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Brunei, See : Flags, Maps

Brunei (East & Southeast Asia)

Introduction ::Brunei

Background:

The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in Asia.

Geography ::Brunei


View Larger Map

Location:

Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia

Geographic coordinates:
4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references:

Southeast Asia

Area:

total: 5,765 sq km country comparison to the world: 172 land: 5,265 sq km

water: 500 sq km

Postcard from Brunei

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:

total: 381 km

border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline:

161 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line

Climate:

tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain:

flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: South China Sea 0 m

highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:

arable land: 2.08%

permanent crops: 0.87%

other: 97.05% (2005)

Irrigated land:

10 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

8.5 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.09

per capita: 243 cu m/yr (1994)

Natural hazards:

typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Environment - current issues:

seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia

People ::Brunei

Population:

395,027 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 175

Age structure:

0-14 years: 26.6% (male 53,282/female 50,141)

15-64 years: 70.1% (male 135,640/female 136,292)

65 years and over: 3.3% (male 6,199/female 6,636) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 28.1 years

male: 28 years

female: 28.2 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.733% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 70

Birth rate:

18 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 110

Death rate:

3.32 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 219

Net migration rate:

2.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31

Urbanization:

urban population: 75% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 2.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.047 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 11.87 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 141 male: 14.19 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.96 years country comparison to the world: 74 male: 73.72 years

female: 78.31 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.88 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 148

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 140

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

fewer than 200 (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 156

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 200 (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

Nationality:

noun: Bruneian(s)

adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups:

Malay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1% (2004 est.)

Religions:

Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10%

Languages:

Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 92.7%

male: 95.2%

female: 90.2% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

3.7% of GDP (2000) country comparison to the world: 121

Government ::Brunei

Country name:

conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam

conventional short form: Brunei

local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam

local short form: Brunei

Government type:

constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)

Capital:

name: Bandar Seri Begawan

geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E

time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence:

1 January 1984 (from the UK)

National holiday:

National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection

Constitution:

29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system:

based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic sharia law supersedes civil law concerning Muslim marriages and inheritance; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age for village elections; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)

cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary

Legislative branch:

The Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members as of 2
September 2005; the council has met in March of each year since then

elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)

note: The Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election has been announced

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Sharia courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)

Political parties and leaders:

National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]

note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity

Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA

International organization participation:

ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent),
ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU,
WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Yusoff Abd HAMID

chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alexander L. BARRASSO

embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Kebangsaan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BS8811

mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam

telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4606

Flag description:

yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"

National anthem:

name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)

lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap

note: adopted 1951

Economy ::Brunei

Economy - overview:

Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for just over half of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. A new monetary authority was established in January 2011 with responsibilities that include monetary policy, monitoring of financial institutions, and currency trading activities. Other plans for the future include upgrading the labor force, reducing unemployment, strengthening the banking and tourist sectors, increasing agricultural production, and, in general, further widening the economic base beyond oil and gas.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$19.88 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 126 $19.68 billion (2009 est.)

$20.04 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$11.96 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 179 -1.8% (2009 est.)

-1.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$50,300 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 9 $50,700 (2009 est.)

$52,500 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 0.7%

industry: 74.1%

services: 25.3% (2008 est.)

Labor force:

188,800 (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 171

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 4.2%

industry: 62.8%

services: 33% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate:

3.7% (2008) country comparison to the world: 31 4% (2006)

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.7% (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 0.3% (2007 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

5.5% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 144 5.5% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$3.374 billion (30 March 2009) country comparison to the world: 108 $3.046 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of broad money:

$8.569 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 106 $7.597 billion (31 December 2008)

Stock of domestic credit:

$1.274 billion (31 December 2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 142 $2.38 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Agriculture - products:

rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs

Industries:

petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction

Industrial production growth rate:

-5.4% (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 164

Electricity - production:

3.069 billion kWh (2008) country comparison to the world: 123

Electricity - consumption:

2.98 billion kWh (2008) country comparison to the world: 127

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

146,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 48

Oil - consumption:

16,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 132

Oil - exports:

152,900 bbl/day (2007) country comparison to the world: 58

Oil - imports:

238 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 200

Oil - proved reserves:

1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 39

Natural gas - production:

13.4 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 36

Natural gas - consumption:

4.2 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 65

Natural gas - exports:

9.2 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 21

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 76

Natural gas - proved reserves:

390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 35

Current account balance:

$7.024 billion (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 $7.101 billion (2007 est.)

Exports:

$10.67 billion (2008) country comparison to the world: 83 $8.25 billion (2007)

Exports - commodities:

crude oil, natural gas, garments

Exports - partners:

Japan 38.04%, Indonesia 25.95%, South Korea 14.17%, Australia 7.24% (2009)

Imports:

$2.61 billion (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 144 $2.055 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals

Imports - partners:

Singapore 38.4%, Malaysia 18.7%, Japan 7.2%, China 5.42%, Thailand 5.19%, US 4.45%, UK 4.25% (2009)

Debt - external:

$0 (2005) country comparison to the world: 195

Exchange rates:

Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar - 1.45 (2009), 1.45 (2009), 2 (2006), 2 (2005), 2 (2004)

Communications ::Brunei

Telephones - main lines in use:

80,500 (2009) country comparison to the world: 149

Telephones - mobile cellular:

425,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 163

Telephone system:

general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US

domestic: every service available

international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network, scheduled for completion by late 2008, will provide new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2009)

Broadcast media:

state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 4 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks broadcasting on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)

Internet country code:

.bn

Internet hosts:

50,997 (2010) country comparison to the world: 88

Internet users:

314,900 (2009) country comparison to the world: 128

Transportation ::Brunei

Airports:

2 (2010) country comparison to the world: 207

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 2

over 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Heliports:

3 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 37 km; oil 18 km (2009)

Roadways:

total: 2,971 km country comparison to the world: 166 paved: 2,411 km

unpaved: 560 km (2008)

Waterways:

209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2011) country comparison to the world: 97

Merchant marine:

total: 9 country comparison to the world: 117 by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8 (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Lumut, Muara, Seria

Military ::Brunei

Military branches:

Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei
Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age (est.) for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve (2007)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 111,166

females age 16-49: 115,071 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 93,809

females age 16-49: 97,345 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 3,509

female: 3,427 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

4.5% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 21

Transnational Issues ::Brunei

Disputes - international:

Brunei and Malaysia agreed in September 2008 to resolve their offshore and deepwater seabed dispute, resume hydrocarbon exploration, and renounce any territorial claims along their land boundary; despite no public territorial claim to Louisa Reef, Brunei implicitly lays claim by including it within the natural prolongation of its continental shelf and basis for a seabed median with Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants

Illicit drugs:

drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty

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