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Botswana, See : Flags, Maps

Botswana (Africa)

Introduction ::Botswana

Background:

Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

Geography ::Botswana


View Larger Map

Location:

Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates:
22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references:

Africa

Private Swap from gigema

Area:

total: 581,730 sq km country comparison to the world: 47 land: 566,730 sq km

water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:

total: 4,013 km

border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline:

0 km (landlocked)

Botswana 2

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)

Climate:

semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain:

predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m

highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources:

diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:

arable land: 0.65%

permanent crops: 0.01%

other: 99.34% (2005)

Irrigated land:

10 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

14.7 cu km (2001)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.19 cu km/yr (41%/18%/41%)

per capita: 107 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility

Environment - current issues:

overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country

People ::Botswana

Population:

2,029,307 country comparison to the world: 144 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 34.8% (male 352,399/female 340,058)

15-64 years: 61.4% (male 613,714/female 608,003)

65 years and over: 3.9% (male 31,155/female 45,547) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 22 years

male: 21.8 years

female: 22.1 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.843% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66

Birth rate:

22.54 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78

Death rate:

9.02 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 73

Net migration rate:

4.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population country comparison to the world: 17 note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2010 est.)

Urbanization:

urban population: 60% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 2.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 11.79 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 143 male: 12.51 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 11.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 60.93 years country comparison to the world: 183 male: 61.11 years

female: 60.75 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.54 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 85

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

23.9% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 2

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

300,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 23

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

11,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 28

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne disease: malaria (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups:

Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including
Kgalagadi and white 7%

Religions:

Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)

Languages:

Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 81.2%

male: 80.4%

female: 81.8% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 12 years (2006)

Education expenditures:

8.1% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 10

Government ::Botswana

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Botswana

conventional short form: Botswana

local long form: Republic of Botswana

local short form: Botswana

former: Bechuanaland

Government type:

parliamentary republic

Capital:

name: Gaborone

geographic coordinates: 24 45 S, 25 55 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northeast, Northwest, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern

Independence:

30 September 1966 (from the UK)

National holiday:

Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)

Constitution:

March 1965; effective 30 September 1966

Legal system:

based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mompati MERAFHE (since 1 April 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mompati MERAFHE (since 1 April 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 October 2009 (next to be held in October 2014); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA%

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body with 8 ex-officio members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 7 non-permanent members serving 5-year terms, consisting of 4 elected subchiefs and 3 members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected by popular vote, 4 appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly elections last held on 16 October 2009 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 53.3%, BNF 21.9%, BCP 19.2%, 2.3%, other 4.3%; seats by party - BDP 45, BNF 6, BCP 4, BAM 1, other 1

Judicial branch:

High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)

Political parties and leaders:

Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO];
Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Gilson SALESHANDO]; Botswana
Democratic Party or BDP [Daniel KWELAGOBE]; Botswana National Front
or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Bernard
BALIKANI]; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS [Themba JOINA]; New
Democratic Front or NDF [Dick BAYFORD]

note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the
BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the
United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence
Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union
[D. K. KWELE]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

First People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization); Pitso Ya Ba Tswana; Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)

other: diamond mining companies

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU,
ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO,
UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA

chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Stephen J. NOLAN

embassy: Embassy Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone

mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone

telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 395-6947

Flag description:

light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony

National anthem:

name: "Fatshe leno la rona" (Our Land)

lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE

note: adopted 1966

Economy ::Botswana

Economy - overview:

Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966, though growth fell below 5% in 2007-08, and turned sharply negative in 2009, with industry falling nearly 30%. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $13,100 in 2010. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP, 70-80% of export earnings, and about half of the government's revenues. Botswana's heavy reliance on a single luxury export was a critical factor in the sharp economic contraction of 2009. Tourism, financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. Although unemployment was 7.5% in 2007 according to official reports, unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in diamond mining production within the next two decades overshadows long-term prospects.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$26.56 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 112 $25.76 billion (2009 est.)

$27.23 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$12.5 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118 -5.4% (2009 est.)

2.9% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$13,100 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 88 $12,900 (2009 est.)

$13,900 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 2.3%

industry: 45.8%

services: 51.9% (2009 est.)

Labor force:

685,300 formal sector employees (2007) country comparison to the world: 151

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Unemployment rate:

7.5% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 77

Population below poverty line:

30.3% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

63 (1993) country comparison to the world: 4

Investment (gross fixed):

28.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 24

Public debt:

22.6% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 106 18.6% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

7.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 179 8.1% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

10% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 19 15% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

13.76% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 35 16.54% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$1.146 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 136 $939.1 million (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$6.679 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 113 $5.357 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$1.361 billion (31 December 2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 139 $2.06 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$3.991 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 86 $3.556 billion (31 December 2008)

$5.887 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts

Industries:

diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; livestock processing; textiles

Industrial production growth rate:

6.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 43

Electricity - production:

1.052 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 143

Electricity - consumption:

2.648 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 130

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

2.181 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 119

Oil - consumption:

15,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 137

Oil - exports:

0 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 207

Oil - imports:

15,180 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 123

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 198

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 201

Natural gas - consumption:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 114

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 51

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 78

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 199

Current account balance:

-$552 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 118 -$762 million (2009 est.)

Exports:

$4.419 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 112 $3.385 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles

Imports:

$4.518 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 122 $4.243 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$7.834 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 58 $8.704 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$2.222 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 137 $1.681 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

pulas (BWP) per US dollar - 6.7413 (2010), 7.1602 (2009), 6.7907 (2008), 6.2035 (2007), 5.8447 (2006)

Communications ::Botswana

Telephones - main lines in use:

144,200 (2009) country comparison to the world: 133

Telephones - mobile cellular:

1.874 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 136

Telephone system:

general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations

domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 7 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is rapidly approaching a teledensity of 100 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2008)

Broadcast media:

2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately-owned; privately-owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately-owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)

Internet country code:

.bw

Internet hosts:

2,739 (2010) country comparison to the world: 148

Internet users:

120,000 (2009) country comparison to the world: 153

Transportation ::Botswana

Airports:

78 (2010) country comparison to the world: 71

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 9

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 6

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 69

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 52

under 914 m: 13 (2010)

Railways:

total: 888 km country comparison to the world: 97 narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

total: 25,798 km country comparison to the world: 103 paved: 8,410 km

unpaved: 17,388 km (2005)

Military ::Botswana

Military branches:

Botswana Defense Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm
Command, Logistics Command (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; official minimum age is unknown (2001)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 543,097

females age 16-49: 520,896 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 347,070

females age 16-49: 315,743 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 23,496

female: 22,944 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3.3% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 38

Transnational Issues ::Botswana

Disputes - international:

Botswana still struggles to seal its border from thousands of Zimbabweans who flee economic collapse and political persecution; Namibia has long supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River at Kazungula crossing, thereby de facto recognizing the short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary

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