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Winslow Homer

Paintings, Drawings

Winslow Homer Painting - Boys Wading by Winslow Homer

Boys Wading

Winslow Homer Painting - Flower Garden And Bungalow Bermuda by Winslow Homer

Flower Garden And Bungalow Bermuda

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Coming Storm by Winslow Homer

The Coming Storm

Winslow Homer Painting - Sleigh Ride by Winslow Homer

Sleigh Ride

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Ranger. Adirondacks by Winslow Homer

The Ranger. Adirondacks

Winslow Homer Painting - Reading By The Brook by Winslow Homer

Reading By The Brook

Winslow Homer Drawing - Deer Drinking by Winslow Homer

Deer Drinking

Winslow Homer Painting - Northeaster by Winslow Homer

Northeaster

Winslow Homer Drawing - Road In Nassau, No. 1 Nassau Street by Winslow Homer

Road In Nassau, No. 1 Nassau Street

Winslow Homer Painting - Hudson River by Winslow Homer

Hudson River

Winslow Homer Painting - Rowing Home by Winslow Homer

Rowing Home

Winslow Homer Painting - Sunlight On The Coast by Winslow Homer

Sunlight On The Coast

Winslow Homer Drawing - Inside The Bar by Winslow Homer

Inside The Bar

Winslow Homer Drawing - Schooner At Sunset by Winslow Homer

Schooner At Sunset

Winslow Homer Drawing - In Charge Of Baby by Winslow Homer

In Charge Of Baby

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Summer Cloud by Winslow Homer

The Summer Cloud

Winslow Homer Painting - Pitching Quoits by Winslow Homer

Pitching Quoits

Winslow Homer Drawing - Fishing by Winslow Homer

Fishing

Winslow Homer Drawing - Santiago De Cuba. Street Scene by Winslow Homer

Santiago De Cuba. Street Scene

Winslow Homer Drawing - Out On A Limb by Winslow Homer

Out On A Limb

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Hilltop Barn. Houghton Farm by Winslow Homer

The Hilltop Barn. Houghton Farm

Winslow Homer Drawing - Incoming Tide. Scarboro. Maine by Winslow Homer

Incoming Tide. Scarboro. Maine

Winslow Homer Drawing - Girl On A Swing by Winslow Homer

Girl On A Swing

Winslow Homer Painting - Haymaking by Winslow Homer

Haymaking

Winslow Homer Drawing - Blackboard by Winslow Homer

Blackboard

Winslow Homer Drawing - Gallows Island by Winslow Homer

Gallows Island

Winslow Homer Drawing - Casting In The Falls by Winslow Homer

Casting In The Falls

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Good Shot. Adirondacks by Winslow Homer

A Good Shot. Adirondacks

Winslow Homer Drawing - Adirondacks Guide by Winslow Homer

Adirondacks Guide

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Swell Of The Ocean by Winslow Homer

A Swell Of The Ocean

Winslow Homer Drawing - Nassau by Winslow Homer

Nassau

Winslow Homer Drawing - Native Huts. Nassau by Winslow Homer

Native Huts. Nassau

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Conch Divers by Winslow Homer

The Conch Divers

Winslow Homer Drawing - Natural Bridge. Bermuda by Winslow Homer

Natural Bridge. Bermuda

Winslow Homer Drawing - Storm. Bahamas by Winslow Homer

Storm. Bahamas

Winslow Homer Drawing - Hilly Landscape by Winslow Homer

Hilly Landscape

Winslow Homer Drawing - Burnt Mountain by Winslow Homer

Burnt Mountain

Winslow Homer Drawing - Three Boys On The Shore by Winslow Homer

Three Boys On The Shore

Winslow Homer Drawing - Pike. Lake St. John by Winslow Homer

Pike. Lake St. John

Winslow Homer Drawing - Hunter In The Adirondacks by Winslow Homer

Hunter In The Adirondacks

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Garden In Nassau by Winslow Homer

A Garden In Nassau

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Wall. Nassau by Winslow Homer

