escape, 389.

King, Rev. Wm. B Moving spirit in negro settlement in Upper Canada, 113.

King's American Regiment. Dr Commanded by Fanning, 202.

King's College (New Brunswick). W Charter granted by George IV, 1828, 49; endowed by New Brunswick Legislature, 49; controlled by Church of England, 49-50, 51; proposed amendments to charter, 51-56; amendment bill finally passed, 56; becomes University of New Brunswick, 86; originated in[197] College of New Brunswick and chartered, 1800, 86. T Proposal to convert into agricultural school, 20; cause of its unpopularity, 21, 48; terms of the Act of 1859, 48-49. See New Brunswick, College of; New Brunswick, University of.

King's College (Nova Scotia). An academy opened at Windsor, Nova Scotia, 1788. The following year an Act passed for "the permanent establishment and effectual support of a college at Windsor," and £400 per annum granted towards its maintenance. Under this act, King's College opened in 1790. Received royal charter, 1802. Index: H Founded by Church of England, 81. E Directly under control of Church of England, 93. Bib.: Partridge, University of King's College in Canada: An Ency., vol. 4; Akins, Brief Account of the Origin of King's College; Hind, University of King's College.

King's College (Upper Canada). Granted royal charter, Mar. 15, 1827. Index: Md Proposed government subsidy in connection with university scheme, 29; college and its property secularized, becoming University of Toronto, 30; replaced as Church of England College by University of Trinity College, 30. BL Conceived by Simcoe, land grant made, royal charter granted, Strachan president of, 191-192; opposition to terms of charter, amendments, building erected, teaching begins, 1843, 192-193; its land grant, 194; Baldwin proposes transfer of its property to University of Toronto, 195, 293; Strachan opposes transfer, 195, 196. E Its history and connection with the university question, 93-94. R Strachan secures royal charter, 72; and becomes first president, 73; terms of charter, 73-74; inauguration, 1843, 147; its financial position, 147; council of, charged with control of grammar schools, 248-249. See Toronto University. Bib.: Hopkins, Canada: An Ency., vol. 4; Bethune, Memoir of Bishop Strachan; Robinson, Sir John Beverley Robinson.

King's Printer, Upper Canada. S Louis Roy, first incumbent of office, 172; Roy succeeded by G. Tiffany, 173.

King's Royal Regiment of New York. Hd Raised by Sir John Johnson, 156; Beverley Robinson colonel of, 201; disbanded and receive grants of land, 255.

Kingsford, William (1819-1898). Came to Canada from England in 1837. Qualified as a civil engineer in Montreal, and practised his profession for some years. The author of many pamphlets, in addition to his monumental history, the preparation of which he took up late in life, and completed shortly before his death. Index: L On Dollard's exploit, 75. Bib.: Works: Impressions of the West and South during a Six Weeks' Holiday; Canadian Canals; Canadian Archæology; Early Bibliography of Ontario; History of Canada, 10 vols. For list of Dr. Kingsford's contributions to periodicals, see R. S. C. Trans., 1894, 47-48. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

Kingston. City of Ontario, founded by United Empire Loyalists, 1783. Index: Md Sir John A. Macdonald's early life in, 2; practises law there, 5; elected alderman of, 10; asked to be Conservative candidate for, 11; elected for, 12; constituency represented by Macdonald, with one short break, throughout his whole public career, 12, 16, 31, 211; its rivalry for seat of government, 39; meeting at, protests against Rebellion Losses Bill, 42; dissatisfied with selection of Ottawa as capital, 85; difficulty over visit of Prince of Wales, 1860, 88; Macdonald defeated in, 1878, 228. S Government of Upper Canada organized at, 79; rejected by Simcoe in favour of York as arsenal for Lake Ontario, 204; Simcoe spends winter of 1794-1795 at, 211; growth of the town, 211. BL Selected by Sydenham as capital, reasons for the choice, 73; its history, 73-75; the legislative building, 85-86; Assembly passes resolution[198] declaring city not suitable as seat of government, 147; reception to Metcalfe, 155; not satisfactory as capital, 180; Harrison member for, 182; serious trouble between Orangemen and Roman Catholics, 187; severe fire of 1812, 298; special powers granted to magistrates of, 298, 300. Sy Chosen as seat of government, 282, 292; accommodation at, for Legislature and government offices, 293. Bk An important military post, 56; differing views of Dorchester and Simcoe respecting, 56; Brock stations deputy quartermaster-general at, 80. See Frontenac; Cataraqui. Bib.: Machar, Old Kingston.

Kinnear. W Solicitor-general, New Brunswick, 1846, 116; joins the government, 116; proposed for judgeship, 130.

Kirby, William (1817-1906). Born in Kingston-upon-Hull, England. Came to Canada, 1832, but educated at Cincinnati, Ohio. Settled at Niagara, Ontario, 1839, where edited and published the Mail for twenty years. Collector of customs at Niagara, 1871-1895. Bib.: Works: The United Empire; Le Chien d'Or; Pontiac; Canadian Idylls; Annals of Niagara. For biog., see MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

Kirke, Sir David (1596-1655?). Born in Dieppe, son of a Scottish merchant. Went to England, and, with his two brothers, given command of an expedition against the French in Canada, 1627. Appeared before Quebec, but Champlain, who was then in charge, refused to surrender. Returned down the river, met and defeated the French squadron under De Roquemont, in July, 1628, and reappeared before Quebec the following year, when the garrison, reduced to starvation, was forced to surrender. Knighted by Charles I, 1633, and obtained a grant of lands in Newfoundland. Appointed governor of the island; removed by Cromwell; and returned in 1652. Index: Ch Commands expedition against Quebec, 173; acts under authority of Sir William Alexander, 176; his letter to Champlain, 176; sails for Europe, 179; spends several days in Quebec, 204; accused by Champlain of intolerance, 205, 206; learns of treaty of peace between England and France, 207. F Captures Quebec, 21. Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Kirke, Sir Lewis. Born 1599. Accompanied his brother Sir David Kirke on his expeditions to Canada and Newfoundland. Fought on the side of Charles during the Civil War. Commanded a troop of horse at the battle of Edgehill; took part in the siege of Gloucester and in the battle of Newbury; knighted by the king, 1643; made governor of Bridgenorth Castle; heavily fined under Cromwell for his loyalty to Charles. After the Restoration appointed captain and paymaster of the corps of gentleman-at-arms. Index: F Left in charge of Quebec, surrenders it to French on conclusion of peace, 23. Ch Resides in Fort St. Louis after capitulation, 158; demands surrender of Quebec, 188-190; grants articles of capitulation, 191, 192; receives keys of the fort, 195; hoists English flag, 196; his courteous treatment of Champlain, 199; shows religious intolerance, 206. Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada; Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Kirke, Thomas. Born 1603. Brother of Sir David and Sir Lewis Kirke. Accompanied them on their expeditions in Canada and Newfoundland. Killed during the Civil War, fighting on the side of Charles. Index: Ch Demands surrender of Quebec, 188-190; signs articles of capitulation, 192; takes Emery de Caën prisoner, 220. Bib.: Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Kirkpatrick, Sir George Airey (1841-1899). Born in Kingston. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin; studied law, and called to the bar, 1865. Sat for[199] Frontenac in Dominion House, 1870-92; Speaker, 1883-1887; member of Privy Council, 1891; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1892-1897; K. C. M. G., 1897. Bib.: Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada; Morgan, Can. Men.

Kishon (the Fish). F Indian name for governors of Massachusetts, 253.

Knox, Henry (1750-1806). American general, in Revolutionary War. Index: Dr Commissioner on American side for exchange of prisoners, 208. Bib.: Drake, Life and Correspondence of Henry Knox.

Knox, Captain. Served under Wolfe at Quebec. Wrote an account of the campaigns in North America from 1757 to 1769. WM His first impression of Island of Orleans and surrounding country, 91; his description of fireships, 99; as to appearance and demeanour of French troops, 163, 164; on Murray's order that civilians should leave the city, 250. Bib.: An Historical Journal of the Campaigns in North America, 1757-60. See also Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe.

Knox College. Presbyterian Theological College, established, 1844. Index: R Established by Free Church Presbyterians, a secondary school at first, 155. Bib.: Caven, Historical Sketch of Knox College in Canada: An Ency., vol. 4.

Knutsford, Henry Thurston Holland, first Viscount (1825- ). Represented Midhurst in Parliament, 1874-1885, and Hampstead, 1885-1888; secretary of state for the colonies, 1887-1892. Index: Md Macdonald's letter to, on Confederation, 158.

Kondiaronk. F Huron chief, wrecks peace negotiations with Iroquois, 222. L Treachery of, 216; becomes friend of the French, 235. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Kootenay District. In British Columbia. Index: D First explored by David Thompson, 58.

Kuprianoff, Ivan Andreevich. D Succeeds Wrangell in Russian America, 1836, 45.

L'Alouette. Ch One of De Caën's vessels, 156.

L'Ange, Captain. Ch Meets Champlain on his return from the Upper Ottawa, 78.

L'Anticoton. Ch Pamphlet against Jesuits, 153.

L'Avenir. Newspaper, of Montreal. C Organ of Club démocratique, 26, 27. E Organ of the Parti Rouge, 108. BL Organ of the Radicals of Lower Canada,—demands universal suffrage, etc., 343.

Laas, Captain de. WM In battle of Ste. Foy, 263.

La Barre, Joseph Antoine Lefebvre de. Governor of La Guyane in 1665; and in 1682 arrived in Quebec as governor of Canada. His administration marked by hopeless incompetence; recalled, 1685. Index: L Succeeds Frontenac as governor, 168; a feeble administrator, 185; prejudiced at first against the bishop, 188; convokes a special assembly, 190; asks for more troops, 191; his expedition against Iroquois, 193; makes terms of peace, 193; recalled, 193. F Governor, arrival of, 171; summons conference on Indian question, 172; applies for troops, 172; criticized in despatches by intendant, 173, 174; takes to illegitimate trading, 175; disparages discoveries of La Salle, 176; seizes Fort Frontenac and Fort St. Louis, 177, 179; instructed to restore to La Salle all his property, 180; his unwise instruction to Iroquois, 180; decides to make war on Senecas, 181; corresponds with Colonel Dongan, governor of New York, 182; leads expedition, 183; arranges ignominious terms of peace, 186; recalled, 188; unfitness for his position, 189; results of his weak policy, 198, 209. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac and La Salle.[200]

Laberge, C. J. C A Liberal leader in Quebec, 25; on Dorion, 28; kept in opposition by Radical programme, 29.

Labrador. The name has been popularly applied to the whole territory bounded by the Atlantic, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay, which includes not only the Labrador coast-strip, but also a portion of the North-West Territories. Also known at one time as New Britain. The name is properly applied to the strip of coast from Cape Chidley to Blanc Sablon, forming a dependency of the colony of Newfoundland. On various theories as to origin of name, see Ganong, Cartography of Gulf of St. Lawrence (R. S. C., 1889). The boundaries have long been in dispute between Newfoundland and Canada, and the territory has several times changed hands. The Labrador coast was first discovered by the Northmen, in the tenth century. Cabot sailed along the coast in 1498, and Corte-Real in 1500. The interior remained practically unexplored till traversed by officers of the Hudson's Bay Company about 1840. There are a few posts of the Hudson's Bay Company on the coast. The southern portion is inhabited by a primitive race of fishermen; in the north are several missions of the Moravian Brethren, first established there in 1764. Index: Dr Canadians petition for its restoration to Canada. Bib.: Cartwright, Sixteen Years on the Coast of Labrador; Hind, Explorations in Interior of Labrador; Packard, The Labrador Coast; Stearns, Labrador; Dawson, Canada and Newfoundland; Grenfell, Labrador; Hubbard, A Woman's Way through Unknown Labrador; Gosling, Labrador, Its Discovery and Development.

Labrèche, L. E Member of the Parti Rouge, 108.

La Caffinière, De. F Commander of squadron sent against New York, 234.

La Canardière. F Former name of Beauport flats, 293. WM French position on Beauport shore, 94, 105, 134.

Lac aux Claies. S Renamed Lake Simcoe in honour of Governor Simcoe's father, 207. See Simcoe.

Lac de Soissons. Ch Name given by Champlain to Lake of Two Mountains, 75.

La Chaise, François d'Aix (1624-1709). Born at the castle of Aix in Forez. Entered Society of Jesus, and provincial of his order when selected by Louis XIV as his confessor in 1675. Retained that difficult position up to the time of his death. Index: L His report on the liquor question, 174; his letter to Laval, 238.

La Chesnaye. See Aubert de la Chesnaye.

La Chesnaye Settlement. F Iroquois raid on, 226. L Ravaged by Iroquois, 228.

Lachine. Said to have been named by La Salle's men, in derision of his dream of a westward passage to China. The land was granted by the Sulpicians to La Salle as a seigniory in 1666; and from here he set forth on his memorable explorations, in 1669. Twenty years later, this was the scene of a terrible massacre by the Iroquois. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Lachine became of importance as the starting-point of the brigades of the fur traders, bound for the far West. Index: L Origin of the name, 148; massacre of, 225. F Description of massacre at, 10, 224, 225. Bib.: Parkman, La Salle and Frontenac; Girouard, Lake St. Louis and Cavelier de la Salle.

Lachine Canal. BL Construction of, provided for by government in 1841, 98. Bib.: Rheaume, Lachine and Origin of its Canal (Women's Can. Hist. Soc. Trans., vol. 2). See also Canals.

Lachine Railway. E Commenced in 1846, 99.[201]

La Colonbière, De. L On zeal and devotion of Laval, 23; preaches Laval's funeral sermon, 40, 265; his account of Laval, 256, 257.

Lacombe, Albert (1827- ). Born at St. Sulpice, Quebec. Ordained priest, 1849, and immediately left for the western field. Laboured among the Crees and other western tribes for many years, and devoted much time to the study of their languages. Vicar-general of the diocese of St. Albert. Bib.: Dictionnaire et Grammaire de la Langue des Cris. See also Pilling, Bibliography of Algonquian Languages.

La Corne de St. Luc, Louis Luc. Stationed at Fort St. Frederic (Crown Point), 1741-1747; at La Présentation in 1752; and the following year sent to take command of the posts west of Lake Superior. In 1758 mentioned at Quebec; and the following year back once more at La Présentation. In 1761, one of the seven survivors of the wreck of L'Auguste. Remained in Canada after the conquest, and in 1775 raised a company of Indians to act against the Americans. Index: Dr Accused in connection with Walker affair, 36; tried and acquitted, 38; member of Council appointed under Quebec Act, 91. WM Unable to cope with Sir William Johnson's army, 146. Hd Repulsed by Haldimand at Fort Ontario, 26; one of the few saved in wreck of L'Auguste, 40. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe and Pontiac.

La Corne, Pierre. Accompanied Joncaire on an embassy to the Indians of Niagara, 1720. Sent to Acadia with De Ramezay, 1747. Took part in the action at Grand Pré. Returned to Quebec, but again sent to Nova Scotia to induce the Acadians to remove from the province. After the failure of the attempt, returned to Quebec, and took an active share in the military expeditions of the next ten years. Distinguished himself at the siege of Quebec, 1759, where he had command of a body of local troops. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Historical Documents relating to the Province of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Lacoste, Sir Alexandre (1842- ). Born at Boucherville, Quebec. Educated at Laval University; studied law and called to the bar of Lower Canada, 1863. A member of the Legislative Council of Quebec, 1882; and in 1884 called to the Senate; appointed Speaker, 1891. Chief-justice of the Court of Appeal of Quebec, 1891-1907. Sworn of the Privy Council, and knighted, 1892. Administrator of Quebec, 1898. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Lacoste, Louis (1798-1878). Born at Boucherville, Quebec. Educated at St. Sulpice College, Montreal, and called to the bar of Lower Canada. Sat in the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, 1834-1838, and in the Legislative Assembly of Canada, 1843-1861. Elected a member of the Legislative Council, 1861. Appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867.

La Dauversière, Roger de. F One of the founders of Montreal colony, 32.

La Durantaye. See Morel de la Durantaye.

Lady Maria. Dr British vessel on Lake Champlain, 154.

La Famine. F La Barre's army encamps at, 184.

Lafayette, Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de (1757-1834). Sailed for America in 1777, with a number of other French officers, and appointed by Congress a major-general. Met Washington at Philadelphia, and a close friendship sprang up between the two. Wounded at Brandywine. Given command of a division of Washington's army. In 1778 appointed to the command of an expedition against Canada, which ended in a fiasco. Served with distinction at Monmouth, and later in Virginia. Secured from France an auxiliary force of 6000 men to assist the Americans. After[202] the close of the war, commanded a division of the French army in the war against Austria, 1792, but removed by the Jacobins, and fled to Belgium. Captured, and imprisoned by the Austrians, and not set free until 1797. After Waterloo, sat in the Chamber of Deputies, 1818-1824; visited the United States in the latter year; and in 1830 instrumental in placing Louis Philippe on the throne. Index: Hd His letter to Canadians, 128; Pillon's treasonable correspondence with, 278. Bib.: Mémoires, etc., de Lafayette; La Bédollière, Vie Politique du Lafayette; Cloquet, Souvenirs de la Vie Privée du Lafayette. See also Cyc. Am. Biog., with further bibliog.

Lafitau, Joseph-François. Jesuit missionary in Canada for many years. Afterwards returned to France, where he became a professor of belles-lettres. Chiefly remembered because of his invaluable work on the manners and customs of the Indian tribes of Canada in the early years of the eighteenth century. Bib.: Mœurs des Sauvages Amériquains.

Laflamme, Rodolphe (1827-1893). Born in Montreal. Entered public life as member for Jacques-Cartier in Dominion House, 1872; minister of inland revenue, 1876; resigned with the government, 1878. Index: E Member of Parti Rouge, 108. C Liberal leader in Quebec, 25, 20; protests against Dorion entering Cartier's administration, 106-107. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years.

La Flèche, College of. L Laval studies at, 19, 20.

La Flèque. Ch One of De Caën's vessels, 156.

La Fontaine, Sir Louis-Hippolyte, Bart. (1807-1864). BL His name associated with responsible government, ix; espouses cause of Reformers in Lower Canada, 46; no sympathy with Rebellion, 47; his birth and parentage, 47; education—practises law in Montreal—his marriage, 47; in politics, 47-48; arrested for complicity in Rebellion, but released, 49; on the union, 57; opposes union of the provinces, 61; offered and refuses solicitor-generalship, 61; meets Hincks, 63; defeated in Terrebonne, 70; favours ministerial responsibility, 70-71; reconciled to the union, 71; his refusal to accept office leaves French-Canadians without representation in executive, 1841, 78, 79; elected for York,116-117; Bagot's letter to, offering attorney-generalship of Lower Canada, 123-124; declines appointment, 125; referred to in Draper's speech, 127; his speech in reply to Draper, 128; takes office, 132; attorney-general for Lower Canada, 133; re-elected in York, 134; attitude of Tories, 139; significance of his alliance with Baldwin, 142-143; personal appearance, 147-148; attacked by London Times, 150; relations with Metcalfe, 164-176; Kaye's description of, 169; Hincks' comments on Kaye, 170; interview with Higginson, 172-173; his published memorandum, 173-176; his work in the Assembly, 178-179; seconds resolution to remove capital to Montreal, 182; his act for securing independence of Legislative Assembly, 184; reorganization of judicial system of Lower Canada, 184-185; resigns office, 1843, 199; interview with Metcalfe, 201; draws up official statement of reasons for resignation of ministers, 201-205; Metcalfe's statement, 205-209; announces resignation in Assembly, 213; returns to practise law in Montreal, 217; Wakefield on, 219; his health proposed at Toronto banquet, 221; Viger's criticism of, 236; Draper on, 236; resigns as Queen's Counsel, 250; elected in Terrebonne, 251; his proposed resolution on use of French in the Legislature, 255; Draper's overtures to, 258-263; his contention for responsible government, 273; seconds Baldwin's amendment to address on responsible government, 277; his speech, 277; elected, 1848, for both Montreal and Terrebonne, 279; forms with Baldwin the second La Fontaine-Baldwin administra[203]tion, 281, 284; interview with Elgin, 285-286; re-elected, 286; secures a pardon for Papineau, 288; attacked by Papineau, 289; his reply, 290-292; his bill amending judicial system of Lower Canada, and the general law of amnesty, 302-303; his bill for redistributing seats in the Legislature is defeated, 303; the Rebellion Losses Bill, 303, 305-334; his political views, 339, 340; relations with George Brown, 342; opposition of Papineau and the Radicals, 342, 343; not in favour of secularization of Clergy Reserves, 348; his views on Seigniorial Tenure, 350-351, 353; votes against Mackenzie's motion for abolishing the Court of Chancery, 352; his letter to Baldwin, 353; his retirement from public life, 354; banquet in his honour at Montreal, 1851, 354; his farewell speech, 354-357; his resignation, 357; appointed chief-justice, of Lower Canada, and created a baronet, 358; his second marriage, 358; his death at Montreal, Feb. 26, 1864, 358; value of his political work, 239-260. B Brought into Cabinet by Bagot, 16; dispute with Metcalfe, 19; his wise leadership, 24; introduces resolutions on Rebellion Losses questions, 35; disintegration of old Reform party hastened by his retirement, 262. E Denounces Union Act, 24; accepts the union and turns it to the advantage of his compatriots, 32; conflict with Metcalfe, 33-34; as opposition leader, 44-45; returned in 1848, 50; his plans thwarted by Papineau, 51, 108; forms administration with Baldwin, 52, 53; his resolution on Rebellion Losses Bill, 67-68; takes part in the debate, 69-70; mob attacks his house and burns his library, 74; second attack by mob, 76-77; his retirement, 1851, and dissolution of government, 85; his part in the establishment of the parliamentary system, 90; his attitude towards Clergy Reserves question, 102, 103, 162-164; his resignation, 104, 107; practises law, 105; becomes chief justice of Court of Appeals of Lower Canada, 105; receives baronetcy, 105; his rank as statesman and jurist, 105; his death, 105, 220; his conservative influence, 138; his views on Seigniorial Tenure question, 185, 187; as a constructive statesman, 236. C Sides against the government, 6; statesmanlike attitude towards Union of 1841, 16; forms alliance with Baldwin, 16, 97; forms ministry, 16; resigns, 17; called to power again in 1846, 18; standing as a statesman, 23; his party splits in two, 25-26; protests against Union Act of 1840, 96; his fight for ministerial responsibility, 97; long lease of power, 99; wins constitutional battle, 100; his retirement from politics, 132. P Refuses seat in Draper ministry, 72; joins Papineau's party, 78; supports him in his violent attitude towards government, 86; at meeting of Constitutional Committee, 88; his character, 109; ridiculed by the Mercury, 123; relations with Papineau in 1847 and after, 167-180; split in Liberal party causes retirement, 179-180; his farewell speech, 179. R Forms opposition party with Baldwin, Hincks, and others, 122. Mc Addresses revolutionary meetings, 328. Md Given seat in administration by Bagot, 18; resigns, 1843, 18; attacked by extreme Reformers, 22; forms administration with Baldwin, 30; elevated to the bench, 46-47. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Morgan, Cel. Can.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; David, Biographie et Portraits; Hincks, Reminiscences.

La Forest. F Left in charge of Port Nelson, 346.

La Franchise, Sieur de. Ch Letter from in Champlain's first narrative, 14.

La Galissonnière, Rolland-Michel Barren, Comte de. Came to New France as administrator of the government until the arrival of the governor, Marquis de la Jonquière. Returned to France, 1749; the same year appointed one of the commissioners on behalf of the French government, to settle the boundaries of Acadia. Head of the department of nautical charts at Paris. Commanded the[204] French fleet at Minorca, 1756, and defeated the British under Admiral Byng. Died in Nemours, France, 1756. Is said to have furnished money and supplies to the Abbe de la Loutre to enable him to carry on his work in Acadia. Index: WM Foresaw danger from British colonies, 21. Bib.: Mémoire sur les Colonies de la France dans l'Amerique Septentrionale. For biog., see Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins; Tyrrell, Papers in Nova Scotia Documents.

La Grange-Trianon, Mlle. de. F Becomes wife of Frontenac, 63.

Laguide, Madeleine. F Niece of Talon, wife of François Perrot, 97.

La Hontan, Louis Armand de Lom d'Arce, Baron de (1666-1715). Arrived in Canada in 1683; spent some time at Quebec, and also travelled extensively in the West. Embodied the result of his Canadian experiences in a volume of travels, which, especially his extraordinary story of the Rivière Longue, has been the subject of much controversy. Visited Newfoundland in 1692 and 1693; and afterwards travelled in Portugal, Spain, and Holland. Index: F On treatment of captured Indians at Fort Frontenac, 216; on interview between Frontenac and Denonville, 233; declines to go on embassy to Iroquois, 261; his account of attack on Quebec by Phipps, 285. Bib.: Nouveaux Voyages dans l'Amérique Septentrionale, La Haye, 1703. Published in English, London, 1735. For other editions, see Thwaites's edition of the Voyages, Chicago, 1905. See also Roy, Le Baron de Lahontan (R. S. C., 1894).

Laird, David (1833- ). Born at New Glasgow, Prince Edward Island. Represented Queens County, in House of Commons, 1873-1876; became minister of the interior, 1873; and in 1876 appointed lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories. Succeeded by Edgar Dewdney in 1881. Appointed Indian commissioner for the western provinces and territories, 1898. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who; Rattray, The Scot in British North America.

