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Andorra, See : Flags, Maps

Andorra (Europe)

Andorra, National Anthem

Introduction ::Andorra


For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Seu d'Urgell). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. For decades Andorra enjoyed its status as a small refuge of fiscal and banking freedom and benefitted from Spanish and French tourists attracted to the country's duty-free shopping. The situation has changed in recent years as Andorra started to tax foreign investment and other sectors. Tourism accounts for over 80% of Andorra's gross domestic product.

Geography ::Andorra

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Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates:
42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references:



total: 468 sq km country comparison to the world: 194 land: 468 sq km

water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:

total: 120.3 km

border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers


rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m

highest point: Pic de Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources:

hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:

arable land: 2.13%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 97.87% (2005)

Irrigated land:

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

People ::Andorra


84,525 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 198

Age structure:

0-14 years: 15.5% (male 6,710/female 6,305)

15-64 years: 72.2% (male 31,604/female 28,925)

65 years and over: 12.3% (male 5,113/female 5,231) (2010 est.)

Median age:

total: 39.9 years

male: 40.2 years

female: 39.6 years (2010 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.382% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 166

Birth rate:

10.03 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 196

Death rate:

6.21 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 158

Net migration rate:

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 71


urban population: 89% of total population (2008)

rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.066 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female

total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 207 male: 3.79 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.89 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 82.36 years country comparison to the world: 4 male: 80.3 years

female: 84.55 years (2010 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.34 children born/woman (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 206

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:


noun: Andorran(s)

adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups:

Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)


Roman Catholic (predominant)


Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese


definition: NA

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100%

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 12 years

male: 11 years

female: 12 years (2008)

Education expenditures:

3.2% of GDP (2008) country comparison to the world: 141

Government ::Andorra

Country name:

conventional long form: Principality of Andorra

conventional short form: Andorra

local long form: Principat d'Andorra

local short form: Andorra

Government type:

parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seu d'Urgell, Spain, who are represented in Andorra by the coprinces' representatives


name: Andorra la Vella

geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions:

7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria


1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Seu d'Urgel)

National holiday:

Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)


Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; effective 28 April 1993

Legal system:

based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Christian FREMONT (since September 2008) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan-Enric VIVES i Sicilia (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i Oste (since 30 July 2003)

head of government: Executive Council President Jaume BARTUMEU Cassany (since 5 June 2009)

cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held on 26 April 2009 (next to be held in April-May 2013)

election results: Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA

Legislative branch:

unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 26 April 2009 (next to be held in March-April 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - PS 45%, Reformist Coaliton 32%, Andorra for Change 19%, Andorran Green 4%; seats by party - PS 14, Reformist Coalition 11, Andorra for Change 3

Judicial branch:

Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or
Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal
Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or
Consell Superior de la Justicia; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:

Andorra for Change [Juan Eusebio NOMEN CALVET]; Greens of Andorra [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Joan GABRIEL i ESTANY] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); New Center [Vicenc MATEU] (formerly Andorran Democratic Center Party); Reformist Coalition [Joan GABRIEL i ESTANY] (includes the Liberal Party and New Center); Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND)

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Narcis CASAL Fonsdeviela

chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017

telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US:

the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the US Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175

Flag description:

three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the latter band is slightly wider than the other two so that the ratio of band widths is 8:9:8; the coat of arms features a quartered shield with the emblems of (starting in the upper left and proceeding clockwise): Urgell, Foix, Bearn, and Catalonia; the motto reads VIRTUS UNITA FORTIOR (Strength United is Stronger); the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection

note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

National anthem:

name: "El Gran Carlemany" (The Great Charlemagne)

lyrics/music: Joan BENLLOCH i VIVO/Enric Marfany BONS

note: adopted 1921; the anthem provides a brief history of Andorra in a first person narrative

Economy ::Andorra

Economy - overview:

Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status for some products and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage eroded when the borders of neighboring France and Spain opened, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$4.22 billion (2008) country comparison to the world: 166 $3.66 billion (2007)

$3.588 billion (2006)

GDP (official exchange rate):

GDP - real growth rate:

2.6% (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 136 2% (2007 est.)

3.5% (2005 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$44,900 (2008) country comparison to the world: 12 $42,500 (2007)

$38,800 (2005)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%

Labor force:

42,220 (2008) country comparison to the world: 193

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 0.5%

industry: 18.5%

services: 81% (2008)

Unemployment rate:

7% (2008) country comparison to the world: 69 0% (2007)

Population below poverty line:

8% (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.3% (2008) country comparison to the world: 67 3.9% (2007)

Agriculture - products:

small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep


tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:

NA kWh

Electricity - consumption:

NA kWh

Electricity - exports:

NA kWh

Electricity - imports:

NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France;
Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower


$89.5 million (2008) country comparison to the world: 195 $117.1 million (2007)

Exports - commodities:

tobacco products, furniture


$1.801 billion (2008) country comparison to the world: 154 $1.789 billion (2007)

Imports - commodities:

consumer goods, food, electricity

Debt - external:

Exchange rates:

euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7715 (2010), 0.7179 (2009), 0.6827 (2008), 0.7306 (2007), 0.7964 (2006)

Communications ::Andorra

Telephones - main lines in use:

37,900 (2009) country comparison to the world: 171

Telephones - mobile cellular:

64,500 (2009) country comparison to the world: 191

Telephone system:

general assessment: NA

domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges

international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain

Broadcast media:

1 public television station and 2 public radio stations; a few commercial radio stations operating; good reception of radio and TV broadcasts from stations in France and Spain (2008)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

26,773 (2010) country comparison to the world: 100

Internet users:

67,100 (2009) country comparison to the world: 170

Transportation ::Andorra


total: 320 km (2008) country comparison to the world: 201

Military ::Andorra

Military branches:

no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra (2010)

Manpower available for military service:

males age 16-49: 22,776 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 18,338

females age 16-49: 17,395 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

male: 396

female: 350 (2010 est.)

Military - note:

defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues ::Andorra

Disputes - international:



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