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Bosnia and Herzegovina, See : Flags, Maps

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Europe)

Introduction ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Background:

Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Dayton Accords also established the Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council (PIC) at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." In 1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007, with its presence reduced from nearly 7,000 to less than 2,500 troops. Troop strength at the end of 2009 stood at roughly 2,000. In January 2010, Bosnia and Herzegovina assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2010-11 term.

Geography ::Bosnia and Herzegovina


View Larger Map

Location:

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references:

Europe

Area:

total: 51,197 sq km country comparison to the world: 128 land: 51,187 sq km

water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:

total: 1,538 km

border countries: Croatia 932 km, Montenegro 249 km, Serbia 357 km

Coastline:

20 km

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Maritime claims:

no data available

Climate:

hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain:

mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m

highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources:

coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower

Bihać

Land use:

arable land: 19.61%

permanent crops: 1.89%

other: 78.5% (2005)

Irrigated land:

30 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

37.5 cu km (2003)

Natural hazards:

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues:

air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Old bridge in Mostar, Bosnia Herzegowina

Geography - note:

within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

People ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Population:

4,621,598 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 120

Age structure:

0-14 years: 14.5% (male 344,760/female 323,303)

15-64 years: 70.7% (male 1,645,274/female 1,617,136)

65 years and over: 14.8% (male 279,781/female 403,160) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 40.3 years

male: 39.1 years

female: 41.5 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.016% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 192

Birth rate:

8.87 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 213

Death rate:

8.71 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 80

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

Urbanization:

urban population: 47% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.074 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 8.88 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 156 male: 10.18 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 7.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 78.66 years country comparison to the world: 44 male: 75.09 years

female: 82.49 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.26 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 214

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

less than 0.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 166

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

900 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 143

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

100 (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 150

Nationality:

noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups:

Bosniak 48%, Serb 37.1%, Croat 14.3%, other 0.6% (2000)

note: Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions:

Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%

Languages:

Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.7%

male: 99%

female: 94.4% (2000 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years (2007)

Education expenditures:
NA

Government ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Country name:

conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina

local long form: none

local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Government type:

emerging federal democratic republic

Capital:

name: Sarajevo

geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - Brcko district (Brcko Distrikt)*, the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska; note - Brcko district is in northeastern Bosnia and is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina and formally held in condominium between the two entities; the District remains under international supervision

Independence:

1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992)

National holiday:

National Day, 25 November (1943)

Constitution:

the Dayton Peace Accords, signed on 14 December 1995 in Paris, included a constitution; note - each of the entities also has its own constitution

Legal system:

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Nebojsa RADMANOVIC (chairman of the presidency since 10 November 2010; presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Serb); other members of the three-member presidency rotate every eight months: Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (presidency member since 3 October 2010 - Bosniak); Zeljko KOMSIC (presidency member since 1 October 2006 - Croat)

head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola SPIRIC (since 11 January 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman; approved by the state-level House of Representatives (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one Croat, one Serb) elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for four years); the chairmanship rotates every eight months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives

election results: percent of vote - Nebojsa RADMANOVIC with 48.9% of the votes for the Serb seat; Zeljko KOMSIC with 60.6% of the votes for the Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC with 34.9% of the votes for the Bosniak seat

note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Borjana KRISTO (since 21 February 2007); Vice Presidents Spomenka MICIC (since 21 February 2007) and Mirsad KEBO (since 21 February 2007); President of the Republika Srpska: Milorad DODIK (since 3 October 2010); took office 15 November 2010

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats, 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve four-year terms); and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats, 28 seats allocated for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 seats for the Republika Srpska; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms); note - Bosnia's election law specifies four-year terms for the state and first-order administrative division entity legislatures

elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in February 2007 (next to be constituted in 2011); state-level House of Representatives - elections last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014)

election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDP BiH 8, SDA 7, SNSD 7, SDS 5, SBBBiH 4, HDZ-BiH 3, SBiH 2, HDZ-1990/HSP 2, other 4

note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that consists of a House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other); last constituted February 2007; and a House of Representatives (98 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDP 28, SDA 23, SBBBiH 13, HDZ-BiH 12, HDZ-1990/HSP 5, other 17; the Republika Srpska has a National Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); elections last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SNSD 37, SDS 18, PDP 7, DNS 6, SP 4, DP 3, SDP 3, SDA 2, NDS 2 SRS-RS 1; as a result of the 2002 constitutional reform process, a 28-member Republika Srpska Council of Peoples (COP) was established in the Republika Srpska National Assembly including 8 Croats, 8 Bosniaks, 8 Serbs, and 4 members of the smaller communities