Lajoie, Antoine Gerin (1824-1882). Born in Yamachiche, Quebec. Educated at Nicolet College, and while there wrote the song Le Canadien Errant. Studied law and called to the bar, 1848. One of the founders of the Institut Canadien, 1849. Took up journalism and was editor of La Minerve, 1845-1852. Appointed a French translator to the Canadian Assembly, and later made assistant to the librarian of Parliament. Retired from the public service, 1880. Bib.: Works: Cathéchisme Politique, ou Elements du Droit Public et Constitutionne du Canada; Jean Renard.

La Jonquière, Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel, Marquis de. Rear-admiral under d'Anville in the disastrous expedition against Acadia, 1746. Commanded another expedition with a similar purpose, 1747, which was defeated by Anson and Warren. Captured and held for a time in England as prisoner of war. Governor of Canada, 1749-1752. His administration marked by nothing that would further the welfare of the colony; but rather by a determined effort to enrich himself at the expense of the country. Bib.: Parkman, Half-Century of Conflict and Montcalm and Wolfe.

Lake Champlain. See Champlain, Lake.

Lake George. South of Lake Champlain. This beautiful lake was known to the Indians as Horicon, and to the French as Lac St. Sacrament. The outlet of the lake, after circling through the forest and passing over a series of leaps in the falls of Ticonderoga, flows nearly two miles and enters Lake Champlain just above Fort George. Lying on the recognized thoroughfare, north and south, this lake has been the scene of many memorable conflicts, in the Indian[205] and colonial wars. Index: Ch Champlain's expedition against Iroquois arrives at, 53. WM Battle at, 22; commanded by Fort William Henry, 43. Bib.: Reid, Lake George and Lake Champlain; Smith, Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony.

Lake of the Woods. On the international boundary, west of Lake Superior. Probably discovered by Jacques De Noyon, about the year 1688. Fort St. Charles was built by La Vérendrye, on the western shore of the lake, in 1732. His son Jean, with the Jesuit missionary Aulneau, and a number of voyageurs, were murdered by the Sioux on an island in the lake, in 1736. In addition to its present name, which is a translation of the name given it by the French, Lac des Bois, it has also borne several other names, Lac des Sioux, Lac des Isles, Lake of the Sandhills, etc.

Lalemant, Charles. First superior of Jesuit missions in Canada; arrived at Quebec from France in 1625, with Enemond Massé and Jean de Brébeuf. They were the guests of the Récollets for two years, until their own home on the banks of the St. Charles was built. Lalemant's Relation of 1625 affords a graphic picture of the life of the little settlement at Quebec, and the early beginnings of the Jesuit missions. Index: Ch Jesuit, director of missions, 152; his letter to Provincial of Récollets, 154; wrecked off Canseau Island, 200; professor in College of Rouen, 207; conducts seminary for young Indians, 229; first parish priest, 238; administers last rites to Champlain, 261, 263. Bib.: Douglas, Quebec in Seventeenth Century; Relation, 1625; Le Clercq, Établissement de la Foy; Parkman, Jesuits in North America.

Lalemant, Gabriel (1610-1649). Jesuit missionary; laboured with Brébeuf at the mission of St. Ignace, among the Hurons, where he was killed by the Iroquois in 1649. A Parisian by birth, and his family belonged to the class of gens de robe. Index: L Sufferings and death of, 5, 62; mentioned, 16. Bib.: Ragueneau, Relations des Hurons, 1649; Parkman, Jesuits in North America.

Lalemant, Jérôme (1593-1673). Superior of Jesuit missions in Canada, 1645-1650, and 1659-1665. A missionary to the Hurons until 1645, when called to Quebec to assume the office of superior. Sailed for France in 1650, and returned in 1659 to resume the office of superior. Appointed grand vicar, and his name suggested for bishop of Quebec. Index: L His opinion of Laval, 35; his exaggerated account of the earthquake, 42-45. Bib.: Journal des Jesuites; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

La Loutre, Louis Joseph de. Sent to Canada by the Society of Foreign Missions at Paris, 1737. Missionary to the Micmac Indians, 1740. Vicar-general of Acadia under the bishop of Quebec. A determined enemy of British supremacy in Acadia. After the fall of Fort Beauséjour, escaped and fled to Quebec. The following year embarked for France, but on the voyage was taken prisoner by a British vessel and kept in confinement for eight years. Returned to France when peace concluded in 1663. Died in obscurity. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Richard, Acadia; Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins. See also Acadians, Expulsion of the.

Lambert, Captain. Bk Commander of Iphigénie, and subsequently of Java, 123; his death, 123.

Lamberville, John de (1633-1714). Jesuit missionary to the Onondagas; forced to leave his mission in 1687, because of Denonville's expedition against the Iroquois. Remained at Cataraqui as chaplain for a time, and at Denon[206]ville's request returned to the Onondagas to arrange a treaty of peace. Succeeded in this mission, and resumed his ministry at Cataraqui. In 1688 carried to Montreal, suffering from a severe attack of scurvy. The following year returned to France, as procurator of the mission. Died in Paris. Index: F Jesuit father, missionary to the Iroquois, 144, 188, 208. L Describes the death of Garakontié, 73, 74; his position imperilled, by action of governor and intendant, 215. Bib.: Campbell, Pioneer Priests of North America; Parkman, Frontenac and Jesuits in North America.

Le Milletière, Dubois de. WM Perishes with his men on fireship, 98.

La Minerve. Montreal newspaper, established 1826. Index: P Morin's seditious articles in, 101; denounces every one opposed to Papineau, 122-123. BL Praises policy of La Fontaine-Baldwin government, 142; discusses debate in Imperial Parliament on colonial government, 232; La Fontaine's speech in reply to Papineau, printed in, 292. C Praises Cartier, 88.

Lamontagne. Ch Interpreter, 144.

La Montagne. A settlement near Montreal. Index: L Settlement of Christian Indians at, 9, 74.

Lamotte. WM Chief of the Follis-Avoines, 41.

La Motte, Pierre de St. Paul, Sieur de. Came to Canada with the Carignan Regiment, 1665. Built Fort Ste. Anne, at the northern extremity of Lake Champlain, 1666. Two years later took the place of Zacharie Dupuis as commandant at Montreal. Returned to France, 1670. Index: L Foundation stone of the parish church of Montreal laid on his behalf by Philippe de Carion, 88.

La Motte Cadillac, Antoine de. Son of Jean de La Motte, Sieur de Cadillac, de Launay et de Montet. Served for a time in the army, and about 1683 came to Canada in search of fortune or adventure. Married Marie-Thérèse Guyon at Quebec in 1687; stationed for several years at Port Royal; returned to Quebec, and sent by Frontenac in 1694 to command the post at Michilimackinac. In 1701 built a post at Detroit, went to Quebec in 1709, sailed for France, and in 1713 sent out to Louisiana as governor. Index: F Post commander at Michilimackinac, 340. Bib.: Cadillac Papers (Michigan Hist. Papers, 1903); Sulte, Les Tonty (R. S. C., 1893); Roy, Le Baron de Lahontan (R. S. C., 1894); Verreau, Quelques Notes sur Antoine de Lamothe de Cadillac; Parkman, Old Régime and Frontenac.

La Mouche. L Nephew of Huron chief, deserts to the Iroquois at Long Sault, 71.

Lampman, Archibald (1861-1899). Educated at Trinity University, Toronto, graduating in 1882; appointed to a clerkship in the post-office department at Ottawa the following year, and remained there up to the time of his death. Put the best of himself into his poems, in which he interpreted with rare discernment and charm the spirit of the woods and fields of his native country. Bib.: Works: Among the Millet; Lyrics of Earth; Poems, ed. by Duncan Campbell Scott, with biog. sketch. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

Lancaster, Joseph (1778-1838). Founded the Lancasterian system of education. In 1798 began teaching poor children on the Madras system; and gradually introduced improvements. In 1818 came to America, and at one time conducted a school in Montreal. Published several books on his system of education. Index: W Founder of Madras system of national schools, 86. See also Madras schools. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Landry, Pierre Armand (1846- ). Born in Dorchester, New Brunswick.[207] Educated at St. Joseph's College, Memramcook; studied law and called to the bar of New Brunswick, 1870. Member of the Assembly, 1878-1883; elected to the House of Commons, 1883; appointed judge of the County Court, 1890; puisne judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick, 1893. Index: Md His motion of regret that sentence of death passed upon Riel not commuted, 280-281. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.

Lands, Public. Mc Evils of methods of granting, 74; list of grants in first thirty-five years, 74. Bk Grants made near Niagara to previously disloyal persons, 64. W Dissatisfaction over management of, in New Brunswick, and movement to bring under provincial control, 18-30, 38, 48. T Improper sales of, 51-52. S Land boards attempt to check speculation, 102; discontinued, 104; grants of, dealt with by Executive Council after discontinuance of boards, 101-103, 104; grants of, made to officers of the government, 215.

Langelier, François Charles Stanislas (1838- ). Born at Ste. Rosalie, Quebec. Educated at Laval University; studied law and called to the bar, 1861. Joined the staff of Laval, and became dean of the law faculty, and member of the council. Entered public life in 1871; returned for Montmagny, 1873, and for Portneuf, 1878, in Legislature; sat for Megantic, 1884; and for Quebec Centre, 1887, in Dominion House. Held the offices of commissioner of crown lands, and provincial treasurer, in the Quebec government, 1878-1879. Index: C One of the founders of Le Parti National and its organ Le National, 30. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men.

Langevin, Sir Hector Louis (1826-1906). Born at Quebec. Entered Parliament in 1867, as member for Dorchester; subsequently represented, successively, Charlévoix, and Three Rivers. Appointed secretary of state, 1867; minister of public works, 1869; postmaster-general, 1878; and again minister of public works, 1879; resigned 1891. Index: Md Secretary of state in first Dominion Cabinet, 134; his organizing ability and great local influence, 140; announces death of Sir John A. Macdonald, 325-326. T Delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 74-75; to Quebec Conference, 76; member of first Dominion ministry, 129. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Rose, Cyc. Can. Biog.

Langhorn, John. S Second Church of England clergyman to arrive in Upper Canada, 158.

Langlade. See Mouet de Moras de Langlade.

Langlois, Françoise. Ch Wife of Pierre Desportes, 146.

Langlois, Marguerite. Ch Wife of Abraham Martin, 146.

Langlois, Noël. Ch Settler from Normandy, 252.

Langoissieux, Pierre. Ch Récollet, assumes monastic habit, 149; returns to France, 209.

Languedoc. WM Battalion of regular troops, 29, 105, 118, 192.

La Noüe. See Robutel.

Lanjuère, de. L Life of Olier by, 135.

Lansdowne, Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, fifth Marquis of. Born in 1845. Educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford; succeeded to marquisate, 1866. After holding minor offices in the government, became under-secretary for war in 1872, and in 1880 under-secretary for India. In 1883 appointed governor-general of Canada; and at the end of his term, 1888, went to India as viceroy. On his return, became secretary for war in 1895, and in 1900 foreign secretary. Since the death of the Duke of Devonshire, has been the leader of the Conservatives in the House of Lords. Bib.: Who's Who.[208]

Lapause, De. WM Sent to erect defences at fords of Montmorency, 112; accompanies Lévis to the West, 147; in battle of Ste. Foy, 257, 261.

La Peltrie, Marie Madeleine de (née de Chauvigny). Daughter of the Seigneur de Vaubougon, in Normandy; married early in life, and while still young was left a widow with a large fortune. Filled with religious zeal, devoted herself and her fortune to the founding of the Ursuline convent in Canada. In 1639 sailed for Quebec, and with her companions began there the important work of ministering to the sick and educating Indian girls. With tireless energy, carried on the work for thirty-two years, dying in November, 1671, a few months before her lifelong friend and co-worker, Marie de l'Incarnation (q.v.). Index: F Arrival of, at Quebec, 28; accompanies Maisonneuve to Montreal, 33. L Her piety, 92; Ursuline convent established by, 125; death of, 153; appearance and character, 153, 154. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World; Parkman, Jesuits in North America and Old Régime.

La Pérouse, Jean François de Galaup, Comte de (1741-1788). French admiral. D Explores North-West Coast in 1788, 25. Bib.: Voyage autour du Monde; Marcel, Vie de La Pérouse.

La Perrière. WM Commanded to evacuate Johnstone's redoubt, 140.

La Place, Jacques de. Ch Jesuit missionary at Miscou, 234.

La Potherie. See Bacqueville.

Laprairie. On south shore of St. Lawrence, above Montreal. Index: F Attack on, by war party under John Schuyler, 281; serious encounter at, between Canadian forces and party under Peter Schuyler, 312.

La Rabeyre, De. L French officer, put to death by Iroquois, 227.

La Ralde, Raymond de. Ch Accompanies De Caën to Quebec, 138; returns to France, 141; appointed admiral of Company's fleet, 154.

La Riborde, Gabriel de. Récollet missionary; arrived from France in 1670, and sent to Cataraqui as chaplain to the garrison. Was in the West with La Salle and Hennepin, in 1679-1680. Index: L With Tonti and Membré at Fort Crèvecœur, 149; murdered by the Illinois, 150. Bib.: Parkman, La Salle.

La Rochebeaucour, De. WM Second aide-de-camp to Montcalm, 2; forms cavalry corps, 87; commands Bougainville's cavalry, 222; brings provisions into Quebec, 232.

La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, François Alexandre Frédéric, Duc de (1747-1827). Chiefly remembered because of his valuable and entertaining Travels, "full of keen, fair-minded observation regarding every variety of detail of life in America as this exiled French nobleman found it, told in a readable style, not without an occasional touch of humour." Exiled from France in 1768; returned, for several years, and went into retirement until after Waterloo. Made a peer of France at the Restoration. Index: Dr Not allowed to visit Lower Canada, 290. S Visitor to Upper Canada, 56; his observations, 71, 73, 74; describes opening of Legislature, 92, 93; high opinion of Simcoe's secretary, 178; describes Colonel Smith's house, 179; on scarcity of servants, 182; entertained by Simcoe at Navy Hall, 187, 230; on Simcoe's household, 187; Simcoe objects to some of his remarks, 188; on Simcoe's military talent, 225. Bib.: Works: Voyage dans les États-Unis d'Amerique fait en 1795-97; État des Pauvres en Angleterre; Le Bonheur du Peuple.

La Rochelle. French seaport, on the Atlantic, long a stronghold of the Huguenots. Index: Ch Merchants of, contraband traders, 140.

La Rouette. Ch Pilot, accompanies Champlain in his expedition against the Iroquois, 52.[209]

La Salle, Jean Baptiste de (1651-1719). Abbé; canon of Rheims. Index: L Founder (1684) of the order of Christian Brothers, 125.

La Salle, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de (1643-1687). Sailed for Canada in the spring of 1666; granted by the Sulpicians the seigniory of Lachine, from which, in 1669, he set out with Dollier de Casson and Galinée upon the first of those explorations towards the west and south for which he was to become famous. Meeting Jolliet at the western end of Lake Ontario, Dollier de Casson and Galinée decided to make their way to the upper lakes, while La Salle turned south and explored the Ohio. His later explorations have been the subject of long controversy—the point in dispute being whether he explored the Mississippi before or after Marquette and Jolliet. In any event, he first descended the river to its mouth, 1681-1682. Upon his return, sailed for France, and in 1684 set out with four ships to establish a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi. This unfortunate expedition culminated in the murder of La Salle by his own men. Index: F Sent to invite Indians to conference, 79; first commandant of Fort Frontenac (Cataraqui), 86; reports Perrot's defiant proceedings to Frontenac, 92; his views on sale of liquor to Indians, 123; obtains grant of Fort Frontenac from the king, 156; obtains exclusive right of trading in Mississippi region, 158; difficulties encountered by, 159, 161; relations with Frontenac, 162; discoveries disparaged by La Barre and also by the king, 176; financial affairs, 178; his forts and other property seized by La Barre, restored to him, 179; king takes him under his special protection, 180. L Sells liquor to Indians, 116; obtains letters of nobility, and concession at Fort Frontenac (Cataraqui), 145; birth and character, 147; explorations, 148-153; goes to France, 151; misfortunes and death of, 152; reports sermon of Abbé Fénelon, 160. WM Discovers mouth of Mississippi, 19. Bib.: Memoir, in French, Hist. Coll. of Louisiana, 2d Ser., vol. 2; letters and other documents, in Margry, Découvertes; Shea, Voyages up and down Mississippi; Parkman, La Salle; Winsor, Nar. and Crit. Hist.; Falconer, Discovery of Mississippi; Griffin, Discovery of Mississippi; Sparks, La Salle in Lib. of Am. Biog.; Gravier, Découvertes; Harrisse, Notes pour Servir; Joutel, Journal Historique; Chesnel, Histoire de Cavelier de la Salle; Guénin, Cavelier de la Salle; Sulte, La Morte de la Salle; Girouard, Lake St. Louis and Cavelier de la Salle.

La Sarre Regiment. WM One battalion of, sent to Canada, 12, 29; in battle of the Plains, 192; in battle of Ste. Foy, 259, 261.

Lascelles' Regiment. WM In centre under Murray, 189; in battle of Ste. Foy, 259.

La Taille. Ch Accompanies Champlain to Quebec, 41.

La Terrière, Pierre de Sales. Came to Canada from France, 1766; appointed agent at Quebec for the St. Maurice forges, 1771; his place of business in front of the lower town market, facing the church of Notre Dame; in 1775 appointed inspector of works, and removed to the forges, on the banks of the St. Maurice, a few miles above Three Rivers. Left an interesting account of the works, in his Mémoires de Laterrière. Implicated in the American invasion of 1776, and arrested. Index: Hd Inspector of St. Maurice forges, 48; arrest of, 277; dislike of Haldimand, 277; suspected of supplying Americans with petards and cannon-balls from St. Maurice forges, 277-278; his defence of Du Calvet, 284-287; his description of Haldimand, 293. Bib.: Christie, History of Lower Canada.

La Terrière de Sales. Represented Saguenay in Assembly, 1844-1854; appointed to Legislative Council, 1856. Index: E Votes against secularization of Clergy Reserves, 164.[210]

La Tesserie, De. L Member of the Sovereign Council, 158.

Sir Wilfrid Laurier Sir Wilfrid Laurier

Latour, Abbé Bertrand de. L On the humility of Laval, 33; on the evils flowing from the sale of liquor to the Indians, 36; on mental characteristics of Canadian children, 100; on the virtues of Laval, 187. Bib.: Mémoire sur la Vie de Laval.

La Tour, Charles Amador de. Son of Claude de la Tour. Came to Acadia in 1610 with his father. Driven out of Port Royal by the English; built a post near Cape Sable, on what is now known as Port Latour. In 1632, when Acadia was restored to France, Razilly came out with Charnisay to strengthen the colony. Razilly died in 1636, and a bitter conflict followed between Charnisay and La Tour, both of whom claimed to represent the king in Acadia. Charnisay had rebuilt Port Royal, and La Tour occupied a fort at the mouth of the St. John. The outcome of the quarrel was an order for the arrest of La Tour. Charnisay attacked La Tour's fort, but was driven off. When he blockaded the harbour, La Tour escaped to Boston, returned with English ships, and drove Charnisay to the shelter of Port Royal. The latter's opportunity came, however, later. He attacked the fort during La Tour's absence. La Tour's wife made a gallant defence, and Charnisay succeeded in the end only by resorting to treachery. He carried Madame La Tour to Port Royal, where she died in 1645. Some years later, after the death of Charnisay, La Tour brought this curious drama to a conclusion by marrying the widow of his rival. He had already obtained restitution from the king, who made him governor of Acadia; and some years later showed his powers of persuasion by obtaining a generous grant of land from Cromwell, who had, in 1654, taken possession of the colony. Died about 1666. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime; Hannay, History of Acadia; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

La Tour, Claude de. A Huguenot gentleman; came to Port Royal in 1610 with Poutrincourt; in 1614 had a trading-post on the Penobscot. Sailed for France in 1627, and on his return the following year, with supplies for the defence of Acadia, captured by Kirke and carried to England. There married one of the queen's French maids of honour, and was persuaded to throw in his lot with the English. Promised to win over his son Charles (q.v.), but the latter scornfully refused to change his allegiance. Afterwards built a fort at the mouth of the St. John, for the French, to whom he had once more transferred his services. Index: Ch Captured by Kirke, 177. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime; Hannay, History of Acadia; Kirke, The First English Conquest of Canada.

Lattaignant, Gabriel de. Ch Assists in forming Company of New France, 168; made a director, 170.

L'Auberivière, François Louis de Pourroy de. Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, 1739-1740, succeeding Dosquet. Died at Quebec, 1740. Index: L bishop of Quebec, 12.

Laurier, Sir Wilfrid (1841- ). Born at St. Lin, Quebec. Studied law at McGill University, and called to the bar, 1864. Entered public life in 1871 as member for Drummond and Arthabaska in the Quebec Assembly; three years later returned to the House of Commons for the same constituency. Entered the Mackenzie Cabinet, 1877, as minister of inland revenue. In 1887 leader of the opposition; and in 1896, upon the defeat of the Tupper government, called upon to form an administration, himself taking the office of president of the Council. Received the honour of G. C. M. G. in 1897, and the same year called to the Imperial Privy Council. Index: Mc Justifies Upper Canada Rebellion, 30, 31. Md His administration repeals Franchise Act of 1885, 260; succeeds[211] Blake as leader of Liberal party, 1887, 261, 263; lukewarm towards policy of commercial union, 296; his reply to Macdonald's appeal to the electorate, 1891, 311; finally disposes of unrestricted reciprocity, 317; his speech in Parliament on death of Macdonald, 326-329. C On the Quebec radicals, 27-28; one of the founders of Le Parti National and its organ Le National, 30; on Cartier, 116-117. Bib.: Discours sur le libéralisme politique; Barthe, Discours de Laurier, depuis 1871 à 1890. For biog., see Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; Fréchette, Wilfrid Laurier; Moreau, Sir Wilfrid Laurier; David, Laurier et son Temps; Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.

Lausaunne. Hd The resort of savants, 3.

Lauzon, Jean de. Born, 1582. Governor of New France, 1651-1656; had already been associated with the interests of the colony by reason of his position as president of the Company of New France, and had used his office to acquire the island of Montreal and Point Lévis opposite Quebec. His administration as governor made odious not only by a long series of public mistakes, but by his too obvious intention of using the office to enrich himself and his sons. Returned to France in 1656; and mentioned in contemporary narratives as late as 1660. Index: Ch Intendant of Company of New France, 170; objects to return of Récollets, 225. F Governor, 38; returns to France, 42. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World; Parkman, Old Régime.

Lauzon-Charny, Charles de. Son of Jean de Lauzon, and administrator of New France after the departure of his father in 1656. During his father's governorship, had been invested with the high-sounding but empty title of Grand Maître des Eaux et Forêts de la Nouvelle France. Returned to France in 1656; entered the church; and returned in 1659 with Laval, who made him a member of the Ecclesiastical Council. Index: L Director of Seminary, 55; grand vicar, accompanies Laval to France, 134. Bib.: Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Laval, Anne Charlotte. L Only sister of Bishop Laval, 19.

Laval, Charles François Guy (Fanchon). L Nephew of Laval, educated by him at Quebec, 140.

