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Angola, See : Flags, Maps

Angola (Africa)

Introduction ::Angola

Background:

Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again by 1996. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS held legislative elections in September 2008 and, despite promising to hold presidential elections in 2009, has since made a presidential poll contingent on the drafting of a new constitution.

Geography ::Angola

Location:

Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates:
12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references:

Africa

Area:

total: 1,246,700 sq km country comparison to the world: 23 land: 1,246,700 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:

total: 5,198 km

border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline:

1,600 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain:

narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:

arable land: 2.65%

permanent crops: 0.23%

other: 97.12% (2005)

Irrigated land:

800 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:

184 cu km (1987)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 0.35 cu km/yr (23%/17%/60%)

per capita: 22 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:

locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues:

overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People ::Angola

Population:

13,068,161 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 70

Age structure:

0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,812,359/female 2,759,047)

15-64 years: 53.7% (male 3,496,726/female 3,382,440)

65 years and over: 2.7% (male 153,678/female 195,043) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 18 years

male: 18 years

female: 18 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

2.063% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 49

Birth rate:

43.33 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 7

Death rate:

23.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Net migration rate:

1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 55

Urbanization:

urban population: 57% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 178.13 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 1 male: 190.12 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 165.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 38.48 years country comparison to the world: 223 male: 37.48 years

female: 39.52 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

6.05 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 10

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

2.1% (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 29

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

190,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 32

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

11,000 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 27

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2009)

Nationality:

noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups:

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions:

indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Languages:

Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 67.4%

male: 82.9%

female: 54.2% (2001 est.)

Education expenditures:

2.6% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 160

Government ::Angola

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Angola

conventional short form: Angola

local long form: Republica de Angola

local short form: Angola

former: People's Republic of Angola

Government type:

republic; multiparty presidential regime

Capital:

name: Luanda

geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 14 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela,
Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene,
Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico,
Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence:

11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution:

adopted by People's Assembly 25 August 1992

Legal system:

based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Antonio Paulo KASSOMA was named prime minister by MPLA on 26 September 2008

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS was selected by the party to take over after the death of former President Augustino NETO(1979) under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections on 29-30 September 1992 (next were to be held in September 2009 but have been postponed)

election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was never held leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 5-6 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 81.6%, UNITA 10.4%, PRS 3.2%, ND 1.2%, FNLA 1.1%, other 2.5%; seats by party - MPLA 191, UNITA 16, PRS 8, FNLA 3, ND 2

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders:

National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Ngola KABANGU]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party); New Democracy Electoral Union or ND [Quintino de MOREIRA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975); Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]

note: nine other parties participated in the legislative election in September 2008 but won no seats

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita
Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]

note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO
(correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC,
SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITE

chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Dan MOZENA

embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda

mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550

telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232

Flag description:

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants

National anthem:

name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)

lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO

note: adopted 1975

Economy ::Angola

Economy - overview:

Angola's high growth rate in recent years was driven by high international prices for its oil. Angola became a member of OPEC in late 2006 and in late 2007 was assigned a production quota of 1.9 million barrels a day (bbl/day), somewhat less than the 2-2.5 million bbl/day Angola's government had wanted. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 85% of GDP. Diamond exports contribute an additional 5%. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 15% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, even though peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Since 2005, the government has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure. The global recession temporarily stalled economic growth. Lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession led to a contraction in GDP in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell in 2008 and 2009. Angola abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Although consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to under 14% in 2010, Luanda has been unable to reduce inflation below 10%. The Angolan kwanza depreciated again in mid 2010, which, along with higher oil prices, should boost economic growth in all sectors. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, also is a major challenge.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$114.1 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 $107.8 billion (2009 est.)

$108.7 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$85.81 billion (2010 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

5.9% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 41 -0.9% (2009 est.)

13.4% (2008 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$8,700 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 117 $8,400 (2009 est.)

$8,700 (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 9.6%

industry: 65.8%

services: 24.6% (2008 est.)