A Wall. Nassau

Winslow Homer Drawing - Campfire. Adirondacks by Winslow Homer

Campfire. Adirondacks

Winslow Homer Painting - Below Zero by Winslow Homer

Below Zero

Winslow Homer Painting - Women Working In A Field by Winslow Homer

Women Working In A Field

Winslow Homer Painting - The Dinner Horn by Winslow Homer

The Dinner Horn

Winslow Homer Drawing - Boys On A Hillside by Winslow Homer

Boys On A Hillside

Winslow Homer Drawing - Casting by Winslow Homer

Casting

Winslow Homer Drawing - Under The Cliff. Cullercoats by Winslow Homer

Under The Cliff. Cullercoats

Winslow Homer Painting - Kissing The Moon by Winslow Homer

Kissing The Moon

Winslow Homer Drawing - Fish And Butterflies by Winslow Homer

Fish And Butterflies

Winslow Homer Drawing - Life-size Black Bass by Winslow Homer

Life-size Black Bass

Winslow Homer Drawing - The North Woods by Winslow Homer

The North Woods

Winslow Homer Drawing - After The Hunt by Winslow Homer

After The Hunt

Winslow Homer Drawing - Sloop. Nassau by Winslow Homer

Sloop. Nassau

Winslow Homer Drawing - Hound And Hunter. Sketch by Winslow Homer

Hound And Hunter. Sketch

Winslow Homer Painting - The Nurse by Winslow Homer

The Nurse

Winslow Homer Painting - Girls In A Landscape by Winslow Homer

Girls In A Landscape

Winslow Homer Drawing - Weary by Winslow Homer

Weary

Winslow Homer Painting - Summer Night by Winslow Homer

Summer Night

Winslow Homer Painting - Shepherd Girl Resting by Winslow Homer

Shepherd Girl Resting

Winslow Homer Painting - School Time by Winslow Homer

School Time

Winslow Homer Painting - Girl And Laurel by Winslow Homer

Girl And Laurel

Winslow Homer Painting - Milking Time by Winslow Homer

Milking Time

Winslow Homer Painting - Girl In The Hammock by Winslow Homer

Girl In The Hammock

Winslow Homer Drawing - West India Divers by Winslow Homer

West India Divers

Winslow Homer Drawing - Bather by Winslow Homer

Bather

Winslow Homer Drawing - Boys Fishing by Winslow Homer

Boys Fishing

Winslow Homer Painting - Moonlight On The Water by Winslow Homer

Moonlight On The Water

Winslow Homer Drawing - Market Scene. Nassau by Winslow Homer

Market Scene. Nassau

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Portage by Winslow Homer

The Portage

Winslow Homer Painting - Watching The Breakers by Winslow Homer

Watching The Breakers

Winslow Homer Painting - The West Wind by Winslow Homer

The West Wind

Winslow Homer Drawing - Mink Pond by Winslow Homer

Mink Pond

Winslow Homer Painting - The Brush Harrow by Winslow Homer

The Brush Harrow

Winslow Homer Drawing - Marine by Winslow Homer

Marine

Winslow Homer Drawing - Santiago De Cuba by Winslow Homer

Santiago De Cuba

Winslow Homer Drawing - Florida Jungle by Winslow Homer

Florida Jungle

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Plowman by Winslow Homer

The Plowman

Winslow Homer Drawing - Man With Plow Horse by Winslow Homer

Man With Plow Horse

Winslow Homer Painting - Waverly Oaks by Winslow Homer

Waverly Oaks

Winslow Homer Drawing - Gloucester Schooner by Winslow Homer

Gloucester Schooner

Winslow Homer Painting - To The Rescue by Winslow Homer

To The Rescue

Winslow Homer Painting - Old Settlers by Winslow Homer

Old Settlers

Winslow Homer Drawing - Warm Afternoon. Shepherdess by Winslow Homer

Warm Afternoon. Shepherdess

Winslow Homer Painting - Palm Tree Nassau by Winslow Homer

Palm Tree Nassau

Winslow Homer Painting - The Berry Pickers by Winslow Homer

The Berry Pickers

Winslow Homer Drawing - Yachting Girl by Winslow Homer

Yachting Girl

Winslow Homer Painting - Blue Spring. Florida by Winslow Homer

Blue Spring. Florida

Winslow Homer Painting - On The Fence by Winslow Homer

On The Fence

Winslow Homer Painting - Green Apples by Winslow Homer

Green Apples

Winslow Homer Painting - Dad's Coming by Winslow Homer

Dad's Coming!

Winslow Homer Painting - In The Mountains by Winslow Homer

In The Mountains

Winslow Homer Painting - The Lookout. All's Well by Winslow Homer

The Lookout. All's Well

Winslow Homer Painting - Hurricane Bahamas by Winslow Homer

Hurricane Bahamas

Winslow Homer Painting - Boys In A Pasture by Winslow Homer

Boys In A Pasture

Winslow Homer Painting - Santiago De Cuba. Street Scene by Winslow Homer

Santiago De Cuba. Street Scene

Winslow Homer Painting - An Afterglow by Winslow Homer

An Afterglow

Winslow Homer Painting - Autumn Foliage With Two Youths Fishing by Winslow Homer

Autumn Foliage With Two Youths Fishing

Winslow Homer Painting - Rustic Courtship. In The Garden by Winslow Homer

Rustic Courtship. In The Garden

Winslow Homer Painting - On The Trail by Winslow Homer

On The Trail

Winslow Homer Painting - A Light On The Sea by Winslow Homer

A Light On The Sea

Winslow Homer Painting - Farmyard Scene by Winslow Homer

Farmyard Scene

Winslow Homer Painting - Eastern Point Light by Winslow Homer

Eastern Point Light

Winslow Homer Painting - Fishergirls Coiling Tackle by Winslow Homer

Fishergirls Coiling Tackle

Winslow Homer Drawing - Listening To The Birds by Winslow Homer

Listening To The Birds

Winslow Homer Drawing - Sand And Sky by Winslow Homer

Sand And Sky

Winslow Homer Painting - Two Figures By The Sea by Winslow Homer

Two Figures By The Sea

Winslow Homer Painting - Searchlight On Harbor Entrance. Santiago De Cuba by Winslow Homer