Laval-Montmorency, François de (1623-1708). L Appointed apostolic vicar with title of bishop of Petræa in partibus, 7; opposes liquor traffic, 10; founds Seminary at Quebec, 10; created bishop of Quebec, 12; not fully appreciated in his lifetime, 15; his noble birth, 17; his devotion to St. François Xavier and St. François d'Assisi, 18; a scholar at College of La Flèche, 19; inherits patrimony of Montigny, and called for a time Abbé de Montigny, 19; yields patrimony to his younger brother, Jean-Louis, 19, 21; admitted to congregation of the Holy Virgin, 20; receives tonsure at nine years of age and made canon of Evreux at fifteen, 20; leaves La Flèche at nineteen and goes to the College of Clermont at Paris, 21; death of his two elder brothers, 21; his mother desires him to marry, 21; appointed archdeacon of cathedral of Evreux, 22; his zealous performance of his duties, 23; goes to Rome in expectation of an appointment as one of three bishops for Asia, 23; resigns his archdeaconry, 23; becomes inmate of Hermitage of de Bérnières at Caen, 24, 25; recommended by Jesuits as vicar apostolic for Canada, 26; consecrated as such by papal nuncio, 26; arrives at Quebec, June 16, 1659, 26; his authority questioned, 27; demands written recognition of his authority, 28; suspends the Abbé de Queylus, 28; manner and personal appearance, 28, 29; attention to the sick, 33; his different places of residence in Quebec, 33; friction with Governor D'Argenson, 34; his efforts to prevent sale of brandy to the Indians, 36-39; sails for[212] France, obtains recall of D'Avaugour, and military reinforcements for colony, 39; his influence in the creation of the Sovereign Council, 40; returns to Canada, 41; founds Seminary, 47, 48; his regulations therefor approved by the king, 50; obtains authority to collect tithes, 50; receives flattering letters from the king and Colbert, with gift of money, 52; resides at Seminary, 55; opposed to permanent livings for clergy, 55; his personal income transferred to the Seminary, 56; imposes on himself many privations, 56; affiliates Seminary with Foreign Missions of Paris, 57; acquires seigniory of Beaupré and exchanges it for Île Jésus, 58; baptizes Iroquois chief, 65; visits various settlements of Christian Indians, 74; bears testimony to the high character of De Tracy, 81; describes church at Quebec in letter to Pope, 84; approves of works of piety instituted by Jesuits, 86; encourages devotion to the Holy Family, 86; his visits to Montreal, 87; his wise views, 98; watches over instruction of youth, 99; establishes boarding school at St. Joachim, 100; encourages Brotherhood of Ste. Anne, 101; builds first sanctuary of Ste. Anne at Beaupré, 101; makes pilgrimage to Beaupré, 101; his instructions to missionaries, 105-107; receives Récollets with benevolence, 111; his zeal for primary education, 124; appointed bishop, 129, 136; his letter to the Propaganda, 131; has manager appointed for his abbey of Lestrées, 138; rents it to Berthelot, 138; exchanges Island of Orleans for Île Jésus, 138; visits his family in France, 139; family troubles, 139; renews connection of Seminary with Foreign Missions of Paris, 140; returns to Canada, 141, 169; sails for France in connection with liquor traffic question, 173; erects parish of Notre Dame de Montreal, 175; joins it to Seminary of St. Sulpice, 175; his interest in chapel of Bonsecours, 178; bows to king's decision on tithes question, 181; returns to Canada, 184; resists attempt to connect his diocese with archbishopric of Paris, 184; bestows all his property on the Seminary of Quebec, 185; letter to the king, 187; visits parishes and missions, 189, 190; illness, 190; letter to king as to need for reinforcements, 192; establishes chapter of diocese, 197; sails for France, 198; resigns as bishop in favour of Saint-Vallier, 200; returns to Canada, 202, 220; physical suffering, 205; letter to Saint-Vallier, 206; disagreement with Saint-Vallier on the subject of the Seminary, 208; his return to Canada delayed, 211; returns, 219, 220; receives his successor, 221; his conduct during siege of Quebec, 231; his grief over the policy adopted in regard to the Seminary, 235; his escape from burning building, 240; his labours in extreme age, 244; his admiration of the Charron brothers, 247; his habits and practices described by Brother Houssart, 251-256; by De la Colombière, 256, 257; his death, 263; miraculous cures attributed to, 264; burial in cathedral and subsequent transfer of remains to Seminary, 265, 266. F Arrival of, as vicar apostolic and bishop of Petræa in partibus, 43; sends De Queylus back to France, 43; disagrees with Governor D'Argenson, 45; also with D'Avaugour, 46; sails for France, 1662, 46; procures recall of D'Avaugour and appointment of Mézy, 48; returns to Quebec, September, 1663, 48; establishes Quebec Seminary, 48; and Lesser Seminary, 49; quarrels with Mézy, 50; sails for France to settle question of bishopric, May, 1672, 70; made bishop of Quebec, and returns to Canada, 1675, 71; establishes Ecclesiastical Court, 111; curtails honours paid to governor in church, 112; king's instructions on the subject, 113; Frontenac's estimate of bishop's revenue, 114; objects to trading permits issued by governor, as involving selling of liquor to Indians, 116; gains the king over to his views, 116; sends grand-vicar to France to uphold his policy, 118; goes to France to press his views, 1678, 125; effect of his elevation to rank of bishop, 164; not favour[213]able to permanent curacies, 165, 190; rejects offer of Récollets to serve the parishes without any fixed provision for their support, 165; determines to resign, 190; goes to France, 1684, 191; chooses Saint-Vallier as his successor, 191; describes Canada as "the country of miracles," 301. Bib.: Têtu, Esquisse Biographique de Laval; Esquisse de la Vie, etc., de Laval; Parkman, Old Régime; Gosselin, François de Montmorency-Laval; Colby, Canadian Types of the Old Régime; Le Vénérable François de Montmorency-Laval; Douglas, Old France in the New World; Dent, Can. Por.

Laval, Guy de. L Ancestor of Bishop Laval, 17.

Laval, Henri de. L His letter to his brother the bishop, 139; second letter, 141.

Laval, Hugues de. L Father of Bishop Laval, 17.

Laval, Jean-Louis. L Brother of Bishop Laval, 19; bad conduct of, 139.

Laval University. Founded, 1668, as the Quebec Seminary, and granted a royal charter in 1852, at the instance of Lord Elgin, then governor-general. Index: L Its origin traced to Quebec Seminary, 99. See also Quebec Seminary. Bib.: Hamel, Sketch of Laval University in Canada: An Ency., vol. 4; Roy, L'Université Laval et les Fêtes du Cinquantenaire.

Lavalette. Ch A Basque, fishes on Acadian coast as early as 1565, 59.

La Vallée, de. Ch Godfather of young Hurons, 233.

La Valtrie, Séraphin Marganne, Sieur de (1643-1693). A native of St. Benoit de Paris. Obtained a lieutenancy in the Lignières Regiment; took service under De Tracy, 1664, and came to Canada the following year. Granted the seigniory of Lavaltrie in 1672; sent to the western posts as commandant, and replaced by La Durantaye, 1683; accompanied Denonville on his expedition against the Iroquois, 1687. Killed, 1693. Index: F Seignior, commands militia; in 1687 in attack on Iroquois, 209; killed by Iroquois in 1693, 323. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Laverdière, Charles Honoré (1826-1873). Educated at Laval University. Studied for the church and ordained priest. Joined the faculty of Laval, and became university librarian. Ch On question of Champlain's tomb, 261-262. Bib.: Edited the Works and Voyages of Champlain; and completed Ferland's Cours d'Histoire du Canada; author of Histoire du Canada; Samuel de Champlain; edited, with Abbé Casgrain, the Journal des Jesuites, 1645-1668.

La Vérendrye, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de (1685-1749). Son of René Gaultier, Sieur de Varennes, governor of Three Rivers. Served in the New England campaign of 1704, and the following year in Newfoundland. In 1707 with the army in Flanders, and wounded at Malplaquet in 1709. Returning to Canada, engaged in the fur trade, for some years on the St. Maurice, and 1727-1728 on Lake Nipigon. There conceived the idea of exploring the unknown country beyond Lake Superior, to discover the Western Sea, a project to which he devoted the remainder of his life. Left Montreal for the West in 1731; built forts on Rainy Lake and Lake of the Woods, and in the succeeding years penetrated to Lake Winnipeg, Red River, and the Assiniboine. In 1738 made a journey to the Mandan villages on the Missouri; and the following year one of his sons penetrated to the Saskatchewan. In 1742, unable to go himself, sent two of his sons far to the south-west. They hoped, as he had always hoped, to reach at last the Western Sea, but were baffled by hostile tribes and the barrier of the Rocky Mountains. In 1743 returned finally to Montreal, broken in health and heavily in debt. Six years later died there. His sons begged to be allowed to continue his western explorations, but[214] hostile influences made this impossible. WM Discoverer of the Rocky Mountains, 19. L Carries explorations as far as the Rocky Mountains, 11. MS Leads the way inland from Lake Superior, 3; his search for Western Sea, 40; his reply to charge of making money in fur trade, 281. Bib.: Prud'homme, Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Vérendrye (R. S. C., 1905); Laut, Pathfinders of the West; Parkman, Half Century of Conflict; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea. See also his journals in Canadian Archives Report, 1889; Richard's Summary (Can. Arch., 1904); and Margry, Découvertes et Établissements des Français. His Journals are now being edited for the Champlain Society, Toronto.

La Vigne, Captain de. Ch Sails for France with Champlain, 141.

Laviolette. Hd Three Rivers founded by, in 1634, 43-44.

Law. Dr Confusion and abuse in administration of, 51-55.

Law, Captain John. S First sergeant at arms of the Upper Canada Assembly, 85; a retired officer of the Queen's Rangers, 85.

Law, John. R Headmaster of Gore district Grammar School, Upper Canada, 4; Egerton Ryerson studies under, 5.

Lawrence, Charles. Entered the army as ensign, 1727; captain, 1742; and major, 1747. Accompanied Warburton's Infantry to Nova Scotia, and engaged in the French wars at Cobequid, 1749-1750; brigadier-general under Amherst at the siege of Louisbourg, 1758. Nine years earlier had been appointed a member of the Council of Nova Scotia; administered the government on the retirement of Governor Hopson, 1753; lieutenant-governor, 1754; and governor, 1756. The first Assembly met under his governorship, 1758. Responsible for the expulsion of the Acadians. Died at Halifax, Oct. 19, 1760. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Akins, History of Halifax; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Hannay, History of Acadia; Richard, Acadia. See also Acadians, Expulsion of the.

Lawrence, Joseph W. T Supports Tilley in 1850, 10.

Laws, Captain. Dr Sent with seventy men to attack Arnold in rear, 129; completes discomfiture of enemy, 131. Hd Effects arrest of Du Calvet, 285.

Le Baillif. Ch Under clerk at Tadoussac, 133; placed in charge of storehouse by Kirke, 195; a bad character, 202-204.

Le Baillif, George. Ch Récollet missionary, 87; goes to France, as delegate from colony, 136.

Lebel, J. G. E Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 187.

Le Ber, Jeanne, daughter of Jacques Le Ber, of Montreal. Index: L Birth, baptism, and virtues of, 91; mortifications practised by, 92.

Le Ber, Pierre. L House of charity established by, 245.

Le Ber de Senneville, Jacques (1633-1706). One of the principal merchants of Montreal; married in 1658 Jeanne, sister of Charles Le Moyne. In 1673 engaged with Aubert de la Chesnaye in the fur trade at Cataraqui, and aroused the hostility of Governor Perrot of Montreal, who was also interested in the fur trade. In 1675 sold out his rights at Cataraqui to La Salle; and four years later acquired the seigniory of Senneville. Mentioned in 1691 as in a fur-trading partnership with Frontenac. Index: F Imprisoned by Perrot, 92; La Barre's dealings with, 175. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Le Borgne de Belle Isle, Emmanuel. Ch Takes Fort St. Pierre, 236.

Le Brun de Duplessis, Jean-Baptiste. Born at Corbie, in Picardy, about 1730. Came to Canada about 1755 and joined the Béarn Regiment; practised as a notary in Quebec for many years. Died there some time after 1796. See R. S. C., Trans., 1900, I, 129-130. Index: Dr Carleton's account of, 68.[215]

Le Canadien. Newspaper, published at Quebec. Index: BL On the political situation in 1842, 116. C First French newspaper in Quebec, 95; suppressed by Governor Craig, 95. P Established in 1806 by Bédard, Panet, and other French-Canadian leaders, 28; suppressed by Sir James Craig, 29.

Le Caron, Joseph. Ch Récollet missionary, 85; goes to country of the Hurons, 88; with Champlain visits the Tionnontates or Petuneux, 106; meets Father d'Olbeau at Three Rivers, 107; sails for France, 111; becomes commissary of the Récollets, in Canada, 112; performs first marriage ceremony in Canada, 113; proceeds to Huron country, 149; returns to France, 208; death of, 226. L Missionary labours of, 3. Bib.: Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Le Chausseur. F Secretary to Frontenac, 139.

Le Clercq, Chrestien. Récollet missionary in Canada, and historian of his order. Index: F On great need for Récollet order in Canada, 72; on Schenectady massacre, 247; on "flag" incident in siege of Quebec, 296. Ch Quoted, 112, 114; praises virtue of early Canadian settlers, 258. Bib.: Établissement de la Foy dans la Nouvelle France, trans. by Shea, under the title First Establishment of the Faith; Nouvelle Relation de la Gaspesie, trans. for the Champlain Society by Ganong, under the title New Relation of Gaspesia. Both these translations give in the introductions biographical details of the author as far as known.

Lecompte-Dupré, J. B. Dr Colonel of Quebec militia, 246.

Le Diable. WM Name given to floating battery, 87, 104.

Le Du. S French priest, deported, 190.

Lee. W Receiver-general, New Brunswick, 69.

Le Faucheur. Ch One of the men landed by Kirke on St. Pierre Island, 174.

Le Foulon. Now known as Wolfe's Cove. Index: WM Guard of 100 men at, 160; Wolfe carefully examines from the river, 168; learns that it is poorly guarded, 171; effects landing at, 181.

Le Gardeur de Repentigny, Jean Baptiste (1632-1709). Son of Pierre Le Gardeur (q.v.). His father brought him to Canada at the age of four years. Resided in Montreal, 1642-1643; and in 1656 married Marguerite, daughter of Jean Nicolet, the explorer. In 1663 elected mayor of Quebec, but promptly resigned under official pressure, the policy of the government being opposed to anything approaching popular government. Raised a company of volunteers at Quebec in 1665, and accompanied the regulars to Three Rivers, which they were just in time to save from an Iroquois attack. In 1687 accompanied Denonville on his expedition against the Iroquois. Index: F Goes to France on behalf of Montreal colonists, 36. Ch Acts as godfather to young Hurons, 233. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Le Gardeur de Repentigny, Pierre. Arrived at Quebec from Normandy with his wife and family, 1636. Obtained a grant of land from the Company of New France, and engaged in the fur trade. In 1644 went to France to secure concessions for the Company of Habitants, which he had been instrumental in organizing. In 1647 granted the seigniories of Cournoyer and Repentigny, but did not live long to enjoy them, as he died the following year on his way to France. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Le Gardeur de Tilly, Charles (1611-1695). Brother of Pierre Le Gardeur de Repentigny; a native of Normandy; came to Canada in 1636; and in 1648 made governor of Three Rivers. Married the same year Geneviève Juchereau. In 1660 granted the fief of St. Michel by the Company of New France; and transferred it to the Seminary in 1668. In 1673 acted for the governor, Fron[216]tenac, during his absence at Cataraqui, but afterwards fell into his bad graces. Index: L Member of Sovereign Council, 158, 166; temporarily banished from Quebec, 167. F Member of Sovereign Council, 106. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Legendre, Lucas. Ch Purchases supplies for De Monts's second expedition to Quebec, 56.

Legislative Assembly. Mc Composition of, under Constitutional Act, 53; Goldwin Smith on, 54; irritation between, and Executive Council, 54, 55; Lord Durham on, 56, 58, 59, 60; true principle of government, 61, 63. S First of Upper Canada, list of members and their counties, 80; opening of, at Niagara, 82.

Legislative Council. Mc Created by Constitutional Act, 52; Lord Durham criticizes and suggests revision, 57; attitude of Lower Canada Reformers to, 69; rejects three hundred and twenty-five bills in eight years, 73; Sir John Colborne on, 268; collision with Assembly, 276; should be elective, 277; Glenelg insists that it shall be non-elective, 324. Sy Its constitution, 77, 175; its activity under Constitutional Act, 80; in Lower Canada English-speaking element dominant in, 81; demand that it should be made elective, 84; Sydenham's description of, 220; enlarged by Sir George Arthur with good results, 220; members opposed to union record their dissent, 231; S Suspicious of later Loyalist emigration, 57. Dr Appointed under Quebec Act, first meeting of, 90; how composed, 269; its power of veto, 277; its sympathies with governor and against people, 277. Hd Its welcome to Haldimand, 117-118; composition of, 175; statement made regarding power of, 188; sees Haldimand depart, 309; changes in membership of, at change of governor, 314.

Legislative Union. Md Strongly favoured by Macdonald; opposed by Maritime Provinces and Lower Canada, 107-109, 245.

L'Huillier, Raoul. Ch Director of Company of New France, 170.

Leisler, Jacob. F Seizes government of New York, 266.

Le Jeune, Paul. Superior of Jesuits in Canada. Came to Canada in 1632, and went on a mission to the Algonquians the following year; succeeded by Vimont as superior, 1639; appointed to the governor's Council, 1640; returned to France the same year; proposed for bishop of Quebec. Index: L Bishopric of Quebec offered to, 25. F Preaches funeral sermon on Champlain, 27. Ch Celebrates mass in house of Mme. Hébert, 148; his letter on education of Indian children, 230, 231; describes first service in church, 239; preaches funeral sermon over Champlain, 261; advises Mme. Champlain, 264. Bib.: Relations, 1632-1640; Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Douglas, Old France in the New World.

Lelièvre, S. E Commissioner under Seigniorial Tenure law, 186.

Lemaire. L Servant in the Seminary, Laval's account of, 250.

Lemaistre, Simon. Ch Director of Company of New France, 170.

Lemaître. L Sulpician, comes out in St. André, 31; his attentions to those suffering from the plague, 32; dies a martyr, 91.

Le Marchant, Sir John Gaspard (1803-1874). H Becomes governor of Nova Scotia, 1852, 143; his connection with the Foreign Enlistment Act, 149-152. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Lemoyne, Mme. Jacques. L Land bought from, for church at Montreal, 88.

Le Moyne, Paul, Sieur de Maricourt (1663-1704). Son of Charles Le Moyne, Sieur de Longueuil. Born in Montreal. Accompanied De Troyes and Iberville on the expedition against the Hudson Bay forts, Moose Factory, Rupert, and Albany, in 1686; and left in charge of the captured posts when the leaders returned to Quebec. Again served with Iberville on the bay in 1689, in the[217] capture of the Hampshire. The following year brought a party of voyageurs to help in the defence of Quebec against Admiral Phipps. Once more with his brother Iberville on Hudson Bay, in 1694, and took part in the capture of Fort Nelson. Inherited much of his father's remarkable influence over the Iroquois, and negotiated an important treaty with them about the beginning of the eighteenth century. Index: F Accompanies expedition to Hudson Bay, 206; arrives at Quebec, during siege by Phipps, 292; with his brother, Iberville, in Hudson Bay, 343. L Takes part in expedition to Hudson Bay, 204. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West. See also Iberville.

Lemoyne, Simon. Ch Jesuit, professor in College of Rouen, 207.

Le Moyne de Ste. Hélène, Jacques (1659-1690). Son of Charles Le Moyne, and brother of Iberville, Bienville, and other members of this noted family. Trained, like Iberville, for the navy; returned to Canada, and in 1686 accompanied De Troyes on the Hudson Bay expedition. Took part in the raid on Schenectady in 1690; and mortally wounded during the siege of Quebec by Phipps. Index: F Accompanies expedition to Hudson Bay, 208; commands in war party against Schenectady, 235; mortally wounded in skirmish on Beauport flats, 299. L Takes part in expedition to Hudson Bay, 204; killed in siege of Quebec, 231. Bib.: See Iberville.

Le Moyne de Serigny, Joseph (1668-1734). Son of Charles Le Moyne, and brother of Iberville, Bienville, and St. Hélène. Accompanied Iberville to Hudson Bay, 1690, and left in command of Fort Albany after its capture. Again in the bay with Iberville in 1694 and in 1697. Given command of Fort Nelson the latter year. Joined Iberville in Louisiana in 1700, and associated with him in the development of the colony. Reached high rank in the navy, and was governor of Rochefort at the time of his death. Index: F Goes to France on affairs of Hudson Bay, 345. Bib.: See Iberville.

Le Moyne. See Bienville; Iberville; Longueuil.

Le National. Newspaper published at Montreal. Index: C Founded as organ of Le Parti National, in 1872, 30.

Leonard, Samuel. T English schoolmaster, 5.

Leopard and Chesapeake. Bk Affair of, 82-86.

Leroux, Laurent (1758-1855). Western fur trader. Index: MS Builds post on Great Slave Lake, 18; sends Sutherland and the "English Chief" to northern tribes, 18; with Mackenzie at Chipewyan, 33; Mackenzie's return, 48; post on Great Slave Lake, 49; sent to Beaver Indians, 49. Bib.: Morice, Dict. Hist. des Canadiens de l'Ouest; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Le Roy, Marguerite. Ch Mother of Champlain, 1.

Le Sage, Captain. WM Repulses landing of English, 107.

Lesage, Marguerite. Ch Wife of Nicolas Rivert, 146.

Lescarbot, Marc. Born at Vervins, near Laon, France, about 1570. Studied law and called to the bar in 1599. The previous year delivered two Latin orations before the papal legate sent by Clement VIII to arrange the terms of the treaty of Vervins. Through Poutrincourt (q.v.), who had been one of his clients, induced to sail for Port Royal, 1606; and spent twelve months in the New World, returning to France in 1607. While at Port Royal, took an active part in the work of building, gardening, etc., spent much of his time hunting and fishing; and in the evening read and composed many of the poems afterwards included in his Muses de la Nouvelle France. On his return, set to work to prepare his account of Acadia. Spent the years 1612 to 1614 in Switzerland; married in 1619. Beyond this year, nothing is known of his[218] life. Index: Ch Arrival of, at Port Royal, 35; useful in the colony, 37; returns to France, 37. Bib.: Histoire de la Nouvelle France, Paris, 1609; 2nd ed., 1611; reprinted 1612; 3rd ed., 1618; reprint of 1612 issue, 1866. In 1907 the Champlain Society, Toronto, published a new edition, with an English translation and notes by W. L. Grant, and an introduction by H. P. Biggar. See also Demarsy, Notes sur Marc Lescarbot; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Hannay, History of Acadia.

Le Sire. Ch Clerk in De Caën's company, 138.

Leslie, Alexander (1740?-1794). British general. Index: Dr In command at Charleston, S. C., 197; embarks his force with large number of refugees, 204; joins Carleton at New York, 205.

Leslie, James. BL Victim of election frauds in 1841—elected for Verchères, 1842, 116; president of Executive Council, 1848, 284; a radical, 284; given seat in Legislative Council, 285; at farewell banquet to La Fontaine, 354. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Lesseps, Ferdinand de (1805-1894). Eminent French engineer. Index: Ch Undertakes Panama Canal, 6. Bib.: Chambers, Biog. Dict.

Leslie, James (1802-1885). Born in Dundee, Scotland. Came to Canada, 1820, settling first at Kingston, and afterwards at Toronto. A member of the first city council of Toronto. Arrested and imprisoned in connection with the Rebellion of 1837. Purchased the Examiner, 1844, and conducted it for ten years. One of the founders of the Clear Grit party. Index: E Proprietor of the Toronto Examiner, and a leader of the Clear Grits, 110-111. Mc President of Canadian Alliance Society, 258; delivers rejoinder to governor, 300; refuses to sign "declaration of independence," 331. B Leader of the Clear Grits, 39. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion and Last Forty Years.

Lestrées, Abbey of. L Bestowed by king on diocese of Quebec, 136.

Le Sueur, Jean de St. Sauveur. Ch Comes to Quebec, 252; Godfather to young Hurons, 223.

Le Tardif, Olivier. Born in Normandy, 1601. Came to Canada, 1620, and employed as an interpreter at Quebec. Married Louise Couillard, 1637. Index: Ch Interpreter, 144; remains in Quebec during English occupation, 208.

Letellier de St. Just, Luc (1820-1881). Born at Rivière Ouelle, Quebec. Called to the Senate for the division of Grandville, 1867; a member of the ministry, 1873; and in 1876 appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec; dismissed from office, 1879. Index: Md Appointed lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 247; quarrels with and dismisses the provincial ministry, 247-248; Macdonald brings the matter before Parliament, 248-249; his dismissal on the advice of the Dominion Cabinet, 249-250; his death, 250; political reasons for his dismissal, 251. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

Le Testu, Captain. Ch Member of court to try Duval for conspiracy, 43.

Le Valois, Father. L Recommends Saint-Vallier to succeed Laval, 199.

Lévis, Gaston-François, Chevalier de (1720-1787). Entered French army in 1735; named second in command to Montcalm, 1756; sailed for Canada the same year. On the death of Montcalm at Quebec, succeeded to the command of the French forces, and won the battle of Ste. Foy, 1760. After the capitulation, returned to France, and served under Condé against Prince Ferdinand. Created a marshal, 1783, and the following year a duke and peer of France. Index: WM Second in command to Montcalm, 2; his birth and descent, 8; military service 9, 10; character, 11; at battle of Carillon, 55, 60; confidence[219] of Montcalm in, 85; persuades Montcalm to extend line of defence to Montmorency River, 105; his great activity, 110, 118, 126; his bravery, 137; praises courage of troops, both regulars and Canadians, 143; congratulated by Vaudreuil on victory at Montmorency, 144; sent to defend western frontiers, 147; his absence from principal scene of conflict has disastrous results, 147; sends encouraging news from Montreal, 157; his presence and counsel much desired by Montcalm, 165; his absence on eve of battle greatly felt by Montcalm, 195; Montcalm bequeaths his papers to, 219; arrives at Jacques Cartier and takes command, 227; disapproves of retreat, 227; marches army back in hope of relieving Quebec, 229; his regret for death of Montcalm, 233; hears of capitulation of Quebec, 234; decides to march on Quebec in the spring, 241; his efforts to supply needs of his army, 242; occupies Ste. Foy, 256-266; takes possession of General Hospital, 265; arrival of British fleet compels him to retire, 267; surrender at Montreal, 268; his high military qualities, 268. L French general, burning of his flags by, 12. Hd Defeats Murray, 34; his final struggle, 36-37; surrenders, 38; account of having burned French flags, 39; not forgotten, 122. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, The Fight for Canada; Bradley, Fight with France; Collection des Manuscrits du Maréchal de Lévis, ed. by Casgrain.

Lévis, Heights of. Opposite Quebec. Index: WM Skirmishing on, 102.

Lewis, John. T Confederation candidate, elected in Albert County, New Brunswick, 89, 107.

Lewis, Meriwether (1774-1809), and Clark, William (1770-1838). American explorers. Sent by the United States Government, in 1803, to find an overland route to the Pacific by way of the Missouri. They ascended the Missouri in 1804, to the Mandan villages; wintered there; continued their journey in 1805, crossed the Rocky Mountains, and descended the Columbia River to its mouth. They spent the winter there, and retraced their steps in 1806 to the Missouri and St. Louis. Their party consisted of fourteen soldiers, nine young men from Kentucky, two boatmen, an interpreter, a hunter, and a negro servant of Captain Clark. Index: D At Clatsop, 44; on the Columbia, 59; their overland expedition, 60, 64, 66; mouth of the Columbia the objective, 66; objects of the enterprise, 66; personnel of the expedition, 67; route followed by, 67; information collected, 67; winter at Fort Clatsop, 67. Bib.: History of the Expedition to the Pacific Ocean, Philadelphia, 1814; new ed., New York, 1843. In addition to other reprints, three recent editions are: the Chicago edition of 1902, with introd. by Dr. J.K. Hosmer; the edition of 1893, in 4 vols., with copious notes and other critical equipment by Dr. Elliott Coues; and the even more elaborate edition prepared by Dr. R.G. Thwaites, New York, 1905, 8 vols. For biog. of Lewis and Clark, see Jefferson's Life of Lewis in Old South Leaflets, no. 44, and in the Hosmer edition; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Lexington. Hd Skirmish at, 103.