Labor force:

7.977 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 57

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 85%

industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate:
NA

Population below poverty line:

40.5% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 0.6%

highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)

Investment (gross fixed):

15.9% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 124

Public debt:

20.3% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 109 21.7% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

13.3% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 215 13.7% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

30% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 12 19.57% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

15.68% (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 66 12.53% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$8.74 billion (31 December 2010 est) country comparison to the world: 74 $9.792 billion (31 December 2009 est)

Stock of broad money:

$24.92 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 77 $29.04 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$17.52 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 83 $22.06 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Agriculture - products:

bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries:

petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate:

5% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63

Electricity - production:

3.722 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 119

Electricity - consumption:

3.173 billion kWh (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 125

Electricity - exports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - imports:

0 kWh (2008 est.)

Oil - production:

1.948 million bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 17

Oil - consumption:

70,000 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 90

Oil - exports:

1.407 million bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 16

Oil - imports:

28,090 bbl/day (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 101

Oil - proved reserves:

13.5 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 15

Natural gas - production:

680 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 65

Natural gas - consumption:

680 million cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 92

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 204

Natural gas - imports:

0 cu m (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 204

Natural gas - proved reserves:

271.8 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 42

Current account balance:

$2.089 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 41 -$1.668 billion (2009 est.)

Exports:

$51.65 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 $40.08 billion (2009 est.)

Exports - commodities:

crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners:

China 35.65%, US 25.98%, France 8.83%, South Africa 4.13% (2009)

Imports:

$18.1 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 74 $15.74 billion (2009 est.)

Imports - commodities:

machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners:

Portugal 18.71%, China 17.39%, US 8.51%, Brazil 8.22%, South Korea 6.72%, France 4.51%, Italy 4.28%, South Africa 4.02% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$16.89 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 43 $13.64 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt - external:

$17.98 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 75 $13.64 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$91.55 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 34 $79.88 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$4.883 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 60 $3.933 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Exchange rates:

kwanza (AOA) per US dollar - 92.08 (2010), 79.328 (2009), 75.023 (2008), 76.6 (2007), 80.4 (2006)

Communications ::Angola

Telephones - main lines in use:

303,200 (2009) country comparison to the world: 112

Telephones - mobile cellular:

8.109 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 73

Telephone system:

general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; by 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to 5; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately-owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001

domestic: only about two fixed-lines per 100 persons; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 65 telephones per 100 persons in 2009

international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2009)

Broadcast media:

state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) broadcasts on 5 stations; about a half dozen private radio stations broadcast locally (2008)

Internet country code:

.ao

Internet hosts:

3,717 (2010) country comparison to the world: 142

Internet users:

606,700 (2009) country comparison to the world: 114

Transportation ::Angola

Airports:

193 (2010) country comparison to the world: 32

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 31

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2010)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 162

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 4

1,524 to 2,437 m: 31

914 to 1,523 m: 78

under 914 m: 47 (2010)

Pipelines:

gas 2 km; oil 87 km (2009)

Railways:

total: 2,764 km country comparison to the world: 62 narrow gauge: 2,641 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2008)

Roadways:

total: 51,429 km country comparison to the world: 80 paved: 5,349 km

unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)

Waterways:

1,300 km (2010) country comparison to the world: 55

Merchant marine:

total: 7 country comparison to the world: 125 by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)

registered in other countries: 15 (Bahamas 5, Liberia 1, Malta 7, former Netherlands Antilles 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe

Military ::Angola

Military branches:

Angolan Armed Forces (FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola,
MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana,
FANA) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:

20-45 years of age for compulsory and 18-45 years for voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; Angolan citizenship required; minimum age for women volunteers is 20; the MGA is entirely staffed with volunteers (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 2,991,424

females age 16-49: 2,893,898 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 1,506,489

females age 16-49: 1,451,427 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 151,237

female: 147,919 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures:

3.6% of GDP (2009) country comparison to the world: 32

Transnational Issues ::Angola

Disputes - international:

Cabindan separatists continue to return to the Angolan exclave from exile in neighboring states and Europe since the 2006 ceasefire and peace agreement

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 12,615 (Democratic Republic of Congo)

IDPs: 61,700 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs already have returned) (2007)

Illicit drugs:

used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa

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