Searchlight On Harbor Entrance. Santiago De Cuba

Winslow Homer Painting - An October Day by Winslow Homer

An October Day

Winslow Homer Painting - The Trapper by Winslow Homer

The Trapper

Winslow Homer Painting - Two Figures By The Sea by Winslow Homer

Two Figures By The Sea

Winslow Homer Glass Art - Fishing Off Scarborough by Winslow Homer

Fishing Off Scarborough

Winslow Homer Drawing - Gloucester Harbor by Winslow Homer

Gloucester Harbor

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Lookout by Winslow Homer

The Lookout

Winslow Homer Drawing - Three Boys On A Beached Dory by Winslow Homer

Three Boys On A Beached Dory

Winslow Homer Drawing - Girl Holding A Shell, 1879 by Winslow Homer

Girl Holding A Shell, 1879

Winslow Homer Drawing - Fishermen In Oilskins, Cullercoats, England, 1881 by Winslow Homer

Fishermen In Oilskins, Cullercoats, England, 1881

Winslow Homer Drawing - Schooner At Anchor by Winslow Homer

Schooner At Anchor

Winslow Homer Painting - The Four Leaf Clover by Winslow Homer

The Four Leaf Clover

Winslow Homer Painting - Girl Picking Apple Blossoms by Winslow Homer

Girl Picking Apple Blossoms

Winslow Homer Drawing - Hudson River, Logging by Winslow Homer

Hudson River, Logging

Winslow Homer Painting - Rocky Shore Bermuda by Winslow Homer

Rocky Shore Bermuda

Winslow Homer Painting - ?Sunday Morning In Virginia by Winslow Homer

Sunday Morning In Virginia

Winslow Homer Painting - The Cotton Pickers by Winslow Homer

The Cotton Pickers

Winslow Homer Painting - Three Boys In A Dory With Lobster Pots by Winslow Homer

Three Boys In A Dory With Lobster Pots

Winslow Homer Painting - Breezing Up.a Fair Wind by Winslow Homer

Breezing Up.a Fair Wind

Winslow Homer Painting - Winter Coast by Winslow Homer

Winter Coast

Winslow Homer Painting - Prisoners From The Front by Winslow Homer

Prisoners From The Front

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Basket Of Clams by Winslow Homer

A Basket Of Clams

Winslow Homer Painting - Eagle Head. Manchester Massachusetts by Winslow Homer

Eagle Head. Manchester Massachusetts

Winslow Homer Drawing - Two Ladies by Winslow Homer

Two Ladies

Winslow Homer Painting - Harvest Scene by Winslow Homer

Harvest Scene

Winslow Homer Drawing - Skating In Central Park. New York by Winslow Homer

Skating In Central Park. New York

Winslow Homer Painting - The Return Of The Gleaner by Winslow Homer

The Return Of The Gleaner

Winslow Homer Painting - Children On The Beach by Winslow Homer

Children On The Beach

Winslow Homer Painting - Reverie by Winslow Homer

Reverie

Winslow Homer Painting - Peach Blossoms by Winslow Homer

Peach Blossoms

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Merry Christmas And Happy New Year by Winslow Homer

A Merry Christmas And Happy New Year

Winslow Homer Painting - A Good Pool. Saguenay River by Winslow Homer

A Good Pool. Saguenay River

Winslow Homer Painting - Playing A Fish by Winslow Homer

Playing A Fish

Winslow Homer Painting - Sparrow Hall by Winslow Homer

Sparrow Hall

Winslow Homer Painting - Autumn by Winslow Homer

Autumn

Winslow Homer Drawing - Three Fisher Girls. Tynemouth by Winslow Homer

Three Fisher Girls. Tynemouth

Winslow Homer Drawing - Sailboat And Fourth Of July Fireworks by Winslow Homer

Sailboat And Fourth Of July Fireworks

Winslow Homer Drawing - Spanish Moss At Tampa by Winslow Homer

Spanish Moss At Tampa

Winslow Homer Painting - Skating Scene by Winslow Homer

Skating Scene

Winslow Homer Drawing - Yacht In A Cove. Gloucester by Winslow Homer

Yacht In A Cove. Gloucester

Winslow Homer Drawing - Three Men In A Canoe by Winslow Homer

Three Men In A Canoe

Winslow Homer Painting - Rush's Lancers by Winslow Homer

Rush's Lancers

Winslow Homer Drawing - Fishing 2 by Winslow Homer

Fishing 2

Winslow Homer Painting - Albert Post by Winslow Homer

Albert Post

Winslow Homer Painting - Croquet Player by Winslow Homer

Croquet Player

Winslow Homer Painting - Near Andersonville by Winslow Homer

Near Andersonville

Winslow Homer Drawing - After The Hurricane, Bahamas by Winslow Homer

After The Hurricane, Bahamas

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Life Line Charcoal by Winslow Homer

The Life Line Charcoal

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Fish Story by Winslow Homer

A Fish Story

Winslow Homer Drawing - Girl Seated On A Hillside by Winslow Homer

Girl Seated On A Hillside

Winslow Homer Drawing - Under The Apple Boughs by Winslow Homer

Under The Apple Boughs

Winslow Homer Painting - Defiance. Inviting A Shot Before Petersburg by Winslow Homer