Liard River. A tributary of the Mackenzie; rises in the Yukon district, south-west of Frances Lake, about lat. 61°, long. 131°. Its length is about 550 miles. Explored by McLeod in 1834, and by Campbell in 1840. The Upper Liard is known only by Indian report. Fort Simpson, of the Hudson's Bay Company, is at the mouth of the main river; and Fort Liard at the confluence of Black River and the Liard, not far from the point where British Columbia, the Yukon, and the North-West Territories meet. Index: D Operations of Hudson's Bay Company on, 123.

Libel. Mc Mackenzie's bill on, 163.[220]

Liberal. Newspaper published at Toronto. Index: B Radical journal, founded after Liberal victory of 1874, 235.

Liberal Party. B Growth of, 209; overthrows Sir John A. Macdonald's government, and Ontario coalition government, 209-210. See Reform Party.

Libraries. The first public library in Canada was the Quebec library, founded in 1779 largely through the efforts of Haldimand. After many vicissitudes, the library was absorbed by the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. The first college library was that of the Seminary at Quebec, 1668; Montreal College library was opened in 1767; and King's College library in 1790. Legislative libraries were established in each of the provinces at an early date. In 1841 the libraries of Upper and Lower Canada were combined, and from this year dates the establishment of the library of Parliament. The first circulating library in Upper Canada was founded at Niagara in 1800. Similar libraries existed in Montreal as early as 1824, and at Kingston in 1836; the Red River library was founded at Fort Garry in 1847. Index: Hd First in Canada established by Haldimand, 190; merged in 1869 into Literary and Historical Society of Quebec, 190; objects and cost of, 191; appreciation of, 191. R Public school libraries established by Dr. Ryerson, for use by the community, 185-187. MS One established by Roderick Mackenzie at Fort Chipewyan, 26. BL W. L. Mackenzie maintains a circulating library, 13. E Provided for in Upper Canada after 1841, 88. S For Upper Canada, Simcoe recommends government to establish, 46; plan not adopted, 175. See also Books. Bib.: Bain, Public Libraries of Canada in Canada: An Ency., vol. 5.

Licorne. WM Frigate in which Montcalm embarked at Brest, 12.

Lieutenant-governor. Mc Office of, Durham's view of power of, 56, 57; surroundings of, in 1838, 61; position in both Upper and Lower Canada, 62.

Lieutenants. S Intended to be analogous to lords-lieutenant in England, appointed by Governor Simcoe for the principal counties in Upper Canada, 197; measure not approved by secretary of state, 197; appointments not continued by later governors, 198.

Ligneris. WM Force gathered by, and Aubry, dispersed, 146.

Lincoln, Abraham (1809-1865). Fourteenth president of the United States. Index: B Believed by George Brown to be favourable to renewal of Reciprocity Treaty, 192. Bib.: For biog. sketch, and bibliog. of lives, see Cyc. Am. Biog.; Larned, Lit. Am. Hist.

Lincoln, Benjamin (1733-1810). American general. Index: S United States commissioner, entertained by Simcoe at Navy Hall, 184, 229. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Lindsay, W. B. Sy Made clerk of Legislative Assembly, 334.

Lindsay, William. T Elected for the county of Carleton, New Brunswick, 89, 107.

Linschot. Ch His definition of the territory of New France, 211.

Lippincott, Captain. Dr Hangs Joshua Huddy, 198.

Liquor Question. B Agitated by Brown and the Globe, 75; the Canada Company and cheap whiskey, 75; the movement in and out of Parliament, 75-76. See also Brandy question; Stills; Cas reservé.

Lisgar, John Young, Baron (1807-1876). Born at Bombay. Entered Parliament in 1831; became lord of treasury in 1841, and secretary of the treasury, 1844-1846; chief secretary for Ireland, 1852-1855; and lord high commissioner of the Ionian Islands, 1855-1859. In 1861 sent to New South Wales as governor-general. Seven years later came to Canada as administrator;[221] and the following year appointed governor-general. Succeeded by Lord Dufferin in 1872. Index: C His arrival in Canada, 89; expresses views of Little Englanders—advises Canada to declare her independence, 89. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dent, Can. Por.

Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. P Founded by Lord Dalhousie, 41. Bib.: See list of publications, from 1829, in Lit. Am. Hist.; also Wurtële, List of Lectures, Papers, etc., 1829-1891.

Little Belt. Bk British corvette, fired on by United States frigate President, 173.

Littlehales, Edward B. S Accompanies Simcoe as major of brigade, 47; clerk of Council, 79; aide-de-camp to governor, 177; describes the site of the present city of London, 200, 201.

Livingstone. Dr Of Montreal, his disaffection, 79; commands rebel Canadians at Quebec, 132.

Livingstone, Philip (1716-1778). Dr President of Continental (American) Congress, 201. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Livius, Peter (1727?-1795). Resided at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. A member of the Council under the royal government; quarrelled with the governor and went to England to lay his complaints before the crown. Complaints dismissed, but appointed chief-justice of New Hampshire. At once transferred to Quebec as chief-justice; held office from 1777 to 1786; retired and went to England, where he died. Index: Dr Appointed chief-justice, 184; his character and abilities, 185; disagrees with Carleton, 188; carries dispute to Privy Council, 188. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.

Logan, Sir William Edmond (1798-1875). Born at Montreal, of United Empire Loyalist descent. Educated at the University of Edinburgh. After some years spent in business in England, and incidentally in studying the geological formation of the coal-fields of Wales, returned to Canada, and in 1842 appointed the first director of the Geological Survey. In 1863 issued an elaborate summary of the work accomplished by the Survey up to that time. Retired in 1870. Bib.: Geology of Canada. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Harrington, Life of Sir William E. Logan.

London. City of Ontario; founded by Peter McGregor, in 1826. Index: S Site of present city, selected by Simcoe as best place for capital of Upper Canada, 200, 205.

London Conference. See Westminster Conference.

Long Point. Lake Erie, north shore. Index: S Chosen by Simcoe as arsenal for Lake Erie, 204.

Longueuil, Charles Colmer Grant, Baron de. Sy Owner of "Alwington," 294.

Longueuil, Charles Le Moyne, Sieur de (1625?-1685). Son of an innkeeper of Dieppe. Came to Canada in 1641. In 1657 granted the seigniory of Longueuil. In De Tracy's expedition against the Iroquois, in 1666, commanded the Montreal militia, and was with Frontenac at Cataraqui in 1673. La Barre sent him to the Iroquois, 1682, to persuade them to meet him in council at Montreal. When, two years later, La Barre led an abortive expedition against the Iroquois, he was again compelled to depend upon Le Moyne's influence with the Iroquois to patch up a peace. Index: F Sent to invite Onondagas to a conference, 183, 184. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac.

Longueuil, Charles Le Moyne, Baron de (1656-1729). Son of Charles Le Moyne, Sieur de Longueuil (q.v.) Wounded, in 1687, in the Iroquois raid on Lachine.[222] Governor of Montreal. Administered the colony in 1725, before the arrival of Beauharnois. Index: F Commands militia in attack on Iroquois, 1687, 209. E Barony conferred on, in 1700, 181.

Longueuil, Charles Le Moyne, Baron de (1687-1755). Son of preceding. Administered the colony in 1752, after the departure of La Jonquière. Index: Dr In command of militia, in 1777, 187.

Loquin. Ch Company's clerk at Quebec, 139.

Longworth, John (1814-1885). Born at Charlottetown. Called to the bar of Prince Edward Island, 1838. Elected to the Assembly, 1846. Occupied offices in several successive administrations. Drafted the "No Terms Resolution" of the Assembly in connection with Confederation. Appointed prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island, 1883. Bib.: Campbell, History of Prince Edward Island.

Loranger, Thomas Jean Jacques (1823-1885). Born in Ste Anne d'Yamachiche, Quebec. Educated at Nicolet College; called to the bar, 1844. Sat in the Assembly, 1854-1863; held office in the Macdonald-Cartier ministry, 1857-1858. Appointed a judge of the Superior Court, 1863; retired, 1879. Subsequently engaged in the consolidation of the statutes of Quebec. Created by the pope a commander of the Order of Pius IX. Index: C Conservative leader in Quebec, his character, 25. Bib.: Dent, Last Forty Years.

Lorette. L Settlement of Christian Indians at, 74. WM British abandon their position at, 249.

Lorimer, Dr. Hd Consulted by Haldimand as to sanitary measures, 66, 70.

Lorin, Henri. F Author of Le Comte de Frontenac, referred to, 109, 126, 128, 142, 165, 174, 216, 231, 250.

Lormel, Captain de. Ch Brings out settlers, 252.

Lorne. See Argyll.

Lotbinière. See Joly de Lotbinière; Chartier de Lotbinière.

Louche, de. WM Takes direction of fireships, 98.

Loudon, James (1841- ). Born in Toronto. Educated at Upper Canada College and Toronto University, graduating 1862. Appointed to the staff of the university; professor of mathematics, 1875; and president of the university, 1892, succeeding Sir Daniel Wilson. One of the original fellows of the Royal Society of Canada. Retired from presidency of university, 1906. Index: BL Quoted on Baldwin's University Bill, 293. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; The University of Toronto and its Colleges, 1827-1906.

Loudon, John Campbell, fourth Earl of (1705-1782). General. Index: WM Made commander-in-chief of British forces in America, 33. Hd Commands Royal Americans, 11; his opinion of Pennsylvanians, 11. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Bradley, Fight with France.

Louis XIII, King of France (1601-1643). Succeeded his father, Henry IV, in 1610. Index: F Close relations of Frontenac family with, 62. Ch Demands restitution of Acadia, 212; plot against, 215. L Dedicated France to the Virgin Mary, 87. Bib.: Larousse, Dictionnaire Universel.

Louis XIV, King of France (1638-1715). Succeeded his father, Louis XIII, in 1643. Index: F His war with Holland, 148; absolutism of his rule 151-153; desires to have permanent curacies (curés fixes) established in Canada, 164; private life of, 166; pronounces La Salle's discoveries useless, 176; later takes him under his special protection, 180. L Recommends creation of bishopric for New France and appointment of Laval thereto, 131; stipulates that archbishop of Rouen shall be metropolitan, 133; yields the point, 134; bestows[223] abbey of Lestrées on new diocese, 136; his decision on liquor question, 174; grants 8000 francs annually to Canadian clergy, 182; later reduces amount, 183; his disagreement with Pope Innocent XI, 201. Bib.: Voltaire, Siècle de Louis XIV; Saint-Simon, Mémoires.

Remains of the King's Bastion, Louisbourg Remains of the King's Bastion, Louisbourg

Louis XVI, King of France (1754-1793). Succeeded to the throne in 1774. Index: S Public mourning ordered in Upper Canada for death of, 193. Bib.: Larousse, Dictionnaire Universel.

Louisbourg. A seaport on the south-east coast of Cape Breton. Formerly the chief stronghold of France in America. The fortress, named after Louis XIV, was begun in 1790; twenty-five years were spent in fortifying it; and the cost was estimated at thirty million livres. Captured by the British under Pepperell and Warren in 1745; ceded back to France by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; and again captured by the British under Amherst and Boscawen, in 1758. Index: WM Guards Gulf of St. Lawrence, 17; composition of garrison, 30; capture of, 71; expedition against Quebec, sails to, 85. Ch Commonly known as Port aux Anglais, 236. See also Cape Breton; Boscawen; Wolfe; Amherst. Bib.: Parkman, Half-Century of Conflict and Montcalm and Wolfe; Lettre d'un Habitant, ed. by Wrong; Archibald, First Siege of Louisbourg (R. S. C., 1887); Bourinot, Cape Breton and its Memorials; Wood, Logs of the Conquest of Canada.

Louisbourg Grenadiers. WM On British right, at Quebec, 189; re-embark after fall of Quebec, 236.

Louise, Princess. Daughter of Queen Victoria; born 1848. Index: E Comes to Canada with her husband, the Marquis of Lorne, 122.

Louisiana. Hd Secretly transferred to Spain by France, 64; Spanish rule unpopular, 77; revolution in, 79; counter-revolution, 81; contemplated invasion of, 81. L Colony sent to, 152. Bk Cession of by France to Spain, 38; re-ceded to France, 38; purchased by United States, 42; acquisition of, changes attitude of United States towards Great Britain, 43. Bib.: Le Page du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiane. For further material, see Lit. Am. Hist.

Lount, Samuel (1791-1838). Mc Member for Simcoe, 316; election corruption, 317; given command of rebels, 360; arrives at Montgomery's tavern, 362; his account of the flag of truce, 369; his first engagement, 373; his second engagement, 379; leaves country, 380; executed, 435; his fidelity, 435; petitions for commutation, 435; effect of his execution, 436; monument to, 436. BL Hanged for his share in the Rebellion of 1837, 44-45. Bib.: Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion; Kingsford, History of Canada.

L'Ouverture, Toussaint. Bk Establishes independent republic in St. Domingo, 39, 40; death of, 40.

Louvigny, Louis de la Porte, Sieur de (1652-1730). Accompanied Denonville on his expedition against the Iroquois, 1687; sent by Frontenac to relieve La Durantaye in 1690; in command at Three Rivers in 1701; two years later commanded an expedition to Detroit; major of Quebec, 1706; sent to Michilimackinac in 1713; four years later at Detroit, and led an expedition against the Fox Indians; at Quebec in 1724 as lieutenant du roi. Index: F Sent with reinforcements to Michilimackinac, 241. Bib.: Cadillac Papers (Michigan Hist. Coll., vol. 33); Parkman, Frontenac.

Lovett, John. Bk Secretary to General Van Rensselaer, letters of, 263-265, 286.

Low, Albert Peter (1861- ). Born in Montreal. Educated at McGill University, graduating in 1882 with honours. Appointed to Geological Survey[224] 1881, and promoted to geologist, 1891. Spent many years in exploring the Labrador peninsula, and is the chief authority on its geography and geology. Appointed director of the Survey, and deputy minister of mines, 1907. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Lowell. S White settler among Grand River Indians, murdered by Isaac Brant, 191.

Lower Canada. Mc Crisis approaching in, 287; Imperial commissioners' report, 323; against responsible government, 325; events leading to Rebellion, 327; asks other provinces for support, 329; crisis arrives, August, 1837, 344; arrest of editors, 344; condition of, in 1837, 347; rebellion in, 358. BL Population of, at time of conquest, 1; its character, 1; British immigration, 8; racial conflict, 8; political situation after 1815, 9, 16-21; reorganization of its judicial system, 184-185. Bk Population of, 45. Sy Desire of majority to have the province wholly French, 68; Pitt's expectations regarding, 68; governors of, ally themselves with English-speaking element, 69; rupture between the two races inevitable, 86, 87; Rebellion, 87. Bib.: Kingsford, History of Canada; Christie, History of Lower Canada; Garneau, History of Canada; McMullen, History of Canada; Bibaud, Histoire du Canada sous la Domination Anglaise; Political and Historical Account of Lower Canada, by a Canadian, London, 1830.

Lowther, Catherine. WM Wolfe's attachment to, 70, 72; Wolfe entrusts her portrait to Captain Jervis, 175. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Willson, Life and Letters of James Wolfe; Wood, The Fight for Canada.

Loyal American Regiment. Dr Commanded by Beverley Robinson, 202. W Commanded by Beverley Robinson, 3; Lemuel Wilmot a captain in, 3.

Loyalist. Newspaper published at St. John, New Brunswick. W Attacks Wilmot and Fisher, 74-75; libel case arising out of, 75.

Loyalist Corps. Hd Formed, 253. Dr Practice of purchase of commissions prevented in, 217; six disbanded and settled in Nova Scotia, 218.

Loyalists, United Empire. Name applied to the inhabitants of the Thirteen Colonies who remained loyal to Great Britain, and rather than submit to the new republic, migrated to Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. No adequate provision having been made for them by the mother country, in the treaty of Paris (1783), the Loyalists were compelled in most cases to abandon all their worldly possessions, and start life anew in the pioneer settlements of the north. May 18, 1783, one great section of the refugees landed at the mouth of the St. John River, and built a town, first named Parrtown, later St. John. Other settlements were made, about the same time, at various points on the coasts of Nova Scotia, as well as on St. John's Island (Prince Edward Island). The bulk of the migration to what was then Quebec (now Ontario and Quebec) took place in 1784, the eastern Loyalists going north by way of Lake Champlain and the Richelieu, and settling in the Eastern Townships; those of the West crossing the boundary at Niagara and other points, and spreading throughout the backbone of the future province of Upper Canada. Index: B Land grants to their children fall into hands of speculators, 53. S Settlement of Upper Canada by, 1; Carleton's interest in, 51; their sufferings, 52, 54; claims for losses paid to, 55; settlements of, during and after war, 56; pretenders among, 57; those from England not generally good settlers, 58; assisted by government, 60; their hardships, 61; their mode of life, 62-69; names of those who had joined British side before treaty of 1783, registered, 70; clauses of treaty of Paris respecting, not carried out by United States,[225] 118; consequently further emigration of to Canada, 119. Sy Constitutional Act an attempt to placate, 68. Bk Rations issued to, from Fort Niagara, 58; Brock (1804) observes and reports on comfortable condition of many of them, 65. Dr Emigration of, 64; commended to Carleton's special care, 194; their pitiable condition, 196; twenty regiments of, in Carleton's command, 202; their consternation on learning of proposed terms of peace, 206; left unprotected by treaty of peace, 213; large number of, embark for Nova Scotia, 214; Carleton continues occupation of New York till all have left the country, 215, 216; their emigration to different British provinces, 218; widows of, apply for pensions, 218, 219; effect of their settlement in Canada, 221, 244, 248; increase of their numbers in western Canada, 224; two distinct waves of emigration, 236; settlements of at Niagara, and Sorel, 236, 237; claim representative institutions, 237; those in Kingston district petition for church establishments, 238; their destitute condition, 238; their political weight underestimated by Dorchester, 248; the Seigniorial Tenure system unsuited to, 256; Dorchester's suggestion for conferring distinction on, 260. E Extravagant land grants to, 144; Durham on, 144-145; settled along Niagara River, 194. MS In the wilderness, 11. R Methodist preachers in Upper Canada of Loyalist stock, 38; included many of the influential families, 62; Ryerson's history of, 270, 274, 279. H Emigrate to the loyal western colonies, 13, 17. BL Come to Maritime Provinces and Canada, 4-5; their numbers and character, 5; in Lower Canada, 17; support Common School Bill, 105; Md Dread possibility of revolution, 20. T Severe treatment of, 3; they settle in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 3-4, 35. Hd Come to Canada, 125; houses built for, 138, 182; military service of, 136, 137; at Niagara, 152; employed on fortifications of Quebec, 183; in Vermont negotiations, 200, 202, 206; at Cataraqui, 236, 265; Washington's severity towards, 249, 250; arrangements for their reception in Canada, 250, 254; not less patriotic than the opposite party, 251; brutal treatment of, 252; compared with Jacobites, 253; Haldimand's care of, 254; lands allotted to, 255; surveys made for, 263; flock into Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 263; their advent viewed with alarm by French Canadians, 264; fed and clothed by government for three years, 265; not fully appreciative of assistance given, 266; difficulty of dealing with, 267-271, 348; some impostors among, 268, 306. Mc Hardships suffered by, on account of naturalization laws, 140-141; bills for their relief, 142-143. Bib.: Sabine, Loyalists of the American Revolution; Ryerson, Loyalists of America; Campbell, Travels in North America; Canniff, The Settlement of Upper Canada; Casselman, United Empire Loyalists of the County of Dundas, Ontario; Haight, Country Life in Canada Fifty Years Ago; Bourinot, Builders of Nova Scotia; Frousac, Rise of the Loyalists; Loyalists of New York in the American Revolution in Columbia University Studies; Curwen, Journal and Letters; Myers, The Tories or Loyalists in America; Eardley-Wilmot, Loyalists' Centennial Souvenir; St. John, The Centennial of the Settlement of Upper Canada by the United Empire Loyalists; Denison, United Empire Loyalists; (R. S. C., 1904); Van Tyne, Loyalists in the American Revolution; Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada.

Ludovica. Ch Name proposed by Champlain for Quebec; 124.

Lumagne. Ch Merchant, compensation awarded to, for goods seized, 221.

Lumber Trade. Bk Canadian, great increase of, 125.

Lundy's Lane, Battle of (1814). British troops, including Canadian militia, numbered 1600 at the beginning of the battle, later increased to 2800, under the command of Sir Gordon Drummond; United States troops about 4000,[226] under General Jacob Brown. The engagement opened in the evening, and continued late into the night; the Americans finally withdrew from the field. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812. See also War of 1812.

Lusignan, Paul Louis Dazemard de. Commanded Fort St. Frédéric (Crown Point) in 1749, when the Swedish naturalist, Peter Kalm, visited the place; and remained there for several years. Served under Montcalm at the siege of Quebec. Index: WM Relieves Montcalm, 120.

Luth, De. L Royal engineer, directs erection of fortifications, 214.

Lymburner, Adam (1746-1836). Born in Kilmarnock, Scotland. Came to Canada about 1776, and settled at Quebec, where he succeeded to the business of his brother John, who had been lost at sea in 1775. For many years a member of the Executive Council, and took an active part in public affairs. Died in London at the age of ninety. Index: Dr Proceeds to England with petition for political changes, 243; arrives in England, 251; opposes division of province, 257. S Recommends system of representation adapted to strengthen English-speaking minority, 2; heard at bar of House of Commons, 6. Bk Sent to England to oppose division of Canada into two provinces, 49. Bib.: Lucas, History of Canada; Bradley, Making of Canada; Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada.

Lynch, John Joseph (1816-1888). Born near Clones, Ireland. Studied in Dublin, and entered the Lazarist order. Came to America in 1847; laboured as a missionary in Texas, 1847-1848; became president of the Lazarist College of St. Mary, Missouri, 1848; coadjutor to the bishop of Toronto, 1859; and bishop, 1860. In 1870, consecrated archbishop of Toronto and metropolitan of Ontario. His jubilee celebrated in 1884. Index: R His policy as to separate schools, 235-236; proposed as member of Council of Public Instruction of Upper Canada, 236. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Lyndhurst, John Singleton Copley, Baron (1772-1863). British statesman. Index: Md Denounces Rebellion Losses Bill, 241. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Lyonne, De. Ch Jesuit, founder of missions at Nipisiguit and Chedabucto, 235.

Lyons, Richard Bickerton Pemell, Earl (1817-1887). British diplomatist. Index: B British ambassador at Washington—suggested that he confer with Canadian agent on reciprocity, 192. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Lyons. S Teaches school at Hay Bay, 167.

Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer, Baron (1803-1873). Novelist and statesman. Index: E Colonial secretary,—his views on the duties of colonial governors, 4. D His series of despatches, 1858, on government of British Columbia, 231-235. T On the Confederation question, 63. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Escott, Edward Bulwer, First Baron Lytton of Knebworth.

Lyveden, Robert Vernon, Baron (1800-1873). British statesman. Index: B Dwells upon defencelessness of Canada, 184. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Mabane, Adam (1734-1792). Born in Scotland. Studied medicine at Edinburgh University; came to Canada, and practised his profession in Quebec. In 1764 appointed a judge, and presided over the first civil court held in Quebec. Member of the provincial Council; and in 1766 surgeon of the garrison of Quebec. Index: Dr Member of Council, protests against position taken by Carleton, 34; dismissed from Council, 39; appointed judge, 183. Hd Head of military hospital, 178; intimate friend of Haldimand, 300, 304; made judge and member of Legislative Council, 305; not in favour under[227] Dorchester régime, 314, 315; his headstrong temper, 332; his letter to Haldimand, 340; receives bequest from Haldimand, 342. Bib.: Bradley, Making of Canada; Shortt and Doughty, Constitutional Documents of Canada.

M'Afee, Samuel. Mc Aids Mackenzie's escape, 400.

Macallum, A. R In charge of union school at Hamilton, 195.

McBride, Richard (1870- ). Born in New Westminster, British Columbia. Educated at the public and high schools, New Westminster. Elected to the British Columbia Assembly, 1898; minister of mines in Dunsmuir administration; premier of British Columbia, 1903. Bib.: Canadian Who's Who.

McCarthy, Charles Justin. R Martyr of early Canadian Methodism, 41.

McCarthy, D'Alton (1836-1898). Born in Dublin, Ireland. Came to Canada with his parents, 1847. In 1858 called to the bar; in 1871 a bencher of the Law society; and in 1872 made a Q. C. In 1876 elected to Parliament for Cardwell, as a Conservative, but in 1889 severed his connection with the party on the question of the Jesuits' Estates Act. In 1896 member of Parliament for North Simcoe. Index: Md Opposes commercial union, 295. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Hopkins, D'Alton McCarthy in Men of the Day.

Macartney, Captain. WM Rescues French soldiers from floating ice, 251.

Macaulay, Sir James Buchan (1793-1859). Born at Niagara, Ontario. Served in the Glengarry Fencibles during the War of 1812. In 1822 called to the bar and rose rapidly in his profession. A strong opponent of William Lyon Mackenzie, and in 1826 appeared as counsel against him. In 1829 became judge of the King's Bench; chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 1849-1856; and subsequently of the Court of Error and Appeal. Chairman of the commission to revise and consolidate the statutes of Canada and Upper Canada. Knighted, 1859. Index: Mc Defends destroyers of Colonial Advocate, 115; offers compensation, 117; Mackenzie's opinion of, 118; violates secrecy of private letters, 121; taunts Mackenzie, 123; Mackenzie retaliates, 124; writes venomous pamphlet, 125; Mackenzie's reply, 126. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges; Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

Macauley, John. BL Inspector-general, retires and succeeded by Hincks, 119.