Judicial branch:

BiH Constitutional Court (consists of nine members: four members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the European Court of Human Rights); BiH State Court (consists of 44 national judges and seven international judges and has three divisions - Administrative, Appellate and Criminal - having jurisdiction over cases related to state-level law and cases initiated in the entities that question BiH's sovereignty, political independence, or national security or with economic crimes that have serious repercussions to BiH's economy, beyond that of an entity or Brcko District); a War Crimes Chamber opened in March 2005

note: the entities each have a Supreme Court; each entity also has a number of lower courts; there are 10 cantonal courts in the Federation, plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has five district courts and a number of municipal courts

Political parties and leaders:

Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB-BiH [ Fahrudin RADONCIC];
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK];
Bosnian Party or BOSS [Mirnes AJANOVIC]; Bosnian Patriotic Party or
BPS [Sefer HALILOVIC]; Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim
SPAHIC]; Croat Party of Rights or HSP [Zvonko JURISIC]; Croat
Peasants' Party-New Croat Initiative or HSS-NHI [Ante COLAK];
Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or
HKDU [Ivan MUSA]; Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and
Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union
1990 or HDZ-1990 [Bozo LJUBIC]; Croatian Peoples Union [Milenko
BRKIC]; Democratic National Union or DNZ [Rifat DOLIC]; Democratic
Party or DP [Dragan CAVIC]; Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS
[Marko PAVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Rasim KADIC]; Nasa
Stranka or NS [NA; leadership elections late 2010/early 2011]; New
Socialist Party or NSP [Zdravko KRSMANOVIC]; Party for Bosnia and
Herzegovina or SBiH [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Party of Democratic Action or
SDA [Sulejman TIHIC]; Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Mladen
IVANIC]; Peoples' Party of Work for Progress or NSRzB [Mladen
IVANKOVIC-LIJANOVIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Mladen BOSIC];
Serb Radical Party of the Republika Srpska or SRS-RS [Milanko
MIHAJLICA]; Serb Radical Party-Dr. Vojislav Seselj or SRS-VS [Mirko
BLAGOJEVIC]; Social Democratic Party of BiH or SDP BiH [Zlatko
LAGUMDZIJA]; Social Democratic Union or SDU [Nermin PECANAC];
Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS [Petar DJOKIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media

International organization participation:

BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), OAS
(observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UN Security
Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Mitar KUJUNDZIC

chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502

consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Patrick S. MOON

embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [387] (33) 445-700
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722

branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description:

a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia

National anthem:

name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)

lyrics/music: Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC

note: music adopted 1999; lyrics adopted 2009

Economy ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Economy - overview:

The interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 1996-99 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000-02. Part of the lag in output was made up in 2003-08 when GDP growth exceeded 5% per year. However, the country experienced negative GDP growth of almost 3% in 2009 due in large part to a reduction in exports caused by the global economic crisis. One of Bosnia's main economic challenges in 2010 has been to reduce spending on public sector wages and social benefits to meet the IMF's criteria for obtaining funding for budget shortfalls. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the Communist-era payments bureaus were shut down; foreign banks, primarily from Austria and Italy, now control most of the banking sector. The konvertibilna marka (convertible mark or BAM)- the national currency introduced in 1998 - is pegged to the euro, and confidence in the currency and the banking sector has increased. Bosnia's private sector is growing and foreign investment is slowly increasing, but government spending, at roughly 50% of GDP, remains high because of redundant government offices at the state, entity and municipal level. Privatization of state enterprises, however, has been slow, particularly in the Federation where political division between ethnically-based political parties makes agreement on economic policy more difficult. A sizeable current account deficit and high unemployment rate remain the two most serious macroeconomic problems. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a predictable source of revenue for the government and helped rein in gray market activity. National-level statistics have also improved over time but a large share of economic activity remains unofficial and unrecorded. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement in September 2007.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$30.56 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 $30.23 billion (2009 est.)

