- Art Gallery -


Australia, See : Flags, Maps

The Explorers of Australia and their Life-work, Ernest Favenc

The Naval Pioneers of Australia, Louis Becke and Walter Jeffery

Peeps At Many Lands: Australia, Frank Fox

Australian Pictures, Howard Willoughby

The Present Picture of New South Wales (1811), David Dickinson Mann


Artist from Australia

Australia (Australia-Oceania)

Introduction ::Australia

Australia National Anthem


Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession in the name of Great Britain. Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term concerns include climate-change issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer and more frequent droughts, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.

Geography ::Australia

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Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific

Geographic coordinates:
27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references:




total: 7,741,220 sq km country comparison to the world: 6 land: 7,682,300 sq km

water: 58,920 sq km

note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states

Land boundaries:

0 km


25,760 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north


mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m

highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources:

bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, rare earth elements, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum

note: Australia is the world's largest net exporter of coal accounting for 29% of global coal exports

Land use:

arable land: 6.15% (includes about 27 million hectares of cultivated grassland)

permanent crops: 0.04%

other: 93.81% (2005)

Irrigated land:

25,450 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

398 cu km (1995)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 24.06 cu km/yr (15%/10%/75%)

per capita: 1,193 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

volcanism: volcanic activity occurs on the Heard and McDonald Islands

Environment - current issues:

soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living
Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate
Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world

People ::Australia


21,515,754 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 54

Age structure:

0-14 years: 18.6% (male 2,026,975/female 1,923,828)

15-64 years: 67.9% (male 7,318,743/female 7,121,613)

65 years and over: 13.5% (male 1,306,329/female 1,565,153) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 37.5 years

male: 36.8 years

female: 38.3 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.171% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107

Birth rate:

12.39 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 161

Death rate:

6.81 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 145

Net migration rate:

6.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14


urban population: 89% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 4.67 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 192 male: 5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 81.72 years country comparison to the world: 9 male: 79.33 years

female: 84.25 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.78 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 158

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.2% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 92

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

18,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 81

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

fewer than 100 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 127


noun: Australian(s)

adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups:

white 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%


Catholic 25.8%, Anglican 18.7%, Uniting Church 5.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3%, Eastern Orthodox 2.7%, other Christian 7.9%, Buddhist 2.1%, Muslim 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 11.3%, none 18.7% (2006 Census)


English 78.5%, Chinese 2.5%, Italian 1.6%, Greek 1.3%, Arabic 1.2%,
Vietnamese 1%, other 8.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2006 Census)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 21 years

male: 20 years

female: 21 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

4.7% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 83

Government ::Australia

Country name:

conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia

conventional short form: Australia

Government type:

federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm


name: Canberra

geographic coordinates: 35 17 S, 149 13 E

time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends first Sunday in April

note: Australia is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions:

6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas:

Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling)
Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands,
Macquarie Island, Norfolk Island


1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies)

National holiday:

Australia Day, 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the
anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New
Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25
April (1915)


9 July 1900; effective on 1 January 1901

Legal system:

based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts International Criminal Court jurisdiction with conditions


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Quentin BRYCE (since 5 September 2008)

head of government: Prime Minister Julia Eileen GILLARD (since 24 June 2010); Deputy Prime Minister Wayne Maxwell SWAN (since 24 June 2010)

cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch:

bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats; 12 members from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve terms of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)

elections: half-Senate - last held on 21 August 2010; House of Representatives - last held on 21 August 2010 (the latest a simultaneous half-Senate and House of Representative elections can be held is 2014)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Liberal/National Party 34, Australian Labor Party 31, Greens 9, others 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Australian Labor Party 38.1%, Liberal Party 30.4%, Greens 11.5%, Liberal National Party of Queensland 9.3%, independents 6.6%, The Nationals 3.7%, Country Liberals 0.3%; seats by party - Australian Labor Party 72, Liberal Party 44, Liberal National Party of Queensland 21, The Nationals 7, Country Liberals 1, Greens 1, independents 4

Judicial branch:

High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general acting on the advice of the government)

Political parties and leaders:

Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Australian Labor Party [Julia
GILLARD]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [Tony
ABBOTT]; The Nationals [Warren TRUSS]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

other: business groups; environmental groups; social groups; trade unions

International organization participation:

ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group,
(partner), Paris Club, PCA, PIF, SAARC (observer), Sparteca, SPC,

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Kim Christian BEAZLEY

chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey L. BLEICH

embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600

mailing address: APO AP 96549

telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970

consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney

Flag description:

blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars

National anthem:

name: "Advance Australia Fair"

lyrics/music: Peter Dodds McCORMICK

note: adopted 1984; although originally written in the late 19th century, the anthem did not become official until 1984; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)

Economy ::Australia

Economy - overview:

Australia's abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron ore, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia also has a large services sector and is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food. Key tenets of Australia's trade policy include support for open trade and the successful culmination of the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, particularly for agriculture and services. The Australian economy grew for 17 consecutive years before the global financial crisis. Subsequently, the Rudd government introduced a fiscal stimulus package worth over US$50 billion to offset the effect of the slowing world economy, while the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to historic lows. These policies - and continued demand for commodities, especially from China - helped the Australian economy rebound after just one quarter of negative growth. The economy grew by 1.2% during 2009 - the best performance in the OECD. Unemployment, originally expected to reach 8-10%, peaked at 5.7% in late 2009 and fell to 5.1% in 2010. As a result of an improved economy, the budget deficit is expected to peak below 4.2% of GDP and the government could return to budget surpluses as early as 2015. Australia was one of the first advanced economies to raise interest rates, with seven rate hikes between October 2009 and November 2010. The GILLARD government is focused on raising Australia's economic productivity to ensure the sustainability of growth, and continues to manage the symbiotic, but sometimes tense, economic relationship with China. Australia is engaged in the Trans-Pacific Partnership talks and ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with China, Japan, and Korea.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$889.6 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 $861.1 billion (2009 est.)