McClelan, Abner Reid (1831- ). Born in Hopewell, New Brunswick. Educated at Mount Allison Academy. Engaged in mercantile life. Represented Albert County in the Assembly, 1854-1867; chief commissioner of public works, 1866-1867; appointed to the Senate, 1867; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 1896-1902. Index: T Elected as Confederation candidate in Albert, New Brunswick, 89; chief commissioner of public works in Mitchell government, 105; elected for Albert, 107. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

McCulloch, Dr. BL Defeats La Fontaine in Terrebonne; affiliated with Draper, 82.

McCulloch, J. R. Sy Political economist, 13.

McCully, Jonathan (1809-1877). Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 1837 called to the bar, and practised in Halifax, 1849. In 1860 appointed solicitor-general; from 1847 to 1867 member of the Legislative Council; and served as chairman of the Board of Railways; delegate to the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences, 1864; appointed to the Dominion Senate, 1867; and in 1870 judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia. Index: H Leader of Liberal party in Nova Scotia, 1864, 177; delegate to Charlottetown Conference, 177; edits Morning Chronicle, 186; firm advocate of Confederation, 186. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Macdonald, Andrew Archibald (1829- ). Born in Brudenell, Prince[228] Edward Island. Engaged in business as a general merchant. Sat in Prince Edward Island Assembly, 1853-1860; represented Kings South in Legislative Council, 1863-1873; member of Executive Council, 1867-1871 and 1872-1873; lieutenant-governor of Prince Edward Island, 1884-1889. Called to the Senate, 1891. Index: T Delegate to Quebec Conference, 77. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Macdonald, Archibald. MS His account of the voyage of the third party of Red River settlers in 1813, 162-163; in charge at Red River, 173; colonists demand that he hand over field pieces, 173-174. Bib.: Bryce, The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists.

Macdonald, Donald Alexander (1816-1896). Born in St. Raphael's, Quebec. Engaged in business as railway contractor. Represented Glengarry in the Assembly of Canada, 1857-1867, and after Confederation in the House of Commons, 1867-1875. Postmaster-general in the Mackenzie administration, 1873-1878; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 1875-1880. After his retirement lived at Montreal. Bib.: Read, Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada.

MacDonald, Hugh. Born in Antigonish, Nova Scotia, 1827. Studied law and called to the bar, 1855; made a Q. C., 1872. In 1859 elected member for Inverness to the provincial Legislature. Member of a delegation, including Joseph Howe, that visited England in 1861 to represent the views of those opposing the Confederation of the British North American provinces. In 1867-1873 a member of the Dominion Parliament, and in 1873 president of the Privy Council. On Nov. 5, 1873, appointed judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia; retired 1893. Index: H Delegate of Anti-Confederation party, goes to England with Howe and Annand to oppose Confederation, 192; expenses paid by subscription, 219. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia; Saunders, Three Premiers of Nova Scotia.

Macdonald, Hugh. Md Father of Sir John A. Macdonald, native of Sutherlandshire, removes to Glasgow, and in 1820 emigrates to Canada, 1; settles at Kingston, 2; moves to Hay Bay, thence to Stone Mills, on Bay of Quinte, 2; unsuccessful in business, he returns to Kingston, 1836, and secures position in Commercial Bank, 2; his death, 1841, 2; his character, 2.

Macdonald, Hugh John (1850- ). Born in Kingston, Ontario; second son of Sir John A. Macdonald. Educated at Queen's and Toronto Universities; called to the bar, 1872; and practised for some years with his father and James Patton. In 1882 removed to Winnipeg, and entered into partnership with J. S. Tupper. In 1890-1891 represented Winnipeg in the House of Commons; in 1896 minister of the interior in the Tupper administration; in 1897 leader of the Conservatives in Manitoba; and from Jan. 8 to Oct. 29, 1900, premier of the province. Index: Md Second son of Sir John A. Macdonald—represents Winnipeg in Dominion Parliament, 10; premier of Manitoba, 10. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Macdonald, John Alexander. Md Eldest son of Sir John A. Macdonald—accidentally killed when quite young, 10.

Macdonald, Sir John Alexander (1815-1891). H Attends Charlottetown Conference, 1864, and proposes union of all the provinces, 178; premier of first Dominion Cabinet, 198; Tupper writes him as to Howe's political plans, 207; Tilley and Tupper urge him to visit Nova Scotia, 209; visits Halifax with Sir Georges Cartier, Peter Mitchell, and William Macdougall, 210; Acadian Recorder suggests violence, 210; Howe denounces the suggestion, 210-212; arrives in Halifax, and guest of Sir Hastings Doyle, 213; meets Howe, 213; appears before com[229]mittee of Legislature, 213-214; urges Howe to put an end to the agitation for repeal of the union, 215-218; persuades Howe to enter Dominion Cabinet, 225; his public letters, 257; contrasted with Howe, 287; correspondence with Howe on Pacific Railway policy, 299-300. R His University Bill, 1847—its terms, 155-157; withdrawn, 156; referred to, 161; amends Separate School Bill, 231; supports Ryerson's stand as to separate schools, 233. D And the Pacific Scandal, 321. C His alliance with Cartier, 31, 33; his first appearance in Parliament as an uncompromising Tory, 31; opposed to La Fontaine, 32; votes against settlement of Seigniorial Tenure, 32; opposes Indemnity Bill, 32; and the Pacific Scandal, 53; his resignation, 53; at Quebec Conference—favours legislative union of provinces, 57; defends proposed constitution, 59-60; forms first Dominion administration, 67; resists demand for disallowance of New Brunswick Act abolishing separate schools, 74; sympathizes with Roman Catholic minority, 76; presents Militia Bill, 1862, 87; helps Cartier to establish political union, 100; freedom from racial or religious prejudice, 100; his qualities, 101-102; strained relations with Cartier, 102-103; Cartier's knowledge of service to, 111; receives knighthood, 124, 129; explains Wolseley's quarrel with Cartier, 130. E Becomes receiver-general in Sherwood ministry, 43; his statesmanlike qualities, 43-44; re-elected, 1848, 50; his political sagacity, 110; rivalry with George Brown, 114; on provincial representation, 118; on the dissolution of Parliament in 1853, 127; on the Representation Bill, 132, 133; Liberal-Conservative party owed its birth to his inspiration, 137; persuades Sir Allan MacNab to agree to coalition government, 139, 141; attorney-general in MacNab-Morin ministry, 140; his views on Clergy Reserves, 163; takes charge of bill for secularization of the Clergy Reserves, 168; Hincks enters his ministry, 223; one of the builders of the British Empire—honours conferred upon him, 225; monuments erected to his memory, 226. B Relations with George Brown, x; leads his party, 42; frames bill for settlement of Clergy Reserves, 60; reveals political sagacity, 69; on the character of the union, 82; bitter relations with George Brown, 87-91; offers seat in Cabinet to John Sandfield Macdonald, 100; the "Double Shuffle," 107-108; moves want of confidence in Sandfield Macdonald government, 1863, 146; Brown's motion for constitutional changes, 1864, takes him by surprise, 150; his account of negotiations between George Brown and government as to Confederation, 151, 154-156; his connection with, 152,. 154-155; announces agreement, 153, 160; favours nominative Senate, 164; describes new constitution, in Confederation debate, 170-171; announces in Parliament decision of government to carry Confederation at once and send mission to England, 182; explains intentions of government, 183; on defence of Canada, 183, 184-185; goes to England, 186; relations with George Brown, 189-192; asked to form government, 1865, 189; interview with Brown, 189-191; his proposal that Belleau be premier accepted by Brown, 191; virtual leader of government, 191; charged with using Brown as a stepping-stone to his own political ambition, 199; benefits by Brown's entry into ministry, 199, 200; Holton describes his path as "studded all along by the gravestones of his slaughtered colleagues," 201; on friendly terms with Holton, 202; his essential conservatism, 202; relations with Macdougall and Howland, 202, 209; with Joseph Howe, 203-206, 210; his ideal of a legislative union, 207; anomalous position of his Liberal colleagues, 209-210; his government overthrown, 210, 235. BL Co-operates in founding United Empire Association, 228; elected in 1844, 252; enters ministry as receiver-general, 276; re-elected, 279; offers Baldwin chief-justiceship of Common Pleas, 357; Hincks in his Cabinet, 359.[230] Md Assigned foremost place among Canadian statesmen, i; national recognition of his services after his death by creation of peerage for his widow, i; memorial tablet in St. Paul's Cathedral, and statues in Canadian cities, i; his personal popularity, i-ii; his personality made Confederation possible, ii; Canada's debt to him, iii-iv; his birth and ancestry, 1; brought to Canada in 1820, 1; boyhood days at Kingston and on the Bay of Quinté, 2; his debt to his mother, her strong personality, 2; educated at Kingston Grammar School, 3; Mowat's tribute, 3; studies law, 4-5; called to the bar, 1836, 5; begins practice at age of twenty-one, 5; Oliver Mowat and Alexander Campbell students in his office, 6; called out as a volunteer in Rebellion of 1837, 7; defends Schoultz and Ashley, 8-9; his first visit to England, 1842, 9; takes Alexander Campbell into partnership, 9; elected alderman for Kingston, 10; marries his cousin, Miss Isabella Clark, Sept. 1, 1843, 10; their children, 10; enters public life, 1854, as member for Kingston, 11-12; his firm belief from the beginning that Canada's prosperity depended on permanent connection with the mother country, 12; impelling motives of his long public career, 13; unsettled problems in 1844, 13-14; Confederation movement, 14; difficulties of his position, 15-16; his election address, 23; takes little part in discussions during his first session, 25; Draper recommends him for position of commissioner of crown lands, 26; had no sympathy with political creed of Family Compact, 27; becomes receiver-general, 27; his views on university endowment, 28-29; Alexander Campbell's letter to, 31; opposes Rebellion Losses Bill, 36; refuses to join the annexation movement, 40; strong supporter of British American League, 40; acts as moderating force in conflict over Rebellion Losses Bill, 42, 43; his character contrasted with George Brown's, 53, 54; conceives idea of Liberal-Conservative party, 62, 63; appointed attorney-general for Upper Canada, 63; introduces bill for secularization of Clergy Reserves, 65; Pope's pen-portrait of his appearance and character, 73; supports measure proposing to make Legislative Council elective, 75; has no desire and makes no effort to hasten Sir Allan MacNab's resignation, though circumstances force him into leadership, 76-77; resigns from the MacNab-Taché ministry, 78; reasons for resignation, 79, 80; forms an administration with Taché, May 24, 1856, 80; his quarrel with George Brown, 80-81; challenged by Colonel Rankin, 81-82; his views on the separate school system, 82; on the resignation of Taché, forms an administration with Cartier, 83; becomes premier of the province of Canada on Nov. 26, 1857, 83; dissolves House and appeals to people on questions of separate schools and representation by population, 84; makes proposition to Sandfield Macdonald, which is rejected, 84, 85; forms administration with Cartier as premier, 86; the "Double Shuffle," 86, 87; becomes less opposed to representation by population, 89; forms administration with Sir E. P. Taché, which lasts only a few weeks, 90; buries the hatchet and forms coalition with Brown to work for Confederation, 93, 100-102; anticipates results of Confederation, 103; attends Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences, 104-114; though strongly in favour of legislative union, modifies his views after discussion at Quebec Conference, and accepts scheme of a federal union, 107-108, 245; introduces in Parliament the resolutions adopted at Quebec Conference, 118, 119; one of commissioners to British government in regard to Confederation, 120; upon death of Taché, is called upon to form a ministry, but Brown refusing to act with him, or with Cartier, they sit together under the nominal presidency of Sir Narcisse Belleau, 122, 123; his answer to Lord Monck on delay in Confederation, 124; his wariness and skill in presenting Confederation resolutions, 126, 127; made a K. C. B. in recognition of his[231] services in Confederation negotiations, 128, 267, 344; first prime minister of Dominion of Canada, 131; his second marriage, 131; granted a special audience by the queen, 132; returns to Canada, 132; difficulties in formation of first Dominion Cabinet, 133; list of members, 134-135; his party adopts name of Liberal-Conservative, 138; seeks able colleagues, 139, 140; results of first Dominion election, 141; sends Tupper to oppose Howe and his movement for repeal, 143; visits Halifax for purpose of winning Howe over to Confederation, 144; Howe persuaded to enter Dominion Cabinet, 145; acts passed by first Dominion Parliament, 151; on verge of ministerial crisis over Intercolonial Railway, 153, 154; his desire to annex North-West Territories, 156; difficulties in accomplishing it, 157-163; introduces bill for establishment and government of province of Manitoba, 161; taken seriously ill, 161; returns to Ottawa, 163; goes to Washington as member of commission, 163, 165, 169; his reluctance to become a member of the commission, 171-173; objects to any permanent sale of the fisheries, 174-175; his connection with, and reasons for withdrawal of Fenian Raid claims, 175-178; on decision in San Juan boundary dispute, 179-181; on the fisheries question, 182-184; signs Washington Treaty, 185; moves ratification of certain clauses of Washington Treaty, 186-190; general election of 1872, 193 et seq.; the "Pacific Scandal," 200 et seq.; his defence, 208, 209; sends in his resignation, 210; leads opposition, 211; his resolution in favour of a national policy, 217, 225; puts the new policy before the country, 220-223; urges preferential trade with mother country, 227; again in power, 1878, 228; inaugurates the national policy and reverts to transcontinental railway scheme, 234; crosses continent on Canadian Pacific Railway, 238; firm in his conviction that Riel should be hanged, 243, 244, 280; brings Letellier difficulty before Parliament, 248-250; Ontario boundary dispute, 254-258; introduces Franchise Act of 1885, 258-260; country's devotion to, 262, 263; qualities which maintained loyalty and devotion of his followers, 263-265; Confederation honours cause a break in his friendship with Cartier, 267, 268; introduces bill to adjust representation in House of Commons, 273; election of 1882, 273-276; resolutions on home rule in Ireland, 277; contrasted with Blake, 277-279; election of 1887, 279-283; adoption of jubilee address to queen, 283; compromises with Canadian Pacific Railway over their monopoly of transportation, 285; takes a constitutional stand on Jesuits' Estates Act, 289; commercial union policy, 291 et seq.; contemplates a general election, 300-302; takes steps to renew commercial intercourse with United States, 303; his last appeal to electors of Dominion, 304-311; makes the most of contents of Farrer pamphlet, 313-314; throws himself with energy into election campaign of 1891, 314; for fourth time his government is sustained, 315; receives a chill while attending demonstration at Napanee, 319; attends opening of the session, 320; suffers a slight stroke of paralysis, 320; his last appearance in the House, 320; suffers a final stroke on May 29, 1891, 321; and dies on June 6, 1891, 321; funeral, 321, 322; tribute from Queen Victoria, 322; memorial service in Westminster Abbey, and tablet to his memory in St. Paul's Cathedral, 322-323; a summing up of his work and influence, 333-353; a practical politician, 333-336; his political methods, 335-338; his personal magnetism, 339; anecdotes of, 340-341; not an orator, but an effective debater, 341-342; proposed preferential trade in 1879, 342; in favour of Imperial federation, 343; letter to, from Cecil Rhodes, 349; kept in touch with Imperial affairs, 344; Imperial honours bestowed on, 344-345; a self-made man, 345; tributes to his statesmanship, 346; his sympathy with French-Canadians, 347-348; a peacemaker, 348; Lord Dufferin on,[232] 348-349; a poor man, 349-350; sum raised for, in 1870, 351; statues to, in many Canadian cities, 351; his greatness and shortcomings, 351-353. T At Charlottetown Conference, 74, 75; at Quebec Conference, 76, 78; at Westminster Conference, 121; presented to the Queen, 124; forms first Dominion ministry, 127-128, 129; forms second ministry, 136; his national policy, 137. Bib.: Pope, Memoirs of Sir John Alexander Macdonald; Macpherson, Life of Macdonald; Collins, Life and Times of Macdonald; Adam, Life and Career of Macdonald; Hopkins, Life of Macdonald; Biggar, Anecdotal Life of Macdonald; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Cyc. Am. Biog.

Macdonald, John Sandfield (1812-1872). Born in St. Raphaels, Glengarry. In 1840 called to the bar, and practised in Cornwall. In 1841 elected to the Parliament of the recently united provinces of Upper and Lower Canada; and in 1849 solicitor-general in the La Fontaine-Baldwin government. In 1852-1854 Speaker; and attorney-general in the brief Brown-Dorion ministry; premier in 1862, and resigned, 1864. Formed the first government of the Province of Ontario, 1867; defeated in the House and resigned, 1871. Index: E Returned in elections of 1848, 50; his discourtesy to Lord Elgin, 127-131; Hincks succeeds in humiliating him, 135-136. B Offered seat in Cabinet by John A. Macdonald, 100; enters George Brown's ministry, 102; called on to form government, 1861, 142; an enthusiastic advocate of the "double majority," 142; in Confederation debate, 182-183; asks Brown to go on mission to Washington to discuss reciprocity, 192, 196. Md Upholds principle of "double majority," but later throws it overboard, 79; separate schools established by his administration, 1862-1863, 82; refuses John A. Macdonald's offer of a seat in the Cabinet, 1858, 84, 85; leads the moderate "Reformers," 84-89; forms ministry with Sicotte, 1862, 88-89; government defeated same year on vote of want of confidence, 89; refuses to resign, and reconstructs government by joining forces with Brown, Dorion, and the Rouges, 89; resigns, March, 1864, 90; objects to passing of resolutions adopted at Quebec Conference without submitting them to the people, 119; becomes leader of provincial government in Ontario at Confederation, 141; his character, 141-142. T Resigns in 1864, 68. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Taylor, Brit. Am.

Macdonell, Alexander. Represented Lord Selkirk's interests as governor of the Red River Settlement. Had been for some years in the employment of the Hudson's Bay Company. Left the Red River Settlement, 1821, when it was discovered that he had been lining his own pockets at the expense of Selkirk and the settlers. Popularly known as Gouverneur Sauterelle, or the Grasshopper Governor. Bib.: Bryce, Manitoba and The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; Ross, Red River Settlement.

Macdonell, Alexander. MS Sheriff of the home district, Upper Canada, 133; Selkirk puts him in charge of the Baldoon Settlement, near Lake St. Clair, Upper Canada, 133.

Macdonell, Alexander. MS Sent by North West Company, with Duncan Cameron, to Red River, to break up the Red River Settlement, 172-173; leads attack on the colonists, 175. Bib.: Bryce, The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists.

Macdonell, Alexander (1769-1840). Born at Glen Urquhart, Scotland. Raised a Roman Catholic regiment of which he was appointed chaplain and saw service in Ireland; after the regiment had been disbanded, succeeded in bringing the men to Canada in 1803-1804, and obtained for them an extensive tract of land on the St. Lawrence, in what is now Glengarry County. When the War of[233] 1812 was threatened, assisted in raising the Glengarry Fencibles and accompanied them into action. In 1826 consecrated bishop of Kingston. In 1839 returned to England to promote a scheme of emigration from the Highlands, and died at Dumfries the following year. Index: Bk Recommended as chaplain of Glengarry corps, 97. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can.; Macdonell, Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada.

Macdonell, George (1770-1870). Member of the well-known Glengarry family of that name. Served for several years in the King's Regiment; instrumental in organizing the Glengarry Fencibles in 1811, of which he was given command. Served with distinction in the War of 1812, particularly in the capture of Ogdensburg and the battle of Chateauguay. Index: Bk Becomes colonel of Glengarry Fencibles, 180. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Macdonell, Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada. See also War of 1812.

Macdonell, John. S Speaker of first Assembly of Upper Canada, 80, 85.

Macdonell, Lieutenant-Colonel John. Born in Glengarry; son of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Macdonell, of the 1st Glengarry militia. Present at the capture of Detroit and mentioned in despatches. In 1812 aide-de-camp to Sir Isaac Brock, and took an important part in the battle of Queenston Heights, where he was killed. At the time of his appointment to General Brock's staff was acting attorney-general of Upper Canada. Index: Bk Proposes to raise corps from among Scottish settlers in Glengarry, 97; his report on American fort at Detroit, 190; Brock makes him his aide-de-camp, 230; carries summons for surrender of Detroit, 251, 255; death of, at Queenston Heights, 306. Bib.: Lucas, Canadian War of 1812; Edgar, Ten Years of Upper Canada; Macdonell, Sketches Illustrating the Early Settlement and History of Glengarry in Canada. See also War of 1812.

Macdonell, Miles (1767-1828). Governor of Assiniboia. Born in Scotland. Came to America with his father, Colonel John Macdonell, in 1773; and entered the army. In 1794 lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Volunteers, and captain in 1796. Appointed by Lord Selkirk governor of his projected colony on Red River, and arrived there with a party of colonists in 1812. Opposition on the part of the North West Company culminated in an attack, June 11, 1815, by the Company's agents, on the colonists, and Macdonell, to avoid bloodshed, surrendered. A threatened trial at Montreal fell through, and returned to Red River Settlement, where for nearly twelve years was one of its leading pioneers. Index: MS Quoted on Selkirk's Red River scheme, 100; a United Empire Loyalist, settled in Glengarry, Upper Canada, 150; sent for by Selkirk to take charge of the Red River Colony, 150; sails for Scotland, 150; at Stornoway in the Hebrides, 151; at York Factory, 153-155; at the Red River, 157; winters at Pembina, 158; returns to the Forks, 158-159; difficulties in feeding the colonists, 161; beginning of troubles with the North West Company, 161-164; goes to meet new settlers, 163; summoned to Montreal to answer charges, 164; his proclamation, 169; and its effect, 170-171; sends John Spencer to seize North West Company's provisions at Souris River, 171-172; is arrested and taken to Montreal, 174. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company and The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; Ross, Red River Settlement; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West.

MacDonnell, Alan. B Addresses Toronto Board of Trade on importance of acquiring North-West Territories, 216.

Macdougall, William (1822-1905). Born in Toronto. Educated at Victoria[234] College, Cobourg; admitted as a solicitor in 1847, and as barrister, 1862. Engaged in journalism; founded the Canada Farmer in 1848, and the North American in 1850. A member of the Assembly from 1858 to 1867; of the Dominion Parliament, 1867-1882; and of the Ontario Legislature, 1875-1878. In 1862-1864 commissioner of crown lands; and provincial secretary, 1864; minister of public works in first Dominion government, 1867; attended the Westminster Conference, 1866-1867; commissioner to London for the acquisition of North-West Territories, 1868; lieutenant-governor of Rupert's Land, 1869; and member of the Ontario Boundary Commission. Index: BL One of the leaders of the new Radicalism,—editor of the North American, 341. E A leader of the Clear Grits, 110. B A leader of the Clear Grits, 39; a young lawyer and journalist, 40; edits the North American, 40; denounces George Brown, 40; secretary of Reform Convention, 1859, 137; suggests joint authority for federal purposes, in Confederation debate, 137; enters coalition ministry, 159; defeated in North Ontario, 160; elected in North Lanark, 160; favours elective Senate, 164; relations with Macdonald, 202-203; defends his action in remaining in coalition ministry after Confederation, 202, 209; his work on the Globe, 245. H Accompanies Macdonald to Halifax, 1868, 210; meets Joseph Howe, on his way to Fort Garry to assume duties of governor, 227; blames Howe for fomenting trouble, 227. C On mission for purchase of Hudson's Bay Company's territories, 68; attempts to enter North-West as lieutenant-governor, 69. R Graduate of Victoria College, 144. Md Minister of public works, 134; agrees to maintenance of coalition, 137; lieutenant-governor of Rupert's Land, 1869, 138; accompanies Macdonald to Halifax, 144; quarrels with Howe, 153, 154; introduces series of resolutions on acquisition of North-West Territories, 156; sent to London to negotiate annexation of territories, 156-157; appointed lieutenant-governor of Rupert's Land, 158; refused admittance to the territory, 159. T Enters coalition government, 69; at Charlottetown Conference, 74, 75; at Quebec Conference, 76; enters first Dominion government, 128, 129. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Morgan, Can. Men.

Macé, Sister de. L Her labours in the hospital at Montreal, 91.

McEvoy, J. M. S His pamphlet on The Ontario Township quoted, 89.

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy (1825-1868). Emigrated from Ireland to the United States, 1842, and became editor of the Boston Pilot; returned to Ireland and edited The Nation, the Young Ireland's party organ; fled to New York; came to Canada in 1857. Established and edited the New Era in Montreal; elected to Parliament for the same city; president of Executive Council, 1862-1863; minister of agriculture, 1864-1867. Took a leading part in the movement for the Confederation of the provinces. Shot by a Fenian, P. J. Whelan, in Ottawa, April 9, 1868, Index: B On Confederation movement, xi; his speech on Confederation—names founders of movement, 129, 130, 147; in Taché's government, 1864, 149. Md Takes part in debates on resolutions adopted at Quebec Conference, 118. T His work for Confederation, 65, 67; at Charlottetown Conference, 74, 75; at Quebec Conference, 76. Bib.: Works: Canadian Ballads; Popular History of Ireland; Notes on Federal Governments; Speeches and Addresses Chiefly on Subject of British American Union; Poems, with biog. sketch by Mrs. J. Sadlier. For his minor publications in Canada, and works published before coming to Canada, see Morgan, Bib. Can. For biog., see Taylor, Brit. Am. and Thomas D'Arcy McGee: Sketch of his Life and Death; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years.[235]

McGill, James (1744-1813). Born in Glasgow, Scotland. Emigrated to Canada. For some years engaged in the western fur trade; and in partnership with his brother, Andrew McGill, acquired a large fortune. Sat in Lower Canada Parliament for several years, and in the Legislative and Executive Councils. An officer of the Montreal militia, and in 1812 brigadier-general. Devoted a large part of his wealth to various institutions in Montreal, and was the founder of the university that bears his name. Index: Bk Founder of McGill University, 100. Bib.: Morgan, Cel. Can. See also McGill University.

