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Bahrain, See : Flags, Maps

Bahrain (Middle East)

Introduction ::Bahrain

Background:

In 1783, the al-Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has transformed itself into an international banking center. King HAMAD bin Isa al-Khalifa, after coming to power in 1999, pushed economic and political reforms to improve relations with the Shia community. Shia political societies participated in 2010 parliamentary and municipal elections. Al Wifaq, the largest Shia political society, won the largest number of seats in the elected chamber of the legislature. However, Shia discontent has resurfaced in recent years with street demonstrations and occasional low-level violence.

Geography ::Bahrain


View Larger Map

Location:

Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates:
26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references:

Middle East

Area:

total: 760 sq km country comparison to the world: 187 land: 760 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

0 km

Coastline:

161 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined

Climate:

arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Bahrain

Terrain:

mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m

highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources:

oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls

Bahrain WTC

Land use:

arable land: 2.82%

permanent crops: 5.63%

other: 91.55% (2005)

Irrigated land:

40 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

0.1 cu km (1997)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.3 cu km/yr (40%/3%/57%)

per capita: 411 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

periodic droughts; dust storms

Aerial view of bahrain

Environment - current issues:

desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs)

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

People ::Bahrain

Population:

738,004 country comparison to the world: 163 note: includes 235,108 non-nationals (July 2010 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 25.9% (male 95,258/female 93,256)

15-64 years: 70.1% (male 293,340/female 217,815)

65 years and over: 4% (male 15,274/female 13,766) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 30.4 years

male: 33.5 years

female: 27.1 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.243% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 100

Birth rate:

16.81 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 120

Death rate:

4.37 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 204

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 72

Urbanization:

urban population: 89% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.33 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.13 male(s)/female

total population: 1.24 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 14.76 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 126 male: 17.01 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 12.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.4 years country comparison to the world: 84 male: 72.87 years

female: 78.01 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.47 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 90

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2001 est.) country comparison to the world: 110

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

fewer than 600 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 145

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 200 (2003 est.) country comparison to the world: 126

Nationality:

noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups:

Bahraini 62.4%, non-Bahraini 37.6% (2001 census)

Religions:

Muslim (Shia and Sunni) 81.2%, Christian 9%, other 9.8% (2001 census)

Languages:

Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 86.5%

male: 88.6%

female: 83.6% (2001 census)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2006)

Education expenditures:

2.9% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 149

Government ::Bahrain

Country name:

conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain

conventional short form: Bahrain

local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn

local short form: Al Bahrayn

former: Dilmun

Government type:

constitutional monarchy

Capital:

name: Manama

geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

5 governorates; Asamah, Janubiyah, Muharraq, Shamaliyah, Wasat

note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

Independence:

15 August 1971 (from the UK)

National holiday:

National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection

Constitution:

adopted 14 February 2002

Legal system:

based on Islamic law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

20 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)

head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); Deputy Prime Ministers ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa, MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa, Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch:

bicameral legislature consists of the Consultative Council (40 members appointed by the King) and the Council of Representatives or Chamber of Deputies (40 seats; members directly elected to serve four-year terms)

elections: Council of Representatives - last held in two rounds on 23 and 30 October 2010 (next election to be held in 2014)

election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by society - NA; seats by society - al Wifaq (Shia) 18, al Asala (Sunni Salafi) 3, al Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 2, independents 17

Judicial branch:

High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders:

political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Shia activists; Sunni Islamist legislators

other: several small leftist and other groups are active

International organization participation:

ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM
(observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC,
OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Huda Azra Ibrahim NUNU

chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph Adam ERELI

embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama

mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama

telephone: [973] 1724-2700
FAX: [973] 1727-0547

Flag description:

red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

note: until 2002 the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag

National anthem:

name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain)

lyrics/music: unknown

note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom

Economy ::Bahrain

Economy - overview:

Bahrain is one of the most diversified economies in the Persian Gulf. Highly developed communication and transport facilities make Bahrain home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. Bahrain's economy, however, continues to depend heavily on oil. Petroleum production and refining account for more than 60% of Bahrain's export receipts, 70% of government revenues, and 11% of GDP (exclusive of allied industries). Other major economic activities are production of aluminum - Bahrain's second biggest export after oil - finance, and construction. Bahrain competes with Malaysia as a worldwide center for Islamic banking and continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. Unemployment, especially among the young, is a long-term economic problem Bahrain struggles to address. In 2009, to help lower unemployment among Bahraini nationals, Bahrain reduced sponsorship for expatriate workers, increasing the costs of employing foreign labor. The global financial crisis caused funding for many non-oil projects to dry up and resulted in slower economic growth for Bahrain. Other challenges facing Bahrain include the slow growth of government debt as a result of a large subsidy program, the financing of large government projects, and debt restructuring, such as the bailout of state-owned Gulf Air.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$29.82 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 108 $28.7 billion (2009 est.)

$27.83 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$21.73 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 3.1% (2009 est.)

6.3% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$40,400 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 19 $39,400 (2009 est.)

$38,700 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 0.5%

industry: 56.6%

services: 42.9% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

611,000 country comparison to the world: 154 note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2010 est.)

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 1%

industry: 79%

services: 20% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate:

15% (2005 est.) country comparison to the world: 148

Population below poverty line:
NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Investment (gross fixed):

26.6% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34

Public debt:

59.2% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 35 38.5% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

3.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 95 2.8% (2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

NA% (31 December 2009 est.)

NA% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$6.372 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 80 $5.74 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$21.02 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81 $18.93 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$18.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 81 $16.34 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$16.93 billion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 60 $21.18 billion (31 December 2008)

$28.13 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish

Industries:

petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:

1.5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 138

Electricity - production:

10.25 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 91

Electricity - consumption:

10.1 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 87

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

48,560 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 63

Oil - consumption:

39,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 104

Oil - exports:

238,300 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 49

Oil - imports:

228,400 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 40

Oil - proved reserves:

124.6 million bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66

Natural gas - production:

12.64 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 38

Natural gas - consumption:

12.64 billion cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 43

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 48

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 73

Natural gas - proved reserves:

92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

Current account balance:

$589 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 51 $560.2 million (2009 est.)

Exports:

$15.13 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75 $12.05 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Exports - partners:

India 4.2%, Saudi Arabia 2.78% (2009)

Imports:

$12.14 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 $9.613 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

crude oil, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners:

Saudi Arabia 22.91%, France 9.76%, US 7.95%, China 6.4%, South Korea 5.26%, Japan 5.19%, Germany 5.01%, UK 4.34% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$3.766 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 $3.54 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$14.68 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 79 $10.55 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$15.77 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 73 $15 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$8.399 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 51 $7.549 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar - 0.376 (2010), 0.376 (2009), 0.376 (2008), 0.376 (2007), 0.376 (2006)

Communications ::Bahrain

Telephones - main lines in use:

238,400 (2009) country comparison to the world: 123

Telephones - mobile cellular:

1.578 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 137

Telephone system:

general assessment: modern system

domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones

international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2007)

Broadcast media:

state-run broadcast media; Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; state-run BRTC broadcasts over several radio stations; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2007)

Internet country code:

.bh

Internet hosts:

53,944 (2010) country comparison to the world: 86

Internet users:

419,500 (2009) country comparison to the world: 122

Transportation ::Bahrain

Airports:

4 (2010) country comparison to the world: 183

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 4

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2010)

Heliports:

1 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 20 km; oil 32 km (2009)

Roadways:

total: 3,851 km country comparison to the world: 158 paved: 3,121 km

unpaved: 730 km (2007)

Merchant marine:

total: 7 country comparison to the world: 126 by type: bulk carrier 2, container 4, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 5 (Kuwait 5)

registered in other countries: 6 (Honduras 5, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Military ::Bahrain

Military branches:

Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense),
Naval Force, Air Force, National Guard

Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 208,365

females age 16-49: 174,375 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 170,633

females age 16-49: 146,243 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 6,590

female: 6,475 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

4.5% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 19

Transnational Issues ::Bahrain

Disputes - international:

none

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