Defiance. Inviting A Shot Before Petersburg

Winslow Homer Painting - Shooting The Rapids, Saguenay River by Winslow Homer

Shooting The Rapids, Saguenay River

Winslow Homer Painting - Beach Scene by Winslow Homer

Beach Scene

Winslow Homer Painting - Right And Left by Winslow Homer

Right And Left

Winslow Homer Painting - The Signal Of Distress by Winslow Homer

The Signal Of Distress

Winslow Homer Painting - A Huntsman And Dogs by Winslow Homer

A Huntsman And Dogs

Winslow Homer Painting - The Fishing Party by Winslow Homer

The Fishing Party

Winslow Homer Painting - The Gulf Stream by Winslow Homer

The Gulf Stream

Winslow Homer Painting - The Life Line by Winslow Homer

The Life Line

Winslow Homer Painting - The Two Guides by Winslow Homer

The Two Guides

Winslow Homer Painting - Haymakers by Winslow Homer

Haymakers

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Mussel Gatherers by Winslow Homer

The Mussel Gatherers

Winslow Homer Drawing - Customs House. Santiago De Cuba by Winslow Homer

Customs House. Santiago De Cuba

Winslow Homer Drawing - The Garden Wall by Winslow Homer

The Garden Wall

Winslow Homer Drawing - A Fishing Schooner by Winslow Homer

A Fishing Schooner

Winslow Homer Drawing - Evening On The Beach by Winslow Homer

Evening On The Beach

Winslow Homer Drawing - Through The Fields by Winslow Homer

Through The Fields

Winslow Homer Painting - The Fountains At Night, World's Columbian Exposition by Winslow Homer

The Fountains At Night, World's Columbian Exposition

Winslow Homer Painting - Winding Line by Winslow Homer

Winding Line

Winslow Homer Painting - The Bridle Path.white Mountains by Winslow Homer

The Bridle Path.white Mountains

Snap the Whip

Prisoners from the Front

Moonlight, Wood Island Light

Camp Fire

Rainy Day in Camp

Dressing for the Carnival

Eagle Head, Manchester, Massachusetts (High Tide)

The Veteran in a New Field

Harvest Scene

A Quiet Pool on a Sunny Day

A Sloop at a Wharf, Gloucester

An Adirondack Lake

Autumn Mountainville, New York

Charles Savage Homer jr.

Black Bass, Florida

Boy in a Boatyard aka Boy with Barrels

Boys and Kitten

Boys Fishing, Gloucester Harbor

Boys in a Dory

Boys in a Dory

Boys in a Pasture

By the Shore

Canoe in the Rapids

Children on the Beach

Contraband

Crab Fishing

Dad's Coming!

Daughter of the Coast Guard

Daughters of the Sea

Early Evening aka Sailors Take Warning

Early Morning After a Storm at Sea

East Hampton Long Island

Eight Bells

Fallen Deer

Fishergirls on Shore Tynemouth

Fisherman's Family aka The Lookout

Fisherwives

Fishing Boats Key West

Fishing in the Adirondacks

Fishing the Rapids Saguenay

For the Farmer's Boy old English Song

Fresh Air

Fresh Eggs

Girl and Daisies

Girl in a Hammock

Girl in the Orchard

Girl Seated

Girl with a Hay Rake

Girls with Lobster aka A Fisherman's Daughter

Glass Windows Bahamas

Gloucester Harbor

Gloucester Harbor and Dory

Hark! The Lark!

Harrowing

High Cliff Coast of Maine

Home Sweet Home

Homosassa River

Hound and Hunter

Houses on a Hill

In a Florida Jungle

In Charge of Baby

Kissing the Moon

Light on the Sea

Long Branch New Jersey

Looking out to Sea

Looking over the Cliff

Man in a Punt Fishing

Mending the Nets

Moonlight

Morning Glories

On Guard

On the Cliff

On the Hill

On the Way to the Bahamas

Tree Nassau aka Orange Trees and Gate

Osprey's Nest

Peach Blossoms

Peach Blossoms

Playing Him aka The North Woods

Portrait of a Lady

Portrait of Helena de Kay

Promenade on the Beach

Quananiche Lake St. John

Rest

Returning Fishing Boats

Rocky Coast and Gulls

Rowboat

Rowing at Prout's Neck

Rum Cay

Sailing the Catboat

Salt Kettle Bermuda

Shepherdess Tending Sheep

Shipbuilding at Gloucester

Shooting The Rapids

Sponge Fishing Nassau

Sunlight and Shadow

The Angler

The Berry Pickers

The Blue Boat

The Boatsman

The Brierwood Pipe

The Busy Bee

The Butterfly Girl

The Coral Divers

The Cotton Pickers

The Farmyard Wall

The Fountains at Night World's Columbian Exposition

The Gale

The Green Hill aka On the Hill

The Herring Net

The Houses of Parliament

The Last Furrow

The Life Line

The Lookout -All's Well

The Milk Maid

The New Novel aka Book

The Northeaster

The Pumpkin Patch

The Reaper

The Red Canoe

The Return of the Gleaner

The Sick Chicken

The Signal of Distress

The Sponge Diver

The Trysting Place

The Turtle Pond

The Two Guides

The West Wind

The Whittling Boy

The Woodcutter

The Wreck

Three Boys in a Dory with Lobster Pots

To the Rescue

Two Men in a Canoe

Under a Palm Tree

Undertow

Waiting for the Boats

Watching the Tempest

Weaning the Calf

West Point Prout's Neck

Where are the Boats aka On the Cliffs

How Many Eggs

The Fog Horn

The Last Furrow

The Lobster Pot

The Red Canoe

Uncle Ned at Home

Woodchopper in the Adirondacks

Croquet

Double hit

Breezing Up. A Fair Wind

The Gulf Stream

After the Tornado

Fog warning

A Basket of Clams

Boys in a Dory

Sheep

Inside the Bar

Two Ladies

Channel Bass

The herring network

Arrival of the last boat

Study

Zouave

Skating in Central Park, New York

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Winslow Homer - The Fog Warning .Halibut Fishing by Winslow Homer

The Fog Warning...