McGill, John (1752-1834). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to Virginia in 1773. Espoused the royal cause in the Revolution; in 1777 a lieutenant in the Loyal Virginians, and in 1782 a captain in the Queen's Rangers. In 1783 came to St. John, New Brunswick, and in 1792 to Upper Canada. Became a member of the Executive Council, 1796, and of the Legislative Council, 1797. In 1801 appointed inspector-general of accounts. Index: S Accompanies Simcoe as commissary of stores, 47; appointed by Simcoe purchasing agent for military supplies, 212; temporarily superseded, but later confirmed in appointment, 213.

McGill, Peter (1789-1860). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to Canada in 1809; became a wealthy merchant of Montreal. President of the Bank of Montreal, 1834 to 1860. In 1841 appointed to the Legislative Council; Speaker, 1847; a member of the Executive Council. In 1834-1838 chairman of the St. Lawrence and Champlain Railway Company; in 1840-1842 mayor of Montreal. A governor of McGill University; and of Montreal general hospital. Index: Sy Member of Constitutional Association, 112. E President of Legislative Council and member of Sherwood administration, 45; his vote helps to keep government in power, 45. BL Member of Legislative Council, 1841, 83. Bib.: Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Last Forty Years.

McGill University. Founded through the far-sighted liberality of James McGill, a merchant of Montreal, who in his will left his property of Burnside and £10,000 to found the college. It was granted a royal charter in 1820, and opened in 1829. The original bequest proving insufficient to complete the college buildings, a further sum was given by William Molson for that purpose. A new charter was obtained in 1852. The period of greatest development of the university dates from 1855, when J. W. Dawson was appointed principal. The university has been fortunate in receiving generous bequests from wealthy citizens of Montreal, notably from Peter Redpath, Sir W. C. Macdonald, and Lord Strathcona. Bib.: Dawson, Historical Sketch of McGill University in Canada: An Ency., vol. 4; Ency. Brit.; Ency. Amer.

McGillivray, Simon. One of the leading partners of the North West Company. Signed the agreement of 1821 under which the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies were amalgamated. Index: MS His declaration that "Lord Selkirk must be driven to abandon his project, for his success would strike at the very existence of our trade," 172; arrested by Selkirk at Fort William, 189. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

MacGillivray, William. Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, and entered the service of the North West Company. In 1786-1787 had charge of the North West Company post at Lac des Serpents, in opposition to Roderick McKenzie of the rival Company. In the spring, the two traders with their men set out together for their respective headquarters at Grand Portage, and arrived there side by side, the crews singing in chorus, to the no small amazement of the Grand Portage people. MacGillivray and McKenzie were ever after firm[236] friends. The former became a partner of the North West Company in 1790; signed the agreement of 1804; and was one of the most influential of the bourgeois. Fort William was named after him in 1807. Made a legislative councillor of Lower Canada in 1814, in recognition of his services to the government during the War of 1812. Returned to Scotland before the fusion of the Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company; bought an estate in Argyllshire, and died there about 1825. Index: MS Friendly rivalry with Roderick Mackenzie, of the X Y Company, 15; buys Pond's share in North West Company, 58; Fort William named after, 100. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie Nord-Ouest.

M'Govoch. Dr Discharged soldier, offers testimony in Walker case, 35; tried for perjury and sent to prison, 38.

Machray, Robert (1831-1904). Born in Scotland. Educated at Aberdeen and Cambridge; ordained deacon, 1855; and priest, 1856; in 1858 elected dean of his college; vicar of Madingley till 1865, when appointed bishop of Rupert's Land; in 1893, on the union of the Anglican churches in Canada, became archbishop of Rupert's Land and primate of all Canada. Professor of ecclesiastical history and liturgiology in St. John's College, Winnipeg, and chancellor of the University of Manitoba. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Dent, Can. Por.; Machray, Life of Archbishop Machray; Mockridge, Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland.

McIntosh, John. Mc Mackenzie's brother-in-law, 482; house attacked by mob, 482.

MacIntyre, Duncan. Md Director of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 236.

Mack, Karl Freiherr von (1752-1822). Bk Austrian general, surrender of, 72.

Mackay, Alexander. Accompanied Alexander Mackenzie on his memorable journey of 1793 to the shores of the Pacific. In charge of Île à la Crosse House, 1797-1799; signed the Montreal agreement of 1804, as one of the partners of the North West Company; joined the Pacific Fur Company, 1810, and sailed to Astoria with Franchère that year. Murdered on the Tonquin, near Nootka, in 1811. Index: MS With Mackenzie on expedition to Pacific, 67; at Astoria, 67; killed on the Tonquin, 67. D Engaged by Astor for the Pacific, 95; slain by Indians on the Tonquin, 95; his widow marries Dr. John McLoughlin, 95; succeeds Douglas in command of northern posts, 187. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company. See also Douglas; Mackenzie; Tonquin.

McKay, James. Born in Edmonton, Alberta. Educated at the Red River Settlement. For a time in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. A member of the Council of Assiniboia and of the North-West Council. Appointed to the Legislative Council of Manitoba, 1870. Minister of agriculture, 1875-1878. Died, 1879.

McKay, Joseph William (1829-1900). Born at Rupert House, Hudson Bay. Crossed the mountains to Fort Vancouver in 1844; had charge of various trading posts west of the mountains, and rose to the rank of chief trader; also made important explorations in what is now the province of British Columbia. Became one of the first members of the Legislative Assembly of Vancouver Island, 1855. Retired from the Company's service, 1879. Appointed to the Department of Indian Affairs of Canada in 1883. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names.

McKee, Colonel. S Indian superintendent in the west, 126, 141, 210. Bk His influence over the Indians, 280.

Mackellar. WM Chief engineer, accompanies Wolfe in reconnaissance of Island of Orleans, 93.[237]

Mackenzie, Alexander (1822-1892). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to Kingston, Canada, in 1842; in 1848 started in business at Sarnia as builder and contractor; in 1852 editor of the Lambton Shield, a reform newspaper; member for Lambton in the provincial Parliament 1861-1867; and from 1867 to 1892 a member of the Dominion Parliament. In 1873 became premier and minister of public works, the first liberal premier of the Dominion. In 1878 his government defeated by the Conservative party. Leader of the opposition until 1880, when he resigned on account of ill-health, but remained in Parliament for some years, being elected for East York in 1882 and 1887. Declined knighthood three times. Index: Mc His letter in reference to George Brown, 496. Md Leader of opposition in succession to George Brown, 150; Supreme Court organized under his administration, 1875, 151; moves an amendment to the address, 208; called upon to form a ministry, 1873, 211; pessimistic over the Canadian Pacific Railway scheme, 234, 235; replaced in leadership by Edward Blake, 235, 261. E Premier of Liberal government under which simultaneous voting was required by law, 133. B Signs requisition to George Brown to stand for Kent, 61; votes against proposal that three members of opposition should enter the government, 157; opposes Reformers taking seats in coalition ministry, but holds that they should give Confederation an outside support, 199, 204; on George Brown's character, 243; on Brown's relations with the parliamentary leaders after retirement, 247-248; on Brown's last days, 257; character of his speeches, 259. D His connection with the Canadian Pacific Railway negotiations, 321. T His Cabinet, 90; opposes coalition idea, 128; his ministry resigns, 136. Bib.: Works: Speeches in Scotland and Canada; Life and Speeches of George Brown. For biog., see Buckingham and Ross, Life of Alexander Mackenzie; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Leggo, History of the Administration of the Earl of Dufferin in Canada; Stewart, Canada under the Administration of the Earl of Dufferin.

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander (1755-1820). S Visits Simcoe, 188; recommends establishment of two trading-posts on Pacific coast, 189. MS Joins North West Company, 7; opposes Selkirk's plans, 7, 146, 151, 159, 167; his death, 8; born 1763 at Stornoway, Island of Lewis, Scotland, 10; parentage, 10; education, 10; emigrates to Canada, 1779, 10; enters fur trade and joins opposition to McTavish, 10, 11; his keenness and daring, 11; leads trading expedition to Detroit, 11; at Grand Portage, 1785, 12; becomes a bourgeois, 12; assigned to English River department, 14; friendly relations with officers of rival North West Company, 15; goes to Athabaska, 17; his administrative ability, 17, 18; plans for expansion, 18; sends Leroux to build post on Great Slave Lake, 18; and Boyer to build one on Peace River, 19; describes life of fur trader, 22; his ambitious designs for discovery, 22; unpopular with McTavish, 23; hears of a great river in the north, 31; preparation for his journey, 32; his narrative, 32; his party, 33; sets out June 3, 1789, from Fort Chipewyan, 33; reaches Great Slave Lake, 35; meets Yellow Knife Indians, 36; enters Mackenzie River, 37; meets Slave and Dog-Rib Indians, 28; their account of the river, 38; passes mouth of Great Bear River, 28, 47; meets Hare Indians, 39; and Quarrellers, 39; enters the delta, 39; lands on Whale Island, at mouth of the river, 40; erects post with inscription, 40; uncertainty as to his having reached the sea, 43, 61; the return journey, 43; coal seam on fire, 47; difficulties with "English Chief," 45, 46, 48; returns to Great Slave Lake, 48; meets Leroux, 48-49; reaches Chipewyan, Sept. 12, 1789, 50; results of the journey, 50-51; establishes existence and course of Yukon, 50-51; his treatment of[238] natives, 51; his account of fauna, 51; his character, 51-52, 59; winters at Chipewyan, 53; unfriendliness of partners of Company, 53; his project for a journey to the West, 53; goes down to Grand Portage, 53; cool reception there, 54; returns to Chipewyan, 54; his letters, 54; meets Philip Turner, 57; his share in North West Company, 58; goes to England to acquire instruction and instruments for his second journey, 59; returns to Athabaska, 61; preparations for journey to the Pacific, 61; sends men to Peace River to cut timber for a post, 61; leaves Chipewyan, Oct. 10, 1792, 61; ascends Peace River, passes the falls and Boyer's "Old Establishment," and reaches Finlay's fort, 62; his method of dealing with the Indians, 62-63; winters at the forks, 63-65; Chinook winds, 65; sets out for the mountains and beyond, 66; members of his party, 67; a man of heroic mould, 68; leaves Finlay's fort, May 9, 1793, 69; describes Peace River, 69; difficulties in crossing the mountains, 70, 72; meets strange Indians, 74; ascends the Parsnip River, 75; reaches its source, 75; descends the Fraser, 77; retraces his steps, and travels overland to the sea, 79-85; describes visit to the Coast Indians, 83; natives refer to Vancouver's party, 85; reaches coast and paints record of his journey on a rock, 86; the return journey, 86; trouble with the natives, 87; reaches Peace River, 88; reaches Finlay's fort, 89; and Chipewyan, 89; leaves the West, 89; increased reputation among partners of North West Company, 92; withdraws from Company and sails for England, 93; publishes his book, 94; King Bernadotte of Sweden's tribute to explorer, 95; Napoleon has his Voyages translated into French, 96, 97; friendship of duke of Kent, 98; receives knighthood, 98; becomes head of X Y Company, 99; elected to Legislature of Lower Canada, 100; returns to Scotland, 1808, 100; opposes Selkirk's scheme, 100; his marriage, 101; his family, 101; his death, March 12, 1820, 102; compared with Selkirk, 209. D His expeditions to the Arctic and Pacific, 51; his personality, 52; parentage, 52; arrival in Canada, 53; enters fur trade, 53; in command of Fort Chipewyan, 53; his desire to rival Samuel Hearne, 53; sets out from Chipewyan in 1789 to explore Mackenzie River, 53; river named after him, 53; proves futility of search for North-West Passage, 53; visits England and, prepares himself for further discoveries, 53; returns to the West, and leaves Chipewyan, Oct. 10, 1792, for the Pacific, 53; ascends Peace River and crosses the mountains, 54; reaches Tacouche Tesse (Fraser), which he supposes to be the Oregon (Columbia), 54; difficulties and dangers of the journey, 54-55; his printed narrative translated into French for Napoleon, 55; his burial-place, 55; his wife, 55; the legend he printed on a rock on the shores of the Pacific, 56; results of his journey, 56. Bib.: Voyages from Montreal through the Continent of North America, 1789 and 1793, London, 1801; trans, into French, Paris, 1802. See also his letters, in Roderick McKenzie's Reminiscences (Masson, Bourgeois du Nord-Ouest). For biog., see Willson, The Great Company; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West.

Mackenzie, Donald (1783-1851). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to Canada in 1800, and engaged in the service of the North West Company for several years. In 1809 associated with John Jacob Astor in fur-trading on the Columbia. Returned to the service of the North West Company; and in 1821, on its absorption by the Hudson's Bay Company, became a chief factor in the united Company. In 1825 appointed governor of the Red River Settlement, and held the position till 1832, when he retired to the United States. Died at Mayville, New York. Index: MS Chief factor, and afterwards governor, of Assiniboia, 222. Bib.: Bryce, The Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists.[239]

Mackenzie, Geddes. MS Marries Sir Alexander Mackenzie, 101; her parentage, 101.

Mackenzie, George. Md Macdonald studies law in his office, 4; death of, 9.

Mackenzie, Hope. B Moves approval of George Brown's course in Confederation negotiations, 156-157.

Mackenzie, Isabel. Mc Wife of William Lyon Mackenzie, granted $4000 by Parliament, 240; at Navy Island, 424; death of, 508.

McKenzie, Roderick. Cousin of Sir Alexander Mackenzie. Came to Canada from Scotland in 1784, and entered the service of the fur-trading firm of Gregory, McTavish & Co., of Montreal. The following year reached Grand Portage, where employed as a clerk. Accompanied his cousin to the far West in 1786; built the original Fort Chipewyan, on the south shore of Lake Athabaska, in 1788; and in charge of the post during Alexander Mackenzie's expeditions of 1789 and 1792 to the Arctic and Pacific. In 1797, on his way to Montreal, after a long absence, rediscovered the old Kaministiquia route, first discovered by the French many years before, but afterwards abandoned. Became a partner of the North West Company, 1799; and signed the Montreal agreement of 1804 by which the X Y Company was absorbed by the North West Company. A year or two later retired from the fur trade, and began gathering material for a history of the North West Company. The work was never published, nor even completed, but many of the original journals which were to have formed its basis are included in Masson's Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. Settled at Terrebonne, in Lower Canada, and became a member of the Legislative Council of the province. Index: MS Joins X Y Company, 14; friendly rivalry with McGillivray (North West Company) in English River department, 15; at Île à la Crosse, 16; brings news of death of Ross to Grand Portage, 16; joins his cousin Alexander Mackenzie in Athabaska department, 23; their friendship, 23; his Reminiscences, 24; builds Fort Chipewyan, 24; plans library there, 26; winters there, 1788-1789, 27; at Chipewyan, 53; goes down to Grand Portage, 53; sent to Great Slave Lake, 54. Bib.: Reminiscences in Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

Mackenzie, William Lyon (1795-1861). Mc His personality, Goldwin Smith on, 3; Dr. Harrison on, 4; W. J. Rattray on, 5, 6; first to enunciate principle of responsible government, 5; "a man ahead of his time," 6; his loyalty, 10; not an annexationist, 11; constitutional reformer, 12; parentage and ancestry, 34-36; defends himself from charges of disloyalty, 36-38; books read by him from 1806 to 1809, 40, 41; enters commerce, 41, 42; goes to Canada, 43; physical description of, 43; joins survey of Lachine Canal, 44; enters business with John Lesslie, 44; moves to Queenston, 44; marries, 45; declares war on Constitutional Act, 72; starts Colonial Advocate, 85; describes Upper Canada in 1820, 85-87; warns Canadians against union with United States, 87, 97; attitude on Clergy Reserves, 94; advocates provincial university, 95; reforms advocated by, which have come into effect, 97, 98; defends himself against disloyalty charge, 98-101; advocates federation of all North American colonies, 104, 105; moves to York, 106; pictures life of editors, 111; assists to bring about a party revolution, 112; mob destroys Colonial Advocate, 113; Macaulay offers damages, 115; personal attacks, 117-120; Macaulay's treatment of, 121-123; retaliates, 124, 125; answers Macaulay's pamphlet, 126; gets £625 damages, 129; refuses to prosecute criminally, 129; indicted for libel, 130; prosecution abandoned, 135; friendship of Robert Randal, 138; secures Randal's mission to England,[240] 139; advocates responsible government, 146, 148; elected for York, 150; moves committal of Allan MacNab, 152; chairman of committee on post-office, 153; chairman of committee on privileges of House, 154; carries many motions and addresses, 154; introduces Thirty-two Resolutions, 155; opinions stated, 156; visits New York, 157; letter in National Gazette, 158; supports Robert Baldwin, 159; chairman of committee on banking, 161, 162; moves Libel Bill, 162, 163; letters to Sir John Colborne, 164; advocates responsible government, 166, 167; appeal to the people of Upper Canada, 168; re-elected for York, 169; banks oppose, 170; gets committee on state of representation, 171; committee reports, 175; he prints journals of House, 172; accused of printing libel on House, 175; arouses Upper Canada, 176, 177; visits Quebec, 178; first expulsion from Assembly, 181-201; libel complained of, 182, 183; his speech in his defence, 185; House refuses committee of inquiry, 201; petitions to the governor, 203; governor's answer, 203; backed up by the people, 204; again elected, 205; presented by constituents with gold medal, 205; second expulsion moved, 207; defends himself, 209; expelled a second time, 209; appeals to electors, 210-213; again elected, 215; attempt to assassinate, 219; Colonial Advocate office again attacked, 221; his mission to England, 221; estimate of Earl Grey, 221; his friendship with Joseph Hume, 222; introduces George Ryerson to Lord Goderich, 223; offered management of post-office department, 225; prepares statement for minister, 226; reply to Lord Goderich, 227; concessions obtained, 227-230; third expulsion, 232, 242; secures dismissal of Boulton and Hagerman, 232; scheme of post-office reform, 236; asks control of post-office revenue for Canadians, 236; obtains veto of Bank Charter Acts, 237; introduces Egerton Ryerson to colonial office, 238; publishes Sketches of Canada and the United States, 238; visits Scotland, 239; pays old creditors, 239; refuses banquets in Montreal and Quebec, 240; left to pay his own expenses, 240; unanimously re-elected for the third time, 242; not permitted to take oath, 242; new election ordered, 244; unanimously re-elected for the fourth time, 244; ejected from the House, 245; governor orders that he be allowed to take oath, 248; takes the oath, 251; again ejected from the House, 252; first mayor of Toronto, 255; designs city arms, 256; helps cholera patients, 256; takes cholera, 257; defeated for second mayoralty term, 257; forms Canadian Alliance Society, 258; retires from journalism, 259; estimate of, as a journalist, 260; again elected for York, 261; obtains select "Committee on Grievances," 263; obtains committee on Welland canal, 264; appointed director, 264; anticipates official report of canal committee, 265; sued for libel, 265; report of "Committee on Grievances," 270; urges responsible government, 279; visits Quebec, 287; meets Papineau, 288; opposes British restraint on trade, 292; anticipates Reciprocity Treaty, 292; defeated for the House, 308; claims the election was unfair, 309-314; insulted by Tory press, 317; his replies, 318; visits New York, 320; begins the Constitution, 320; "Declaration of Independence" of Upper Canada, 329, 330; meetings at Doel's brewery, 330-332; becomes agent of convention committee, 332; addresses nearly two hundred public meetings, 333-338; advises run on Bank of Upper Canada, 340; second meeting at Doel's brewery, 346; urges seizing arms and proclaiming provisional government, 349; drafts constitution, 355; organizes Rebellion, 359; warrant issued for his arrest, 360; tries to correct Rolph's mistake, 361; his advice disregarded, 362; sets out for the city, 363; again proposes to march on the city, 366; meets Head's flag of truce, 367, 368; urges Lount to march into the city, 371; skirmish at Montgomery's tavern, 379; ransom offered for, 380; account of his escape, 381 et seq.; ad[241]dresses Buffalo audience, 411; meets Van Rensselaer, 412; Head seeks his extradition, 414; occupies Navy Island, 415; president of provisional government, 416; arrested at Buffalo, 424; threats of assassination, 428; abandons Van Rensselaer, 430; visits New York and Philadelphia, 433; begins Mackenzie's Gazette, 433; no connection with later frontier movements, 439, 444, 446; moves to Rochester, 448; forms association of Canadian refugees, 448; tried for breach of neutrality laws, 452; found guilty, 454; his sentence, 454; rigorous treatment in gaol, 455-458; released, 459; publishes Caroline Almanac, 459; his exchange attempted, 463; attempts to kidnap him, 464; publishes Volunteer, 467; moves to New York, 468; appointed to Mechanics' Institute, 468; publishes Lives of one Thousand Remarkable Irishmen, 469; publishes the Examiner, 470; appointed to New York customs house, 470; publishes Lives of Butler and Hoyt, in 1845, 471; and Life and Times of Martin Van Buren, 1846, 472; goes on Tribune, 472; Hume's letter to, 475; writes to Earl Grey, 479; amnestied, 480; visits Toronto, 481; brings family back, 486; elected for Haldimand, 486; his relations with George Brown, 487; his work in Parliament, 492; again elected for Haldimand, 497; resigns, 498; later parliamentary life, 500; love of his children, 504; Buchanan's proffered friendship, 504; Robert Hay's generosity, 505; offered office, 505; publishes Mackenzie's Message, 505; friends purchase homestead for, 505; financial difficulties, 506; declining health, 506; death of, Aug. 28, 1861, 507; funeral, 507, 508; one of the founders of St. Andrew's Church, 507; tributes of the press, 509-523. Md Leads Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada, 7; supports Brown in his quarrel with Macdonald, 81. R Views on relation of church and state in 1824, 45; his work for popular government, 66; his policy, 111; his "Seventh Report on Grievances," 112; opposes separate schools, 224. B His return to Canada, 36; burnt in effigy at Toronto, 36; defeats George Brown in Haldimand, 40, 44, 46; his resolution for abolition of Court of Chancery, 47. BL His parentage, 12; early days in Canada, 12, 13; in politics, 13-16, 26, 27, 33; aids Baldwin to secure seat in Legislature, 31; organizes revolutionary clubs, etc., 43; his proposed constitution for Upper Canada, 43; plans attack on Toronto by rebels, 43; described as a "mountebank," 120; his correspondence with Hume and Roebuck, 229; founds Canadian Alliance Association, 1834, 229; returns to Canada, 312, 318, 319; one of the leaders of the new Radicalism, 340-341; brings in motion to abolish Court of Chancery, 352. Sy Reform party falsely identified with his proceedings, 85, 138. E And the Rebellion of 1837, 17; leads Radical wing of Liberal party, in Upper Canada, 21, 22; and parliamentary government, 51; and MacNab, 75, 76; returns from his exile, 91; causes of his failure as a political leader, 91-93; proposes abolition of Court of Chancery, 103, 112; defeats George Brown, 113; attacks the government, 127; aftermath of the Rebellion, 190. P His correspondence with Papineau, 189. H Effect of his action in Upper Canada, upon popular party, in Nova Scotia, 49. Bib.: Works: Life and Times of Martin Van Buren; Life and Opinions of B. F. Butler; Sketches of Canada and the United States. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Lindsey, Life and Times of W. L. McKenzie; Dent, Can. Por., Upper Canadian Rebellion, and Last Forty Years; King, Other Side of the Story; Read, Rebellion of 1837. See also Rebellion of 1837 (Upper Canada.)

Mackenzie River. Named after Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who explored it from Great Slave Lake to the Arctic in 1789. It was known at one time as Disappointment River. Its ultimate source is in Thutage Lake, the headwaters of the Finlay in northern British Columbia. Its total length from Thutage[242] Lake to the sea is 2525 miles. The Hudson's Bay Company has the following trading-posts on the main stream: Fort Providence, near entrance of Great Slave Lake; Fort Simpson, at the mouth of the Liard; Fort Wrigley, in lat. 63°; Fort Norman, at the mouth of Great Bear River; Fort Good Hope near the Ramparts; and Fort MacPherson on Peel River. The Company now operates a steamer from Fort Smith, on Slave River, to the Arctic Ocean. Index: MS Alexander Mackenzie discovers and explores, 37-48; "Great River," 53; Mackenzie refers to as "River Disappointment," 55. Bib.: Mackenzie, Voyages; Franklin, Narrative of Second Expedition; Richardson, Arctic Searching Expedition; Cameron, The New North.

Mackenzie's Message. Published at Toronto. Index: Mc Newspaper, published 1853, 505.

McKim, R. P. T Assists at funeral service of Sir Leonard Tilley, 146.

McLachlan, Alexander (1818-1896). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, 1840; engaged in farming. Government emigration agent for Scotland, 1862. Collected edition of his Poems published, 1900. Bib.: MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

McLane, David. Dr Hanged for treason, 301.

McLaren, Dr. Murray. T Attends Sir Leonard Tilley, 145.

MacLean, Judge. B Proposes Metcalfe's health at St. Andrew's Society banquet, 27.