$850.9 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$1.22 trillion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 106 1.2% (2009 est.)

2.2% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$41,300 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 17 $40,500 (2009 est.)

$40,500 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 4%

industry: 24.8%

services: 71.2% (2010 est.)

Labor force:

11.62 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 3.6%

industry: 21.1%

services: 75% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate:

5.1% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 5.6% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

30.5 (2006) country comparison to the world: 110 35.2 (1994)

Investment (gross fixed):

27.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30

Public debt:

22.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 107 22.1% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 88 1.8% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

4% (31 March 2010) country comparison to the world: 106 4.25% (3 December 2008)

note: this is the Reserve Bank of Australia's "cash rate target," or policy rate

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

6.02% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 105 8.91% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$347.1 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 13 $290.8 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$1.134 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 15 $976.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$1.731 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 13 $1.407 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$1.258 trillion (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 13 $675.6 billion (31 December 2008)

$1.298 trillion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture - products:

wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry


mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate:

3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 104

Electricity - production:

239.9 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 17

Electricity - consumption:

222 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 16

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

589,200 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 30

Oil - consumption:

946,300 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

Oil - exports:

311,900 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 39

Oil - imports:

716,700 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

Oil - proved reserves:

3.318 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

Natural gas - production:

42.33 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 19

Natural gas - consumption:

26.59 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

Natural gas - exports:

22.3 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 10

Natural gas - imports:

6.56 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

Natural gas - proved reserves:

3.115 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 12

Current account balance:

-$35.23 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 182 -$41.33 billion (2009 est.)


$210.7 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 $154.8 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment

Exports - partners:

China 21.81%, Japan 19.19%, South Korea 7.88%, India 7.51%, US 4.95%, UK 4.37%, NZ 4.1% (2009)


$200.4 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 21 $160.4 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products

Imports - partners:

China 17.94%, US 11.26%, Japan 8.36%, Thailand 5.81%, Singapore 5.54%, Germany 5.3% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$38.62 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 30 $41.74 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$1.169 trillion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14 $1.094 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$329.1 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 14 $295.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$245.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 17 $221.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.1151 (2010), 1.2822 (2009), 1.2059 (2008), 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006)

Communications ::Australia

Telephones - main lines in use:

9.02 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 24

Telephones - mobile cellular:

24.22 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 37

Telephone system:

general assessment: excellent domestic and international service

domestic: domestic satellite system; significant use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile telephones

international: country code - 61; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber optic submarine cable provides links to New Zealand and the United States; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean, 2 Inmarsat - Indian and Pacific Ocean regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2007)

Broadcast media:

the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) runs multiple national and local radio networks and TV stations, as well as Australia Network, a TV service that broadcasts throughout the Asia-Pacific region and is the main public broadcaster; Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), a second large public broadcaster, operates radio and TV networks broadcasting in multiple languages; several large national commercial TV networks, a large number of local commercial TV stations, and hundreds of commercial radio stations are accessible; cable and satellite systems are available (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

13.361 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 8

Internet users:

15.81 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 25

Transportation ::Australia


465 (2010) country comparison to the world: 17

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 326

over 3,047 m: 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 148

914 to 1,523 m: 140

under 914 m: 14 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 139

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 110

under 914 m: 12 (2010)


1 (2010)


gas 27,105 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 3,258 km; oil/gas/water 1 km (2009)


total: 37,855 km country comparison to the world: 7 broad gauge: 142 km 1.600-m gauge

standard gauge: 24,409 km 1.435-m gauge (1,094 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 13,304 km 1.067-m gauge (1,193 km electrified) (2008)


total: 812,972 km country comparison to the world: 9 paved: 341,448 km

unpaved: 471,524 km (2004)


2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling river systems) (2006) country comparison to the world: 45

Merchant marine:

total: 45 country comparison to the world: 73 by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 8, liquefied gas 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 5

foreign-owned: 20 (Canada 7, Germany 2, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Singapore 2, UK 5, US 2)

registered in other countries: 29 (Dominica 1, Fiji 2, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 1, NZ 1, Panama 5, Singapore 11, Tonga 1, UK 1, US 1, Vanuatu 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Brisbane, Cairns, Dampier, Darwin, Fremantle, Gladstone, Geelong,
Hay Point, Hobart, Jervis Bay, Melbourne, Newcastle, Port Adelaide,
Port Dalrymple, Port Hedland, Port Kembla, Port Lincoln, Port
Walcott, Sydney

Military ::Australia

Military branches:

Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian
Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Special Operations Command (2006)

Military service age and obligation:

17 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; women allowed to serve in Army combat units in non-combat support roles (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,275,667

females age 16-49: 5,082,543 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 4,377,411

females age 16-49: 4,210,442 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 144,232

female: 136,525 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3% of GDP (2009) country comparison to the world: 42

Transnational Issues ::Australia

Disputes - international:

In 2007 Australia and Timor-Leste signed a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing agreement in lieu of a maritime boundary; dispute with Timor-Leste hampers creation of a revised maritime boundary with Indonesia in the Timor Sea; regional states continue to express concern over Australia's 2004 declaration of a 1,000-nautical mile-wide maritime identification zone; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarctica; in 2004 Australia submitted its claims to Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its continental margins covering over 3.37 million square kilometers, expanding its seabed roughly 30 percent more than its claimed exclusive economic zone; since 2003, Australia has led the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands (RAMSI) to maintain civil and political order and reinforce regional security

Illicit drugs:

Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines


Hellenica World