Winslow Homer

Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art.

Largely self-taught, Homer began his career working as a commercial illustrator.[1] He subsequently took up oil painting and produced major studio works characterized by the weight and density he exploited from the medium. He also worked extensively in watercolor, creating a fluid and prolific oeuvre, primarily chronicling his working vacations.[2][3]

Early life

Born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1836, Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer and Henrietta Benson Homer, both from long lines of New Englanders. His mother was a gifted amateur watercolorist and Homer's first teacher. She and her son had a close relationship throughout their lives. Homer took on many of her traits, including her quiet, strong-willed, terse, sociable nature; her dry sense of humor; and her artistic talent.[4] Homer had a happy childhood, growing up mostly in then rural Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was an average student, but his art talent was evident in his early years.
The Bathers, wood engraving, Harper's Weekly, 1873

Homer's father was a volatile, restless businessman who was always looking to "make a killing". When Homer was thirteen, Charles gave up the hardware store business to seek a fortune in the California gold rush. When that failed, Charles left his family and went to Europe to raise capital for other get-rich-quick schemes that didn't materialize.[5]

After Homer's high school graduation, his father saw a newspaper advertisement and arranged for an apprenticeship. Homer's apprenticeship at the age of 19 to J. H. Bufford, a Boston commercial lithographer, was a formative but "treadmill experience".[6] He worked repetitively on sheet music covers and other commercial work for two years. By 1857, his freelance career was underway after he turned down an offer to join the staff of Harper's Weekly. "From the time I took my nose off that lithographic stone", Homer later stated, "I have had no master, and never shall have any."[7]

Homer's career as an illustrator lasted nearly twenty years. He contributed illustrations of Boston life and rural New England life to magazines such as Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly[8] at a time when the market for illustrations was growing rapidly and fads and fashions were changing quickly. His early works, mostly commercial engravings of urban and country social scenes, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, and lively figure groupings — qualities that remained important throughout his career.[9] His quick success was mostly due to this strong understanding of graphic design and also to the adaptability of his designs to wood engraving.


Homer's studio

In 1859, he opened a studio in the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City, the artistic and publishing capital of the United States. Until 1863, he attended classes at the National Academy of Design, and studied briefly with Frédéric Rondel, who taught him the basics of painting.[10] In only about a year of self-training, Homer was producing excellent oil work. His mother tried to raise family funds to send him to Europe for further study but instead Harper's sent Homer to the front lines of the American Civil War (1861–1865), where he sketched battle scenes and camp life, the quiet moments as well as the chaotic ones.[11] His initial sketches were of the camp, commanders, and army of the famous Union officer, Major General George B. McClellan, at the banks of the Potomac River in October, 1861.

Although the drawings did not get much attention at the time, they mark Homer's expanding skills from illustrator to painter. Like with his urban scenes, Homer also illustrated women during war time, and showed the effects of the war on the home front. The war work was dangerous and exhausting. Back at his studio, however, Homer would regain his strength and re-focus his artistic vision. He set to work on a series of war-related paintings based on his sketches, among them Sharpshooter on Picket Duty (1862), Home, Sweet Home (1863), and Prisoners from the Front (1866).[12] He exhibited paintings of these subjects every year at the National Academy of Design from 1863 to 1866.[8] Home, Sweet Home was shown at the National Academy to particular critical acclaim; it was quickly sold and the artist was consequently elected an Associate Academician, then a full Academician in 1865.[10] During this time, he also continued to sell his illustrations to periodicals such as Our Young Folks and Frank Leslie's Chimney Corner.[8]

After the war, Homer turned his attention primarily to scenes of childhood and young women, reflecting nostalgia for simpler times, both his own and the nation as a whole.

His Crossing the Pasture (1871–1872) depicts two boys who idealize brotherhood with the hope of a united future after the war that pitted brother against brother.[13]
A Visit from the Old Mistress, 1876, Smithsonian American Art Museum.[14]

Homer was also interested in postwar subject matter that conveyed the silent tension between two communities seeking to understand their future. His oil painting A Visit from the Old Mistress (1876) shows an encounter between a group of four freed slaves and their former mistress. The formal equivalence between the standing figures suggests the balance that the nation hoped to find in the difficult years of Reconstruction. Homer composed this painting from sketches he had made while traveling through Virginia.[15]

At nearly the beginning of his painting career, the twenty-seven-year-old Homer demonstrated a maturity of feeling, depth of perception, and mastery of technique which was immediately recognized. His realism was objective, true to nature, and emotionally controlled. One critic wrote, "Winslow Homer is one of those few young artists who make a decided impression of their power with their very first contributions to the Academy...He at this moment wields a better pencil, models better, colors better, than many whom, were it not improper, we could mention as regular contributors to the Academy." And of Home, Sweet Home specifically, "There is no clap-trap about it. The delicacy and strength of emotion which reign throughout this little picture are not surpassed in the whole exhibition." "It is a work of real feeling, soldiers in camp listening to the evening band, and thinking of the wives and darlings far away. There is no strained effect in it, no sentimentality, but a hearty, homely actuality, broadly, freely, and simply worked out."[12]


Early landscapes and watercolors
Artists Sketching in the White Mountains, 1868, oil on panel (Portland Museum of Art, Portland, Maine)[16]

Before exhibiting at the National Academy of Design, Homer finally traveled to Paris, France in 1867 where he remained for a year. His most praised early painting, Prisoners from the Front, was on exhibit at the Exposition Universelle in Paris at the same time.[12] He did not study formally but he practiced landscape painting while continuing to work for Harper's, depicting scenes of Parisian life.