MacLean, Colonel Allan (1725-1784). Born in Scotland. Served in Holland, 1747. In 1757 served with Montgomery's Highlanders in America, and in 1761 major-commandant of the 114th Royal Highlanders. In 1775 lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Highland Emigrants. Served under Carleton in the defence of Quebec, 1775-1776. Index: Hd Raises regiment of Royal Highland Emigrants, 111; takes part in repulse of Arnold and Montgomery, 112; on methods of trade, 162; speech of Indians to, 171; his precipitancy in arresting Pillon, 279, 280, 285; departure of, 294; his correspondence with Haldimand, 306; his opinion of the Americans, 307; letter to Haldimand regarding Du Calvet's movements, 209, 310; visits Haldimand in London, 311, 327. Bib.: Bradley, The Making of Canada; Lucas, History of Canada.

McLean, Archibald (1791-1865). Born in Scotland. Emigrated to Canada with his father; educated at Cornwall Grammar School. In 1812 served in the war with the United States. After the war, called to the bar, and built up an extensive practice. For several years member for Stormont and Cornwall in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, of which he was twice elected Speaker. In 1837 judge of the Court of King's Bench, and held the position till 1856. In 1862-1863 chief-justice of Upper Canada, and in 1864-1865 judge of the Court of Error and Appeal. Index: Mc Elected Speaker, 1831, 170. Bib.: Read, Lives of the Judges.

McLean, John (1828-1886). Born in Scotland. Educated at the University of Aberdeen; ordained priest, 1858, and became curate of St. Paul's, London, Ontario. Removed to the Red River Settlement as archdeacon of Assiniboia, and professor in St. John's College, 1866. Made bishop of Saskatchewan, 1874. Died at Prince Albert as the result of an accident. Bib.: Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland; Machray, Life of Archbishop Machray.

McLeod, Alexander. Mc Charged with murder of Amos Durfee, 423; trial and acquittal, 424.

McLeod, Alexander Norman. Of the North West Company. Index: MS[243] Associated with Gregory and others in opposition to North West Company, 10, 11; visits Mackenzie at Detroit, 12; his character, 14; builds new house at Chipewyan, 50; brings North West men from Fort William, 182; arrives seven days after the Seven Oaks affair, 183.

McLeod, Archibald Norman. Entered the service of the North West Company some time before 1790. In charge of Fort Dauphin, 1799, and Swan River, 1800. Three years later moved to the Athabaska department, and remained there until 1809, when he took charge of New Caledonia. Had already become a partner of the Company, signing the agreement of 1804 as such.

McLeod, Donald (1779-1879). Born in Scotland. Educated at Aberdeen University for the church, but entered the navy, 1803, and the army, 1808. Served in the Peninsula under Sir John Moore, and in Canada during War of 1812-1814; wounded at the battles of Chrystler's Farm and Lundy's Lane. Returned to Europe and fought at the battle of Waterloo. Came to Canada, 1816; opened a classical school at Prescott; began publication of the Grenville Gazette. Took part in the Rebellion of 1837, as a major-general in the insurgent army. Fled to the United States; arrested and tried at Detroit, but acquitted. Settled at Cleveland, Ohio, where he died. Index: Mc Occupies Point Pelee Island, 430. Bib.: History of the Canadian Insurrection. For biog., see Dent, Upper Canadian Rebellion.

McLeod, John (1788-1849). Born in Scotland. Entered the service of the Hudson's Bay Company; conducted Selkirk's colonists from York Factory to the Red River, 1811; from that date to the union of the two fur companies in 1821, engaged in building trading-posts and extending the operations of the Hudson's Bay Company towards the Rocky Mountains. Had taken a leading part in the long conflict between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company, some account of which is given in his diary, 1814-1815, reproduced in part in Bryce's Hudson's Bay Company. On the union of the Companies, given charge of the New Caledonia department, west of the mountains, where he remained for many years, finally retiring from the service, and spending the remainder of his days on the banks of the Ottawa. Index: MS Leads the Selkirk colonists in their opposition to Cuthbert Grant and the half-breeds, 175; his journal, 175, 176; builds house for governor, 176. D Ascends upper Liard to its southern source in Dease Lake, 1834, 123. Bib.: Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Burpee, Search for the Western Sea.

McLoughlin, John (1784-1857). Born at Rivière du Loup. Studied medicine in Edinburgh; joined the North West Company; engaged for several years in the Rainy Lake country; in charge of Fort William in 1821, when the North West and Hudson's Bay Companies were amalgamated, and appointed to take charge of the Columbia River department, 1823. Built Fort Vancouver, 1824, and made it the headquarters for the whole territory west of the mountains. Did more than any other man to strengthen the hold of the Company on the fur trade of the Pacific coast. Through misunderstandings over his attitude towards the American settlers on the Columbia, retired from the Company's service, 1846, and spent the rest of his life in Oregon City. Index: MS Edward Ellice on, 220; impresses Sir George Simpson, 220; travels in state, 221. D First great Hudson's Bay Company leader in Oregon, 84; his character, 84, 86; takes Douglas under his charge, in North West Company, at Fort William, 93; persuades Douglas to join Hudson's Bay Company, 94; his friendship for Douglas, 94; born, 1784, at Rivière du Loup, 94; grandson of Malcolm Fraser, 94; his early home and training, 94-95; studies medicine in Edinburgh, 95;[244] returns to Canada and enters North West Company, 95; sent to Sault Ste. Marie, 95; there when post burned in War of 1812, 95; marries widow of Alexander Mackay, 95; goes to Fort William, 95-96; at Fort Vancouver, his practically absolute rule, 111; ambitious plans for development of western department, 114; sends expedition to Fraser River by sea, 115; builds Fort Colville, 1825-1826, 116; builds Fort Langley, 1827, 116; builds Fort Simpson, 1831, 116; sends Findlayson, Manson, and Anderson, 1833, to build Fort McLoughlin, 117; sends Douglas to receive Fort Stikine from Russians, 1840, 122; expedition to Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, 126; recognizes agricultural possibilities of Oregon, 128; organizes Puget Sound Agricultural Company, 130; his attitude towards Oregon settlers, 144; forced out of Hudson's Bay Company, 145; Douglas and Ogden associated with him in management of western department, 187; resigns from Hudson's Bay Company, 1846, 187; removes to Oregon City, 187; treatment of, by American settlers, 187; his death, 187; his character contrasted with that of Douglas, 351-353. Bib.: Holman, Dr. John McLoughlin: the Father of Oregon; Laut, Conquest of the Great North-West; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company; Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast.

McLoughlin, John. D Son of Dr. John McLoughlin, accompanies Douglas to Sitka, 122; succeeds Rae at Fort Stikine, 122; shot by Indians, 1842, 122-123.

McMaster University. Located at Toronto. Formed in 1887 from the union of Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College. Mainly indebted for endowment to William McMaster. Woodstock College, Woodstock, and Moulton Ladies' College, Toronto, are maintained in close connection.

McMillan, John (1816-1886). Born in Scotland. Came to New Brunswick, 1832. Represented Restigouche in the Assembly, 1857-1867; surveyor-general, 1861-1865; postmaster-general, 1867-1868; inspector of post offices for New Brunswick, 1868-1886. A strong advocate of Confederation. Index: T Elected for Restigouche, 89; postmaster-general in Mitchell ministry, 105.

MacNab, Sir Allan Napier (1798-1862). Born at Newark (now Niagara), Ontario. On the American invasion of Canada joined the army in 1813 and served throughout the war. In 1826 called to the bar of Upper Canada and practised in Hamilton. In 1829 first elected for Wentworth County in the Assembly, and during 1837-1841 Speaker of the House. Took an active part in the Rebellion of 1837-1838 and knighted for his services. After the union of Upper and Lower Canada became Conservative leader and elected Speaker of the House, 1844-1848, and again in 1862. Premier, 1854, and resigned, 1856. Index: H Entertains Joseph Howe at Hamilton, 138. BL Brings loyal troops from Hamilton, to disperse rebels under Mackenzie, 44; taunts Baldwin with his share in the Rebellion, 45; his exploits in 1837 win him knighthood, 82; leader of Tories in Legislature, 1841, 82; proposed for speakership, 87; withdraws his name, 88; his faction welcomes Bagot's appointment as governor, 113; raises racial question, 178; opposes transfer of capital to Montreal, 183; Baldwin on, 183; attacks La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 214; referred to by George Brown, 224; elected in 1844, 252; elected Speaker, 279; his opposition to Rebellion Losses Bill, 314; his quarrel with Blake, 315; warns ministry of riot, 322; rescues portrait of the queen, 324; proposed for Speaker, Baldwin's tribute to his qualifications, Morin elected in his stead, 283; and Papineau, 343; and Baldwin, 353. E His[245] part in suppressing Rebellion of 1837-1838, 31; returned in 1848, 50; defeated for speakership, 51; takes part in stormy debate on Rebellion Losses Bill, 68-69; his responsibility for the disturbances of 1849, 75; nominal leader of Conservative party, 119; called upon by Lord Elgin for advice, 137; agrees to coalition ministry, 139-140; forms government with Morin, 140; his last resting-place, 224. B And the old Tory party, 69; his farcical amendment to prohibition motion, 76; forms coalition ministry with Morin, 77; on the charges against George Brown, 89. C His alliance with Quebec Liberals, 33. Mc Committed to gaol by Speaker, 152; moves Mackenzie's expulsion, 241; admits error, 242; leads forces against Navy Island, 417; orders cutting out of Caroline, 420; knighted, 423; goes to Brantford, 425; seizes Dr. Duncombe's papers, 426; goes to Sandwich, 427; in debate on Rebellion Losses Bill, 489. Md Called upon to form an administration, 61; forms government with A. N. Morin, 63; Morin resigns and he forms a new administration with Colonel Taché, 74; his ideal of government, 76; problem of superseding him, 76, 77; resigns, 80; supports Brown in his quarrel with Macdonald, 81. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Taylor, Brit. Am.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

MacNab, James. H Member of Lord Falkland's Council, 69; declaration as to ministerial responsibility, 75; retires from government, 87; offered seat in Executive Council, 1846, 103; declines offer, 104; elected for Halifax, 106; member of Uniacke government, 110; becomes receiver-general, 112. Bib.: Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

McPhelim, Francis. T Deserts Liberals in New Brunswick, 18; postmaster-general in Gray ministry, 41.

McPherson, Charles. T Member of Executive Council, New Brunswick, 41.

Macpherson, Sir David Lewis (1818-1896). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada, 1835. In 1842 entered business in Montreal; in 1851 he, with others, obtained a charter for a railway from Montreal to Kingston, and associated with the construction of other lines; formed the Inter-Oceanic Railway Company for the purpose of constructing the projected Canadian Pacific Railway, but the contract given to the syndicate headed by Sir Hugh Allan. In 1864-1867 a member of the Legislative Council of Canada; in 1867 appointed to the Senate; Speaker, 1880; member of the Cabinet without portfolio; minister of the interior, 1883-1885; knighted, 1884. Index: Md Heads the Inter-Oceanic Company which received charter from government, 200. E Signs Annexation Manifesto, 81. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

McTavish, Dugald. D Member of Victoria board of management, 265; becomes president of board, 265; transferred to Montreal, in 1870, 265.

McTavish, Simon (1750-1804). Born in the Highlands of Scotland. A man of "enormous energy and decision of character." Settled at Montreal. Engaged in the fur trade soon after the cession of Canada to England, and chiefly instrumental in organizing the North West Company, 1784. Purchased the seigniory of Terrebonne; entertained in princely style at his home in Montreal; and at the time of his death was engaged in building a huge mansion at the foot of Mount Royal. Index: MS A leader in the fur trade, 10; known as le Marquis and le Premier, 23, 91; his dislike for Alexander Mackenzie, 23; his haughty temper and domineering spirit make him unpopular, 54, 91, 93; compared with Mackenzie, 92; puts new life into North West Company, 99; his death, 1804, 99. Bk And McGillivray of North West Company, send[246] news of declaration of war, 203. Bib.: Masson, Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

McTavish, William. MS Chief factor, 1851, 228; last governor of Assiniboia under Hudson's Bay Company, 228.

Madison, James (1751-1836). Fourth president of the United States. Index: Dr His hatred of Great Britain, 274, 281. Bk Maintains non-intercourse with Britain and France, 120; his warlike messages to Congress, 173, 185; places temporary embargo on United States ships, 192; informs Congress of Hull's advance into Canada, 213. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Madocawando. F Abenaquis chief, 329.

Madras Schools. W Founded by Joseph Lancaster, 86; the system described, 86-87; established in New Brunswick, 87. T At Gagetown, 5; system popular, 5.

Magdalen Islands. In Gulf of St. Lawrence. Uncertain who first discovered the group. They were known for many years as the Isles Ramées, or Ramea. This name first appears in narratives of voyages to the Gulf in 1590-1597, in Hakluyt. Champlain applied the present name to what is now known as Amherst Island, in the 1632 ed. of his Voyages. It was afterwards applied to the whole group. Bib.: Ganong, Cartography of Gulf of St. Lawrence (R. S. C., 1889).

Magistrates. Dr Poor character and scandalous methods of many of them, 52; some of them most worthy men, 55.

Magnan, Pierre. Ch Goes on embassy to Iroquois, 163; is murdered, 164.

Maguaga. Bk Americans successful in skirmish at, 238-243.

Mahicanaticouche. Ch Montagnais chief, 139, 163; found to have been guilty of murder, 165.

Mail. Newspaper published at Niagara. Index: B Ridicules Globe's proposal for annexation of North-West Territories, 217-218.

Maillard, Antoine Simon. Missionary to the Indians and French of Acadia and Cape Breton, 1734. Vicar-general at Louisbourg for several years. Invited by the governor of Nova Scotia to settle at Halifax, 1759. At first opposed British supremacy, but afterwards a strong supporter of the government. Died in Halifax, 1768. Bib.: Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins.

Mair, Charles (1840- ). Born in Lanark, Ontario. Educated at Queen's University, Kingston. Paymaster for the Dominion government at Fort Garry, 1868; captured by the rebels in Riel's first rising, 1869; condemned to death, but escaped. In the second rising, 1885, served as quartermaster of the Governor-General's Body Guard. In 1893, appointed Canadian government immigration agent in charge of the Lethbridge district, Southern Alberta. Index: Md Comes to Ottawa from Prince Albert to impress on authorities the serious situation in the West, 241. Bib.: Works: Dreamland and other Poems; Tecumseh: a Drama. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men; MacMurchy, Canadian Literature.

Maisonneuve, Paul de Chomedy, Sieur de. In this "devout and valiant gentleman," as Parkman says, lived again the spirit of Godfrey de Bouillon, leader of the first Crusade. He had seen much service in European wars, before the opportunity came to consecrate his sword to the church in Canada. A group of enthusiasts in France had obtained a grant of the Island of Montreal from Lauson and the Company of New France, and purposed to establish there a religious colony, of which Maisonneuve was appointed governor. Sailed from[247] Rochelle, in 1641, with a company of soldiers and artisans; wintered at Quebec; and on the eighteenth of May, 1642, landed on the same spot where Champlain had stood thirty-one years before. Here he and his men set to work to build a chapel, fort, and their simple habitations, thereby laying the foundation of the future city of Montreal. Was for 22 years governor of Montreal, but through the jealousy of De Mésy, governor-general of Canada, was recalled to France by De Tracy in 1664. Though no charges were made against him he found no possibility of reinstatement in office and resigned in 1669; died in 1676. Index: F Conducts mission colony to Montreal, 29, 33; bravery of, 34; goes back to France for reinforcements, 38; returns to Canada with one hundred soldiers, 39; removed from governorship by Marquis de Tracy, 54. L Governor of Montreal, his piety, 8; carries cross on his shoulders to summit of Mount Royal, 91; removed from his position, 176; presents a cannon from which to make a bell, to Bonsecours chapel, 177. Ch Comes out in 1613 with three vessels licensed to trade, 78; Champlain returns to France in his ship, 79. Bk Founder of Montreal, 99. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America and Old Régime; Faillon, La Colonie Française; Dollier de Casson, Histoire de Montreal.

Maitland, Sir Peregrine (1777-1854). Born in Hampshire, England. Entered the army, 1792. Served in Flanders, 1794-1798; in Spain, 1809 and 1812; promoted major-general, 1814; took part in the battle of Waterloo and made K.C.B for his services. Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 1818-1828; and lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 1828-1834. Commander-in-chief of the Madras army, 1836-1838; and governor and commander-in-chief at the Cape of Good Hope, 1844-1847. Knighted, 1852. Index: E Grants charter to King's College, 93. BL Dismisses Willis from office, 28. R Favours encouragement to British Methodists in Canada, 87-88. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Read, The Lieutenant-Governors of Upper Canada; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia.

Maizerets, Louis Ange de. L Comes to Canada, 41; director of the Seminary, 55; transfers his personal income to Seminary, 56; made archdeacon of chapter of Quebec, 197; administers diocese, with Glandelet, in absence of Laval, 243.

Malartic, Anne Joseph Hyppolite, Count de (1730-1800). Born in France. In 1745 entered the army; and in 1749 came to Quebec as assistant major. In 1756 served under Montcalm, and took part in all his campaigns; bore a conspicuous part in the siege of Quebec, 1759-1760, and severely wounded at the battle of Ste. Foy; served on the American side in the War of Independence. Index: WM Anxious as to line of defence above the city, 159, 162; in battle of Ste. Foy, 261; wounded, 264; Murray's conversation with, 269. Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe; Doughty, Siege of Quebec.

Malaspina. Dr In search for Strait of Anian, 26.

Malot, Louis. Ch Jesuit, drowned, 200.

Mance, Jeanne (1606-1673). Born at Nogent-le-Roi. Infected with the prevailing enthusiasm for missionary work in Canada, and in 1640 journeyed to Rochelle, intending to embark for the New World. At Rochelle met Dauversière and others interested in the project of a missionary settlement at Montreal, and determined to throw in her lot with them. Sailed to Quebec with Maisonneuve, and spent the winter there with the Ursulines. In May, 1642, the colonists ascended the river, having gained another convert at Quebec in the person of Madame de la Peltrie. The following year a hospital was built at Montreal, with money supplied by Madame de Bullion. Jeanne Mance[248] was put in charge, and devoted the remainder of her life to ministering to the sick, native as well as white. Index: F Establishes Hôtel Dieu at Montreal, 29; death of, 78. L Founder of hospital at Montreal, 8; smitten by plague on board the St. André, 31; laid one of the foundation stones of Montreal church, 89; her labours in the hospital at Montreal, 91. Bib.: Parkman, Jesuits in North America; Faillon, Vie de Mlle. Mance.

Manchester. In England. Index: Sy Poulett Thomson elected for, 31; his free trade views find support in, 36; great dinner to Thomson in, 37.

Manet, Jean. Ch Interpreter, 144.

Manitoba. Area, 73,956 square miles. The province was created in 1870, the old Red River Settlement, founded by Lord Selkirk, forming the nucleus. The name is a contraction of the Cree word Manitowaban. La Vérendrye and his sons were the first white men to set foot within what now forms the province. They built Fort Maurepas, at the mouth of Winnipeg River, in 1734; Fort Rouge, at the mouth of the Assiniboine, in 1733; and Fort La Reine, near present Portage la Prairie, in 1738. They afterwards built Fort Dauphin, on or near Lake Dauphin. See also Red River Colony; Winnipeg. Index: C Bill creating province introduced by Cartier, 71; meaning of name, The God That Speaks, 71. Md Bill passed for establishment of, as province, 161; restrictions against rival lines to Canadian Pacific Railway removed, 236, 284; boundary dispute, 256; its connection with commercial union, 298. Bib.: Bryce, Manitoba; Gunn and Tuttle, History of Manitoba; Begg, History of the North-West; Bryce, Romantic Settlement of Lord Selkirk's Colonists; Hargrave, Red River; Ross, Red River Settlement.

Manson, Donald. Engaged in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company, west of the Rocky Mountains. Led three brigades from the Columbia to Langley on the Fraser, 1848. Appointed a justice of the peace. Index: D At Fort McLoughlin, 117; establishes first circulating library on Pacific slope, 117-118.

Mantet, Nicholas d'Ailleboust, Sieur de (1663-1709). In 1689 defeated the Iroquois at the Lake of the Two Mountains; and in 1690 led an expedition against Schenectady. Killed during an attack on Fort St. Anne, Hudson Bay. Index: F One of the leaders of war party against Schenectady, 235. Bib.: Parkman, Old Régime.

Maquinna. D His relations with Captain Meares at Nootka, 27; keeps armourer and sailmaker of the Boston in slavery four years, 37.

Marcel, Captain. WM Third aide-de-camp to Montcalm, 2; accompanies Montcalm on visit of inspection, 173; with Montcalm in his last hours, 219; informs Lévis of Montcalm's death, 220; departure for France, 238.

Marcet, Mrs. Hd Grand-niece of Haldimand, 343.

Marchand, Étienne (1755-1793). Engaged in the trade between the West Indies and North and South America. In 1790 sailed from Marseilles on a voyage of trade and exploration, in which he made careful surveys of the coast of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia, visited the islands of Polynesia, sailed up the west coast of America, visited China and Siberia, and finally returned to Europe, 1792. Index: D Explores North-West Coast, 1791, 25; his narrative, 25. Bib.: Voyage autour du Monde, ed. by Fleurien. For biog., see Cyc. Am. Biog.

Marchand, Félix Gabriel (1832-1900). Born in St. Johns, Quebec. Educated at St. Hyacinthe College. Elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec, 1867; provincial Secretary, 1878-1879; commissioner of crown lands, 1879; Speaker of the Assembly, 1887-1892; premier of Quebec, 1897. For many[249] years proprietor and editor of Le Franco-Canadien. Bib.: Works: Manuel et Formulaire du Notariat; Fatenville; Erreur n'est pas Compte; Un Bonheur en Attire un Autre; Les Faus Brillants. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.

Marché, Charles de. Ch Jesuit missionary at Miscou, 234.

Marcy, William Learned (1786-1857). Mc Governor of New York, declines to surrender Mackenzie, 414. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Mariana. Ch Jesuit, book written by, ordered to be burnt, 153.

Marie. WM A storeship launched at Montreal, 244.

Marie Antoinette (1755-1793). Queen of France. Index: S Public mourning in Upper Canada for death of, 193.

Marie de l'Incarnation (Marie Martin, née Guyart) (1599-1672). Born at Tours, France. Married early, and was left a widow after two years, with an only child. For twelve years devoted herself to his education; and then entered the Ursuline convent at Tours; in 1639 accompanied Madame de la Peltrie to Canada, and became the first superior of the Ursuline convent at Quebec. Her Lettres Historiques, written for the edification of her son Claude Martin, form one of the most valuable sources of information on the history of the period. Composed a catechism in Huron, three in Algonquian and a dictionary of French and Algonquian. Index: F Arrival of, at Quebec, 28; on Jesuit Relations, 30; on influence of convent teaching, 89; on rapid decline of Indian population, 168. L On the devotion of Laval to the sick, 33; on his saintliness, 34, 254; on conversions wrought by the earthquake, 45; mentions Dollard's exploit, 75; on piety of the soldiery, 79; her piety, 92; called the Theresa of New France, 93; Abbé Ferland's account of, 93; on the zeal of Fénelon and Trouvé, 109; on the sale of brandy to the Indians, 113; praises Talon, 114; on Canadians, 119; on education of Indian girls, 125; death of, 153, 154; character and influence, 155. Ch Praises virtues of early settlers, 258. Bib.: Lettres de la Vénérable Mère Marie de l'Incarnation; Martin, La Vie de la Vénérable Mère Marie de l'Incarnation; Charlevoix, Vie de Mère Marie de l'Incarnation; Casgrain, Vie; Life, by a Religious of the Ursuline Community.

Marion, Nicholas. Ch Captain of the Levrier, one of the two vessels of Champlain's first expedition to Quebec, 40.

Maritime Provinces. B Movement for union of, 161, 186; Taché argues advantages of union with, 169-170; coal mines of, 170; shipping of, 170, 174; inclusion of, in Confederation, opposed by Dorion, 176; British government brings pressure upon, in interests of Confederation, 186-187; involved in reciprocity negotiations, 194. Md Their determined opposition to Confederation, 116-118. T History of union movement in, 69-71; Charlottetown Conference, 73-75. See also New Brunswick; Nova Scotia; Prince Edward Island; Cape Breton. Bib.: See under foregoing titles.

Markland, George H. R Member of Legislative Council, Upper Canada, and of Board of Education, 58.

Marquette, Jacques (1637-1675). Born at Laon, in the north of France. Joined the Society of Jesus about 1654, and sailed for Canada, 1666. Sent to the Upper Lakes, 1668, and stationed at La Pointe, near the western end of Lake Superior, 1670. Here he heard from the Illinois of a great river flowing far to the south, and was filled with an ardent desire to explore it. His opportunity came two years later, when he was chosen by the Intendant Talon to accompany Louis Jolliet on his memorable exploration of the Mississippi, 1673. Descending the river to the mouth of the Arkansas, and satisfying themselves that it flowed neither into the Atlantic nor the Gulf of[250] California, but into the Gulf of Mexico, they returned to Green Bay, arriving in Sept. 1673. Marquette remained at the mission of De Père until 1675, when he established a mission at Kaskaskia, on the Illinois. His strength had been broken by the difficult journey of 1673, and on his return from Kaskaskia to Michilimackinac, died on the shore of Lake Michigan, May 18, 1675. In the winter of 1676 his bones were brought to Michilimackinac and buried there. Index: F Accompanies Jolliet in his explorations, 155. L One of the founders of mission at Sault Ste. Marie, 11; follows course of Mississippi, 11, 146; accompanies Jolliet in his explorations, 59; his death, 146. WM Descends the Mississippi with Jolliet, 19. Bib.: Shea, Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley; Griffin, Discovery of the Mississippi; Parkman, La Salle; Breese, Early History of Illinois; Sparks, American Biography, ser. 1, vol. 10.