$31.23 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$16.2 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

1.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 175 -3.2% (2009 est.)

5.7% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$6,600 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 134 $6,600 (2009 est.)

$6,800 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 9.8%

industry: 25.9%

services: 64.3% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

1.863 million (2007) country comparison to the world: 123

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 20.5%

industry: 32.6%

services: 47% (2008)

Unemployment rate:

27.2% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 175 24.1% (2009 est.)

note: official rate

Population below poverty line:

25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 27.4% (2004)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

56.2 (2007) country comparison to the world: 11

Public debt:

39% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 77 35% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

1.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 -0.4% (2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

7.93% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 130 6.98% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$4.098 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 99 $4.182 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$9.307 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 104 $9.236 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$10.09 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 94 $10.01 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA

Agriculture - products:

wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries:

steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate:

3.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 94

Electricity - production:

14.58 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

Electricity - consumption:

11.62 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 82

Electricity - exports:

6.024 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports:

3.04 billion kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production:

0 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 203

Oil - consumption:

30,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 112

Oil - exports:

192 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 132

Oil - imports:

25,990 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 103

Oil - proved reserves:

0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 102

Natural gas - production:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 98

Natural gas - consumption:

310 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 97

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 52

Natural gas - imports:

310 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 62

Natural gas - proved reserves:

0 cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 106

Current account balance:

-$887 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 131 -$1.283 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$4.787 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 109 $4.057 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners:

Croatia 19.07%, Slovenia 18.58%, Italy 16.87%, Germany 13.38%,
Austria 10.25% (2009)

Imports:

$9.403 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 91 $8.788 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:

Croatia 22.17%, Germany 14.04%, Slovenia 13.45%, Italy 11.89%,
Austria 6.61%, Hungary 5.74% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$2.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 87 $3.245 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$7.996 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 91 $8.048 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar - 1.5088 (2010), 1.4079 (2009), 1.3083 (2008), 1.4419 (2007), 1.5576 (2006)

Communications ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Telephones - main lines in use:

998,600 (2009) country comparison to the world: 78

Telephones - mobile cellular:

3.257 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 110

Telephone system:

general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by a internationally sponsored program under EBRD, resulting in sharp increases in the number of fixed telephone lines available

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 22 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and, in 2009, reached 70 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2009)

Broadcast media:

3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Serb Republic Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 2 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV stations broadcasting; 3 large public radio broadcasters and a large number of private radio stations (2007)

Internet country code:

.ba

Internet hosts:

95,234 (2010) country comparison to the world: 79

Internet users:

1.422 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 85

Transportation ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Airports:

25 (2010) country comparison to the world: 129

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 2 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 18

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 11 (2010)

Heliports:

5 (2010)

Railways:

total: 1,000 km country comparison to the world: 89 standard gauge: 1,000 km 1.435-m gauge (590 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:

total: 21,846 km country comparison to the world: 107 paved: 11,425 km (4,714 km of interurban roads)

unpaved: 10,421 km (2006)

Waterways:

Sava River (northern border) open to shipping but use limited (2009)

Ports and terminals:

Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava River), Orasje

Military ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Military branches:

Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH): Army of Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Air and Air Defense Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzracna Obrana, ZPO) (2010)

Military service age and obligation:

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in January 2006; 4-month service obligation; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,194,832

females age 16-49: 1,156,698 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 980,425

females age 16-49: 948,791 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 26,134

female: 24,518 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

4.5% of GDP (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 20

Transnational Issues ::Bosnia and Herzegovina

Disputes - international:

sections along the Drina River remain in dispute between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia; discussions continue with Croatia on several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinder final ratification of the 1999 border agreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 7,269 (Croatia)

IDPs: 131,600 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced in 1992-95 war) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption

World

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