Homer painted about a dozen small paintings during the stay. Although he arrived in France at a time of new fashions in art, Homer's main subject for his paintings was peasant life, showing more of an alignment with the established French Barbizon school and the artist Millet than with newer artists Manet and Courbet. Though his interest in depicting natural light parallels that of the early impressionists, there is no evidence of direct influence as he was already a plein-air painter in America and had already evolved a personal style which was much closer to Manet than Monet. Unfortunately, Homer was very private about his personal life and his methods (even denying his first biographer any personal information or commentary), but his stance was clearly one of independence of style and a devotion to American subjects. As his fellow artist Eugene Benson wrote, Homer believed that artists "should never look at pictures" but should "stutter in a language of their own."[17]

Throughout the 1870s, Homer continued painting mostly rural or idyllic scenes of farm life, children playing, and young adults courting, including Country School (1871) and The Morning Bell (1872). In 1875, Homer quit working as a commercial illustrator and vowed to survive on his paintings and watercolors alone. Despite his excellent critical reputation, his finances continued to remain precarious.[18] His popular 1872 painting Snap-the-Whip was exhibited at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as was one of his finest and most famous paintings Breezing Up (1876). Of his work at this time, Henry James wrote:

"We frankly confess that we detest his subjects...he has chosen the least pictorial range of scenery and civilization; he has resolutely treated them as if they were pictorial...and, to reward his audacity, he has incontestably succeeded."[20]

Many disagreed with James. Breezing Up, Homer's iconic painting of a father and three boys out for a spirited sail, received wide praise. The New York Tribune wrote, "There is no picture in this exhibition, nor can we remember when there has been a picture in any exhibition, that can be named alongside this." Visits to Petersburg, Virginia around 1876 resulted in paintings of rural African American life. The same straightforward sensibility which allowed Homer to distill art from these potentially sentimental subjects also yielded the most unaffected views of African American life at the time, as illustrated in Dressing for the Carnival (1877) [21] and A Visit from the Old Mistress (1876).[22]

In 1877, Homer exhibited for the first time at the Boston Art Club with the oil painting, An Afternoon Sun, (owned by the Artist). From 1877 through 1909, Homer exhibited often at the Boston Art Club. Works on paper, both drawings and watercolors, were frequently exhibited by Homer beginning in 1882. A most unusual sculpture by the Artist, Hunter with Dog - Northwoods, was exhibited in 1902. By that year, Homer had switched his primary Gallery from the Boston based Doll and Richards to the New York City based Knoedler & Co.

Homer became a member of The Tile Club, a group of artists and writers who met frequently to exchange ideas and organize outings for painting, as well as foster the creation of decorative tiles. For a short time, he designed tiles for fireplaces.[23]

Homer's nickname in The Tile Club was "The Obtuse Bard". Other well known Tilers were painters William Merritt Chase, Arthur Quartley, and the sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens.

Homer started painting with watercolors on a regular basis in 1873 during a summer stay in Gloucester, Massachusetts. From the beginning, his technique was natural, fluid and confident, demonstrating his innate talent for a difficult medium. His impact would be revolutionary. Here, again, the critics were puzzled at first, "A child with an ink bottle could not have done worse."[25] Another critic said that Homer "made a sudden and desperate plunge into water color painting". But his watercolors proved popular and enduring, and sold more readily, improving his financial condition considerably. They varied from highly detailed (Blackboard – 1877) to broadly impressionistic (Schooner at Sunset – 1880). Some watercolors were made as preparatory sketches for oil paintings (as for "Breezing Up") and some as finished works in themselves. Thereafter, he seldom traveled without paper, brushes and water based paints.[26]

As a result of disappointments with women or from some other emotional turmoil, Homer became reclusive in the late 1870s, no longer enjoying urban social life and living instead in Gloucester. For a while, he even lived in secluded Eastern Point Lighthouse (with the keeper's family). In re-establishing his love of the sea, Homer found a rich source of themes while closely observing the fishermen, the sea, and the marine weather. After 1880, he rarely featured genteel women at leisure, focusing instead on working women.[27]

England
Three Fisher Girls, Tynemouth, watercolor on paper 1881, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

Homer spent two years (1881 – 1882) in the English coastal village of Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear. Many of the paintings at Cullercoats took as their subjects working men and women and their daily heroism, imbued with a solidity and sobriety which was new to Homer's art, presaging the direction of his future work.[8] He wrote, "The women are the working bees. Stout hardy creatures."[28] His palette became constrained and sober; his paintings larger, more ambitious, and more deliberately conceived and executed. His subjects more universal and less nationalistic, more heroic by virtue of his unsentimental rendering. Although he moved away from the spontaneity and bright innocence of the American paintings of the 1860s and 1870s, Homer found a new style and vision which carried his talent into new realms.[29]