Marriages. W Dissenting ministers forbidden to perform ceremony in New Brunswick, 14, 15; the Dissenters' Marriage Bill, 14, 15; question settled in 1834, 16. F Stimulated by civil authorities, 57. S Question of, in Upper Canada, 85-88, 161.

Marriott, Sir James (1730?-1803). Advocate general, 1764; vice-chancellor, 1767; sat in Parliament for Sudbury, 1781-1784, and 1796-1802. Index: His views on question of Canadian laws, 62; examined in connection with the Quebec Act, 63, 69. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Marshall, John George (1786-1880). Born in Nova Scotia. Educated at Halifax, and called to the bar, 1808. Represented Sydney in the Nova Scotia Assembly, 1811-1823. Subsequently appointed chief-justice of the Court of Common Pleas. Died in Halifax. Bib.: Brief History of Events in Nova Scotia during the Earliest Years of the Present Century.

Marsolet, Nicolas (1587-1677). Came to Canada from France about 1608, and for many years an interpreter for the Montagnais and Algonquian tribes. In 1629, when Kirke took Quebec, deserted to the English. Index: Ch Accompanies Champlain to Quebec, 41; joins Algonquians to learn their language, 63; interpreter of Algonquian language, 144; sides with the Kirkes, 194; subsequent career, 203. Bib.: Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Marteilhe. Dr Appointed judge, 183.

Martial Law. Bk Question respecting, 226. Hd Canada under, for four years after conquest, 41, 43; abolished, 59; Haldimand's opinion of, for Florida, 65; at Vincennes, 93; not strictly enforced by Haldimand, 275.

Martin, Abraham (1589-1664). Born in Scotland. Came to Canada in 1614, having married Marguerite Langlois the previous year. Engaged as a pilot at Quebec. In 1635 granted lands on the heights of Quebec by the Hundred Associates, and in 1648 and 1652 received further gifts of land from Adrien Duchesne. Index: WM First proprietor of Plains of Abraham, 186. Ch Early settler, 145, 146; his property, 147. Bib.: Doughty, Siege of Quebec; Wood, Fight for Canada.

Martin, Anne. Ch Daughter of Abraham Martin, 146.

Martin, Charles Amador. Ch Priest, 146.

Martin (or Marten), Sir Henry (1562-1641). Born in London. Educated at Oxford. Sent to the Palatinate, 1613; chancellor of London diocese, 1616; judge of the Admiralty Court, 1617-1641. A member of the Court of High Commission, 1620-1641. One of the commissioners appointed to negotiate a settlement in Canadian affairs between England and France, 1629-1630. Index: Ch English commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.[251]

Martin, Joseph (1852- ). Born in Milton, Ontario. Educated at the public schools and at the Toronto Normal School. Taught school for a time; studied law at Ottawa; removed to Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, 1882, and the same year called to the bar of Manitoba. Member of the Manitoba Assembly, 1883-1892; attorney-general, 1888-1891; carried through the Act abolishing separate schools in Manitoba, 1890. In 1891 contested Selkirk for the House of Commons, but defeated; elected for Winnipeg, 1893, but defeated, 1896. Removed to British Columbia, 1897; elected to the British Columbia Assembly for Vancouver; subsequently attorney-general and premier of the province. Removed to England, 1909, and in same year contested Stratford-on-Avon for the British House of Commons, but defeated; elected to represent East St. Pancras, London, 1910. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who; Ewart, The Manitoba School Question.

Martin, Marguerite. Ch Daughter of Abraham Martin, 146.

Martinez, Estévan José. Accompanied Perez to North-West Coast in 1773 as pilot. In 1788 sent again to the North-West Coast as joint commander with De Haro of an expedition to watch the operations of the Russians; the following year again sent north from Mexico in command of the Princessa. Seized the Iphigenia at Nootka, but afterwards released it; fortified Hog Island near Friendly Cove, and took formal possession of Nootka; also seized several other vessels at Nootka, and imprisoned Captain Colnett. After carrying out some local explorations returned to Mexico. Index: D Asserts Spanish sovereignty over Pacific, 28; at Nootka, 28; seizes Iphigenia and North-West America, and claims Nootka by right of conquest, 28; claims disproved by Douglas, 28; Iphigenia released, but North-West America retained, 29; seizes Princess Royal and Argonaut, 29. Bib.: Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast.

Marylanders. Dr Loyalists, commanded by Chalmers, 202.

Mascarene, Paul (1684-1760). Born in Castras, in the south of France. Educated at Geneva, and afterwards went to England; naturalized, 1706. Entered the army, 1708; accompanied his regiment to America, 1710; took part in the capture of Port Royal. Became lieutenant-colonel of Philipps's regiment, and a member of the Council of Nova Scotia. Lieutenant-governor of Annapolis, 1740, and administrator of the government of the province until the arrival of Governor Cornwallis, 1749. Defended Annapolis against Du Vivier, 1744. Retired from active service on account of advancing age; gazetted major-general. Lived in Boston until his death. Bib.: Selections from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, ed. by Akins; Campbell, History of Nova Scotia. See also Acadians, Expulsion of the.

Mascouten Indians. An Algonquian tribe. The name means "Little prairie people." They were known to the French as Nation du feu. First mentioned by Champlain in 1616; Perrot visited their village, near Fox River, Wis., some time before 1669. They were also seen by Allouez in 1670, and by Marquette in 1673. Always a small tribe, they disappeared entirely before the end of the eighteenth century. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Masères, Francis (1731-1824). Born in London. Educated at Cambridge. In 1766 appointed attorney-general of Quebec, holding the position until 1769. Returned to England and was cursitor baron of the Exchequer, 1773-1824, and in 1780 became senior judge of the Sheriff's Court, London. Index: Dr Attorney-general, of Huguenot descent, conducts prosecution in[252] Walker Case, 37; called upon to report on a system of law for the country, 41; goes to England, 56; opposed to Carleton and others on question of Canadian laws, 62; called as witness in connection with Quebec Act, 63; evidence before House of Commons, 68. Hd Supports Du Calvet, 290, 291, 305; mentioned by MacLean, 310; his opinion of Mabane, 315. Bib.: Works: Account of the Proceedings of the British and other Protestant Inhabitants of the Province of Quebec, in Order to Obtain an House of Assembly; Additional Papers Concerning the Province of Quebec; Canadian Freeholder; Collection of Commissions, etc., Relating to the Province of Quebec; Occasional Essays. For biog., see Dict. Nat. Biog.; Bradley, The Making of Canada.

Massachusetts. F Charter of, declared null and void, 264; takes lead in expedition against Quebec, 277. Bk War of 1812 unpopular in, 208.

Massé, Enemond (1574-1646). Born in France. Entered the Society of Jesus, 1596. In 1611 went to Port Royal (Annapolis); and later to Mount Desert Island, where he established a mission and built a fort. In 1613 Captain Samuel Argall (q.v.), attacked the fort, and Massé and most of the colonists were taken prisoners. In 1614 went to France; returned in 1625, and spent the remainder of his life in mission work among the Algonquians and Montagnais. Taken prisoner at Quebec in 1629, but afterwards released. Index: Ch Jesuit, 152; returns to college of La Flèche, 207; returns to Canada, 228. Bib.: Charlevoix, History of New France; Parkman, Old Régime; Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia.

Masson, Louis François Rodrigue (1833-1903). Born at Terrebonne. Entered Parliament in 1867 as member for Terrebonne; minister of militia and defence, 1878; president of the Council, 1880; called to the Senate, 1882; lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 1884; again called to the Senate, 1890. Bib.: Bourgeois de la Compagnie du Nord-Ouest. For biog., see Morgan, Can. Men.

Mather, Cotton (1663-1728). F On failure of Phipps's expedition, 302; on rescue of some men cast ashore on Anticosti, 304. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Matheron. L Steward of abbey of Maubec, 137.

Mathews, Peter. Mc Executed, 435; monument to, 436.

Mathews, Robert. Hd English secretary to Haldimand, 245, 305; signs order for arrest of Du Calvet, 286; sails for England with Haldimand, 309; on Mrs. Fairchild, 314; Haldimand's interest in, 331; returns to Canada as aide-de-camp to Lord Dorchester, 332; sent to Detroit as lieutenant-governor, 332; receives bequest from Haldimand, 342.

Maubec, Abbey of. L Revenues of, assigned to bishopric of Quebec, 131, 132, 136, 137.

Maupassant. F Récollet father, Frontenac's confessor, 165.

Maurelle, Francisco Antonio. Sailed to the North-West Coast with Quadra in 1775, and again in 1779. Embodied the results of the explorations in several charts of the coast with explanatory text, which were published in Mexico and also in London. His journal of the 1775 expedition published in Barrington's Miscellany, 1781. Commanded the Princessa, 1781-1782, on a voyage from Manilla to San Bias. Index: D On North-West Coast, 15. Bib.: Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names; Bancroft, History of the North-West Coast.

Maxwell, Colonel. W Sent to frontier with troops in 1839, 135.

May, Sir Humphrey (1573-1630). Born in England. Educated at Oxford. In 1604 groom of the King's privy chamber; in 1618 surveyor of the Court of Wards, and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; and in 1625 privy coun[253]cillor; in 1629 one of the commissioners appointed to negotiate a settlement in North American affairs between England and France. Index: Ch English commissioner in matter of Canada, 214. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

May, Sir Thomas Erskine. See Farnborough.

Meade, George Gordon (1815-1872). In 1865-1866 commanded the military division of the Atlantic, during which period prevented the Fenians from making Eastport, Maine, the base of operations against New Brunswick. Index: T Sent to check Fenians, 107. Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.

Meares, John (1756-1809). Born in England. Entered the navy, 1776, and served against the French until 1783. Entered the merchant service, 1783, and explored the coast of Alaska, 1786. Explored and surveyed the north-west coast of America, 1789. Index: D Winters 1786-1787 in Prince William Sound, 22; half his crew die of scurvy, 22; voyage of 1788, and his connection with "Nootka Affair," 26; at Canton, 1788, 27; expedition to North-West Coast, 27; at Nootka, 27; purchases land from Maquinna for fur-trading post, 27; builds North-West America, at Nootka,—first ship launched in what is now British Columbia, 28; explores coast southwards, 28; enters and examines Strait of Juan de Fuca, and takes possession for Great Britain, 28; sails for China, 28. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Medley, John (1804-1892). Born in London, England. Graduated at Oxford, 1826; ordained priest, 1829; vicar of St. John's, Truro, 1831; of St. Thomas, Exeter, 1838, and prebendary of Exeter cathedral, 1842. Elected first bishop of Fredericton, New Brunswick, 1845; metropolitan of Canada, 1879. Bib.: Mockridge, The Bishops of the Church of England in Canada and Newfoundland; Dent, Can. Por.

Meech, Lieutenant. WM Makes reconnaissance of Island of Orleans, 92.

Meilleur, Jean Baptiste (1795-1878). Born in St. Laurent, near Montreal. Educated at the College of St. Sulpice, Montreal; studied law, and, later, medicine. Elected to the Assembly, 1834, and appointed superintendent of public instruction by Sir Charles Bagot, 1842. Held this position for fifteen years, during which time forty-five educational institutions were established. In 1862 appointed postmaster of Montreal. One of the founders of the College of L'Assomption. Index: BL Appointed superintendent of public instruction by Bagot, 115. Bib.: Bibaud, Dict. Hist. and Pan. Can.

Melbourne, William Lamb, second Viscount (1779-1848). Born in London, England. Educated at Eton, Cambridge, and Glasgow. Entered Parliament, 1805; Irish secretary under Canning, 1827, and under Wellington, 1828; and in 1830-1834 home secretary under Grey; for a few months in 1834, prime minister. In 1835 again became prime minister and retained office for six years; from 1837 to 1841 acted as adviser to the young Queen Victoria. Index: Sy Becomes prime minister, 45; dismissed by the king, 45; recalled to power, 46; weakness of his government, 47; his estimate of Poulett Thomson, 6; resigns, 56; returns to office, 57; Cabinet reorganized, 57. W Negotiations re New Brunswick crown lands, 37. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Letters of Queen Victoria.

Melville, Henry Dundas, first Viscount (1742-1811). Sat for Midlothian, 1774-1790, and for Edinburgh, 1790-1802; home secretary, 1791-1794; secretary of war, 1794-1801; first lord of admiralty, 1804-1805. Index: S Secretary of state, thought Simcoe's educational schemes premature, 169. Dr Colonial secretary, disapproves of Dorchester's speech to Miami Indians, 283. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Melville, Henry Dundas, third Viscount (1801-1876). Served through Re[254]bellion of 1837. General, 1868. Index: Mc Defends Windmill Point, 443; accepts Van Schoultz's surrender, 444. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.

Membertou, Henry (1510?-1611). Micmac sagamore; became a convert to Christianity in extreme old age. In 1604 De Monts and his band of colonists landed in Acadia, and the chief received them hospitably. Assisted the French against hostile Indians, and in 1607 with a force of Micmacs defeated the Armouchiquois Indians. In 1610 baptized, with his family and other Indians; and was counted a zealous son of the church. Is reputed to have been over a hundred years of age at his death. Index: Ch Aged Indian who claimed to have known Jacques Cartier, 36. Bib.: Parkman, Pioneers of France.

Membré, Zenobius (1645-1687). Born in France. The first novice in the Récollet province of St. Anthony. In 1675 came to Canada; in 1679 a member of La Salle's expedition to the West; and in 1682 accompanied La Salle on his voyage down the Mississippi. In 1684 again associated with La Salle on his second expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi. Killed at Fort St. Louis, in an Indian attack. Index: L Récollet missionary, 149, 150. Bib.: Parkman, La Salle.

Menneval, Robineau de. Governor of Acadia in 1689, with headquarters at Port Royal. In 1690 Port Royal was attacked by the English, and after vainly attempting to defend it, captured and sent as prisoner to England. Index: F Governor of Acadia, 272; surrenders to Phipps, 274; carried prisoner to Boston, 276; released, 277. Bib.: Charlevoix, History of New France; Murdoch, History of Nova Scotia.

Mercier, Honoré (1840-1894). Born at Ste. Athanase, Quebec. Educated at the Jesuit College, Montreal. In 1865 called to the Quebec bar; and in 1872 elected to the Dominion Parliament for Rouville. In 1879 appointed solicitor-general in the Quebec provincial Assembly; and in 1883 elected member for St. Hyacinthe, and liberal leader in the House. In 1887 premier of Quebec and held office until Dec. 15, 1891, when the ministry was dismissed because of the Baie de Chaleur Railway scandal. Introduced the Jesuits' Estates Act in the Quebec Legislature. Index: C One of the founders of Le Parti National and its organ Le National, 30; eulogizes the clergy, 30. Md Heads an agitation in favour of Riel, 243; incorporates the Society of Jesus, 286; introduces and passes the Jesuits' Estates Act in Quebec Legislature, 186, 287. Bib.: Legendre, Honoré Mercier in Men of the Day; Willison, Sir Wilfrid Laurier and the Liberal Party.

Mercury. Newspaper of Quebec, established, 1805. Index: BL Voices sentiments of dominant faction in Lower Canada, 20. P Antagonistic attitude to French-Canadians, 28; makes merry at expense of Papineau's followers, 122-123. Bk Editor of, forced to apologize to Legislative Assembly, 93; opinions expressed in, 93, 116.

Meredith, Sir William Collis (1812-1894). Born in Dublin, Ireland. Emigrated to Canada; in 1836 called to the bar of Montreal, and in 1844 appointed Q. C. From 1849 to 1859 a judge of the Superior Court for the province of Quebec; in 1859-1866 judge of the Queen's Bench; in 1866 chief justice of the Superior Court; retired in 1884. During Lord Elgin's administration as governor-general of Canada (1847-1854), one of the judges of the Seigniorial Court. In 1886 knighted. Index: E Member of Seigniorial Court, 187.

Meredith, Sir William Ralph (1840- ). Born in the county of Middlesex, Ontario. Educated at the London District Grammar School, and at the University of Toronto. Studied law, and called to the bar, 1861. Sat in the On[255]tario Assembly, 1872-1894; leader of the opposition, 1878-1894. Appointed chief justice of the Common Pleas Division of the High Court of Justice, 1894. Knighted, 1896. Chancellor of the University of Toronto. Bib.: Morgan, Can. Men; Canadian Who's Who.

Merritt, William Hamilton (1793-1862). Born in Westchester County, New York. Came to Canada with his parents, 1796. Served during the war of 1812-1814; took part in the capture of Detroit and the battles of Queenston Heights, Stony Creek, and Lundy's Lane. The principal promoter of the Welland Canal, opened in 1830. In 1832 elected to the Legislative Assembly; and in 1845 projected the Niagara Falls suspension bridge. In 1848 president of the Council in the La Fontaine-Baldwin administration; in 1850 commissioner of public works; and in 1860 member of the Legislative Council. Index: Bk Commands troop of cavalry at Queenston Heights, 310. E Elected in 1848, 50; Welland Canal due to his enterprise, 97; a member of the La Fontaine-Baldwin ministry, 97. Mc President of Welland Canal, 265; sues Mackenzie for libel, 265. Bib.: Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Merritt, Hon. W. H. Merritt.

Mesnard, Father. L Death of, 11.

Mesnu, Peuvret de. L Clerk of the Sovereign Council, 158, 167.

Mesplet, Fleury. Hd Publisher of first books printed in Canada, 276; founder of Montreal Gazette, 276; publishes scurrilous sheet in French, and is arrested, 277. S Prints Simcoe's first proclamation, 80, 173.

Metaberoutin. See St. Maurice River.

Metcalfe, Charles Theophilus, Baron (1785-1846). Born in Calcutta, India. Educated at Eton. Resident of Delhi, 1811-1820; in 1820-1827 resident of Hyderabad; and member of the Supreme Council of India, 1827. Provisional governor-general, 1835-1836; and lieutenant-governor of the North-West Provinces, 1836-1838; governor of Jamaica, 1839-1842. In 1843 appointed governor-general of Canada, and held the position until 1845. Index: Sy Did not believe that Sydenham was really in favour of responsible government, 312; his reactionary policy, 313. C On the union of 1841, 14-15; his high-handedness, 17; his political schemes, 18; constitutional battle with La Fontaine as to meaning of ministerial responsibility, 97. R Ryerson's defence of, 126, 129-130, 163; opposition to, 126-131; confers with Ryerson on popular education, 163. B Reasons for his selection as governor, 18-19; Hincks on, 18-19; rupture with his advisers, 19; his character and attitude towards responsible government, 19-20, 23, 24; defended by Ryerson, 22; wins elections, 26; leaves Canada, 27; his death, 27; Brown refuses to drink his health, 27-28. H His narrow views and arbitrary conduct, delays full development of responsible government, 55. BL The great political controversy during his administration, x; on responsible government, 138; his arrival in Kingston, reception, and appearance, 155; his character and views on representative government, 156-166; his birth, 158; difficulties of his position, 166-168; relations with Baldwin and La Fontaine, 169-176; 199-214; defended by Daly and MacNab, 214-215; forms provisional government, 216; defended by Wakefield, 219, 220; agitation of the Reform Association, 221-223; attacked by the Globe, 224, 225; public addresses, 226-228; supported by Stanley, the colonial secretary, in his quarrel with the Reformers, 230-234; and by Lord John Russell, Peel, and Buller, 234-235; attempts to form a Cabinet, 235-236; defended by Ryerson, 240-242; Sullivan's reply, 243-244; Ryerson's rejoinder, 245-246; forms Cabinet, 246-247; uses personal influence in elections, 1844, 249-250; wins the election, 250; elevation to peerage, 256-257; his recall, 263, 265; his illness and death,[256] 265; succeeded by Cathcart, 265; his mistaken policy, 272, 274, 285; refuses La Fontaine's request for amnesty, 288, 291; and Baldwin's University Bill, 293; and the Indemnification Bill, 308; La Fontaine's reference to, in his farewell speech, 356. E Succeeds Bagot as governor-general, 32; his defects as governor, 32, 33, 39; comes into conflict with La Fontaine and Baldwin, 33-34; his views on patronage, 34-35; attempts to form a ministry, 35-36, 66, 119; and Ryerson, 36, 90; Kaye's views on, 36; raised to peerage, 37; his death, 37; Macaulay on, 37-38; Hincks on, 38; succeeded by Cathcart, 38; and the Rebellion Losses question, 64; rebels allowed to return from exile, 91. Md Succeeds Sir Charles Bagot as governor-general of Canada, 18; previous appointments, 18; disagrees with Baldwin and La Fontaine on question of patronage, 18, 19; difficulty in forming administration, 19; his high-handed policy, 20; carries on government with three ministers, 20; his administration sustained in general election, 21; resigns, 24; leaves Canada, 24, 25. W New Brunswick House of Assembly presents address to, 74; attacked by Wilmot and Fisher, 74; addresses from St. John and county of York, 74-75; his unconstitutional attitude, 75, 76. Bib.: Dict. Nat. Biog.; Dent, Can. Por. and Last Forty Years; Kaye, Life and Correspondence of Lord Metcalfe; Ryerson, Story of my Life; Pope, Memoirs of Sir John A. Macdonald.

Methodist Church in Canada. Can be traced back to 1772, when a party of Yorkshire Methodists settled in Nova Scotia. The first provincial Methodist Conference was held at Halifax in 1786. In 1814 the British Conference appointed missionaries to Quebec and Montreal; and in 1807 the first Methodist Conference was held at Elizabethtown (Brockville). In 1828 the Canada Conference became independent of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States; and in 1833 the Canada Methodist Episcopal Church united with the British Wesleyans. In 1874 the Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Canada, the Canadian Wesleyan New Connexion Conference, and the Wesleyan Conference of Eastern British America became one as the Methodist Church of Canada. The first session of the General Conference was held the same year. In 1883 the Primitive Methodist Church and the Methodist Episcopal Church also became part of the Methodist Church in Canada. Index: R History of church in Canada, 38; without civil rights, 40; independent Canadian church established, 81; English Methodism in Canada, 87; Wesleyan missionaries, 89; Canadian bodies united, 287-288. S Bishop Mountain's low opinion of Methodist preachers in Upper Canada, 159; their earnest labours, 162-164. Bib.: Sanderson, The First Century of Methodism in Canada; Ryerson, Canadian Methodism; Carman, Historical Sketch of Canadian Methodism in Canada: An Ency., vol. 2.

Methye Portage. Also known as Portage La Loche. Named after the methye or loche (Lota maculosa), which has always been abundant in neighbouring waters. This portage was an important point in the palmy days of the fur trade. It leads from the Churchill to the Clearwater, and so to the Athabaska and the immense systems of northern and western waterways that lie beyond. It was noted for its beautiful scenery, which has been described or mentioned by Mackenzie, Franklin, Back, and other northern travellers. It was first crossed by Peter Pond in 1778. The route has now been abandoned for some years, supplies for the northern posts of the Hudson's Bay Company being transported overland from Edmonton to Athabaska Landing, and thence down the Athabaska. Bib.: Burpee, Search for the Western Sea; Bryce, Hudson's Bay Company.

Métiomègne. L Algonquian chief, joins Dollard at Long Sault, 69.[257]

Métis. Md Or Half-breeds, view with alarm the prospect of annexation of territories to Canada, 157; their complaints as to division of lands, 240; their sympathy with Riel, 243.

Meulles, Chevalier Jacques de. Intendant of New France, 1682-1686. The son of François Meulles, seignior of the forest of Montpensier, in Poitou; held the office of grand bailiff, or magistrate, of Orleans, before coming to Canada. Married a sister of Michel Bégon, intendant of Rochefort, and father of Michel Bégon, afterwards intendant of New France. Index: F Intendant, opposed to popular representation, 69; arrival of, 171; criticizes La Barre in despatches, 173, 174; on La Barre's expedition against Senecas, 188; recalled, 207; visits Acadia, and makes census, 271. L Succeeds Duchesneau as intendant, 68; incapable and conceited, 186; the king's instructions to, 186, Bib.: Roy, Intendants de la Nouvelle-France (R. S. C., 1903); Parkman, Frontenac.

Mexico. Ch Visited and described by Champlain, 4.

Mézy, Augustin de Saffray, Chevalier de. Governor of New France from 1663 until his death in 1665. Index: F Appointed governor on Laval's recommendation, 48; quarrels with Laval, 50; death of, 50. L Governor, sides with traders on the liquor question, 10; succeeds D'Avaugour, 41; supports the bishop at first, and then quarrels with him, 51; death of, 51. Bib.: Parkman, Frontenac and Old Régime.

Miami Indians. A tribe of the Algonquian family, belonging chiefly to what is now Wisconsin, where the French first came in contact with them in 1690. After 1700 many removed to Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and adjoining territory. In the colonial wars they fought indifferently on both sides. In 1812 they served under Tecumseh with the British against the Americans. Index: Dr Dorchester's speech to, 282. Bib.: Hodge, Handbook of American Indians.

Miami River. Rises in Hardin County, Ohio, and flowing south and south-west for about 150 miles, enters the Ohio River, twenty miles west of Cincinnati. Index: S General Wayne defeats Indians on, 139.

Michel, Jacques. Ch Huguenot, violent conduct of, towards Father Jean de Brébeuf, 201; his fate, 202.

Michigan Territory. Bk Ceded to Britain with surrender of Detroit, 255, 260.

Michilimackinac. A missionary station and fur-trading post, which stood on the straits between Lakes Huron and Michigan. The name was derived from an Algonquian tribe, the Mishinimaki, and in its original form meant "Place of the big wounded person." The name is now shortened to Mackinac. It was an important place throughout the period of French rule in Canada; and was