Maine and maturity


Back in the U.S. in November 1882, Homer showed his English watercolors in New York. Critics noticed the change in style at once, "He is a very different Homer from the one we knew in days gone by", now his pictures "touch a far higher plane...They are works of High Art."[30] Homer's women were no longer "dolls who flaunt their millinery" but "sturdy, fearless, fit wives and mothers of men" who are fully capable of enduring the forces and vagaries of nature alongside their men.[31]

In 1883, Homer moved to Prouts Neck, Maine (in Scarborough) and lived at his family's estate in the remodeled carriage house just seventy-five feet from the ocean.[32] During the rest of the mid-1880s, Homer painted his monumental sea scenes. In Undertow (1886), depicting the dramatic rescue of two female bathers by two male lifeguards, Homer's figures "have the weight and authority of classical figures".[33] In Eight Bells (1886), two sailors carefully take their bearings on deck, calmly appraising their position and by extension, their relationship with the sea; they are confident in their seamanship but respectful of the forces before them. Other notable paintings among these dramatic struggle-with-nature images are Banks Fisherman, The Gulf Stream, Rum Cay, Mending the Nets, and Searchlight, Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba. Some of these he repeated as etchings.[34]
The Fox Hunt, 1893. Oil on canvas, 96.5 x 174 cm. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

At fifty years of age, Homer had become a "Yankee Robinson Crusoe, cloistered on his art island" and "a hermit with a brush". These paintings established Homer, as the New York Evening Post wrote, "in a place by himself as the most original and one of the strongest of American painters."[32] But despite his critical recognition, Homer's work never achieved the popularity of traditional Salon pictures or of the flattering portraits by John Singer Sargent. Many of the sea pictures took years to sell and Undertow only earned him $400.[35]

In these years, Homer received emotional sustenance primarily from his mother, brother Charles, and sister-in-law Martha ("Mattie"). After his mother's death, Homer became a "parent" for his aging but domineering father and Mattie became his closest female intimate.[36] In the winters of 1884-5, Homer ventured to warmer locations in Florida, Cuba, and the Bahamas, and did a series of watercolors as part of a commission for Century Magazine. He replaced the turbulent green storm-tossed sea of Prouts Neck with the sparkling blue skies of the Caribbean, and the hardy New Englanders with Black natives, further expanding his watercolor technique, subject matter, and palette.[37] During this trip he painted Children Under a Palm Tree for Lady Blake, the Governor's wife. His tropical stays inspired and refreshed him in much the same way as Paul Gauguin's trips to Tahiti.[38]
The Gulf Stream, 1899, oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

A Garden in Nassau (1885) is one of the best examples of these watercolors. Once again, his freshness and originality were praised by critics, but proved too advanced for the traditional art buyers and he "looked in vain for profits". Homer lived frugally, however, and fortunately, his affluent brother Charles provided financial help when needed.[39]

Additionally, Homer found inspiration in a number of summer trips to the North Woods Club, near the hamlet of Minerva, New York in the Adirondack Mountains. It was on these fishing vacations that he experimented freely with the watercolor medium, producing works of the utmost vigor and subtlety, hymns to solitude, nature, and to outdoor life. Homer doesn't shrink from the savagery of blood sports nor the struggle for survival. The color effects are boldly and facilely applied. In terms of quality and invention, Homer's achievements as a watercolorist are unparalleled: "Homer had used his singular vision and manner of painting to create a body of work that has not been matched."[40]

In 1893, Homer painted one of his most famous "Darwinian" works, The Fox Hunt, which depicts a flock of starving crows descending on a fox slowed by deep snow. This was Homer's largest painting and it was immediately purchased by the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, his first painting in a major American museum collection.[41] In Huntsman and Dogs (1891), a lone, impassive hunter, with his yelping dogs at his side, heads home after a hunt, with deer skins slung over his right shoulder. Another late work, The Gulf Stream (1899), shows a Black sailor adrift in a damaged boat, surrounded by sharks and an impending maelstrom.[42]


Northeaster, 1895

By 1900, Homer finally reached financial stability, as his paintings fetched good prices from museums and he began to receive rents from real estate properties. He also became free of the responsibilities of caring for his father who had died two years earlier.[43] Homer continued producing excellent watercolors, mostly on trips to Canada and the Caribbean. Other late works include sporting scenes such as Right and Left, as well as seascapes absent of human figures, mostly of waves crashing against rocks in varying light. His late seascapes are especially valued for their dramatic and forceful expression of natures powers, and for their beauty and intensity.[44]

In his last decade, he at times followed the advice he gave a student artist in 1907, "Leave rocks for your old age—they're easy".[45]

Homer died in 1910 at the age of 74 in his Prouts Neck studio and was interred in the Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His painting, Shooting the Rapids, Saguenay River, remains unfinished.

His Prouts Neck studio, a National Historic Landmark, is now owned by the Portland Museum of Art, which offers tours.[46]

Influence

Homer never taught in a school or privately, as did Thomas Eakins, but his works strongly influenced succeeding generations of American painters for their direct and energetic interpretation of man's stoic relationship to an often neutral and sometimes harsh wilderness.[48] Robert Henri called Homer's work an "integrity of nature."[49]

American illustrator and teacher Howard Pyle revered Homer and encouraged his students to study him. His student and fellow illustrator, N. C. Wyeth (and through him Andrew Wyeth and Jamie Wyeth), shared the influence and appreciation, even following Homer to Maine for inspiration.[50] The elder Wyeth’s respect for his antecedent was "intense and absolute," and can be observed in his early work Mowing (1907).[51] Perhaps Homer's austere individualism is best captured in his admonition to artists: "Look at nature, work independently, and solve your own problems."


U.S. stamp
Winslow Homer commemorative issue of 1962

In 1962, the U.S. Post Office released a commemorative stamp honoring Winslow Homer. Homer's famous oil painting "Breezing Up", now hanging in the National Gallery in Washington DC, was chosen as the image for the design of this issue.[52] On August 12, 2010, The Postal Service issued a 44-cent commemorative stamp featuring Homer's "Boys in a Pasture" at the APS Stamp Show in Richmond, Virginia.

This stamp was the ninth to be issued in a series entitled "American Treasures". The original painting is part of the Hayden Collection at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.[53]


Works

Winslow Homer's paintings always depicted marine landscapes. Later, when Winslow Homer spent the years between 1881 and 1882 on in the villages of village of Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear, his paintings depicting shores and coastal landscapes changed. Many of the paintings from the English coast have as subjects working men and women from these villages.

References

Poole, Robert M. Hidden Depths. Smithsonian Magazine. April 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
Cooper, Helen A., Winslow Homer Watercolors, p. 16. Yale University Press, 1986.
Hoeber, Arthur (February 1911). "Winslow Homer, A Painter Of The Sea". The World's Work: A History of Our Time XXI: 14009–14017. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
Cooper, p. 16.
Elizabeth Johns, Winslow Homer: The Nature of Observation, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2002, p. 9, ISBN 0-520-22725-5.
Cikovsky, Jr., Nicolai (1990), Winslow Homer, New York: Harry N. Abrams, pp. 11–13, ISBN 0-8109-1193-0; Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections, Columbus Museum of Art, p. 2, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0 (stating age at time of apprenticeship as 18)
Johns (2002), p. 13.
Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections, Columbus Museum of Art, p. 2, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0
Cikovsky (1990), p. 12
Cooper, p. 13.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 15.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 16.
Exhibit at the Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas
"A Visit from the Old Mistress". Americanart.si.edu. 1909-07-28. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
"A Visit From the Old Mistress at the Smithsonian American Art Museum". Americanart.si.edu. 1909-07-28. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
"Artists Sketching the White Mountains at the Portland Museum of Art, Maine". Portlandmuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 32, 42.
Johns (2002), p. 84.
"Breezing Up at the National Gallery of Art". Nga.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
Quoted by Updike, John: "Epic Homer", Still Looking: Essays on American Art, p. 58. Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
"Winslow Homer: Dressing for the Carnival (22.220) - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". metmuseum.org.
Updike, John, page 69, 2005. "Among his feats may be listed the best, least caricatural portraits of postbellum African Americans,"
Cikovsky (1990), p. 65.
"Cloud Shadows at the Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas". Spencerart.ku.edu. 2008-07-01. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
Rough Notes on the Exhibition of the American Water Color Society for 1881, "Andrews' American Queen", page 110. February 12, 1881.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 57.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 72.
Johns (2002), p. 98.
Cikovsky (1990), pp. 75-79.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 81.
Johns (2002), p. 105.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 91.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 84.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 94.
Johns (2002), p. 122.
Johns (2002), p. 114.
Johns (2002), p. 124.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 100.
Johns (2002), pp. 127-128.
Walsh, Judith: "Innovation in Homer's Late Watercolors", Winslow Homer, page 283. National Gallery of Art, 1995.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 115.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 120.
Johns (2002), pp. 127-150.
"Winslow Homer (1836–1910)". http://www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved September 2014.
Cikovsky (1990), p. 131.
"Portland Museum". Portland Museum. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
[1][dead link]
See Lost on the Grand Banks, collection of Bill Gates
Robert Henri, The Art Spirit, Harper Collins, 1984
An American Vision: Three Generations of Wyeth Art, New York Graphic Society, 1987, p. 68, ISBN 0-8212-1652-X.
Wyeth (1987), p. 38.
Scott's United States stamp catalogue
"Shops.usps.com". Shop.usps.com. 2011-03-28. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
"[The art of Winslow Homer]". ubc.ca.

"A game of croquet". ubc.ca.

Authority control

WorldCat VIAF: 15044075 LCCN: n79023170 ISNI: 0000 0001 0872 7050 GND: 119193523 BNF: cb12050476t (data) ULAN: 500019202 RKD: 39386

Further reading

Murphy, Alexandra R. Winslow Homer in the Clark Collection. Williamstown, Mass: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 1986. ISBN 0-931102-19-7
Sherman, Frederic Fairchild, American Painters of Yesterday and Today, 1919, Priv. print in New York. Chapter: Early Paintings by Winslow Homer: https://archive.org/stream/americanpainters00sheriala#page/n67/mode/2up
Malcolm, John, Simpson’s Homer, 2001 and 2006. This art mystery novel, the only novel to feature Winslow Homer, involves Tim Simpson tracking down an unknown watercolour by Homer of Cullercoats in 1881. ISBN 1-901167-14-3

Winslow Homer: The Nature of Observation, Elizabeth Johns
Winslow Homer in the Adirondacks, David Tatham

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